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Next Generation Application Integration: From Simple Information to Web Services

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Next Generation Application Integration: From Simple Information to Web Services


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  • Copyright 2004
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 512
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-84456-7
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-84456-6

"Linthicum provides an insightful overview of the services-integration issues that will enable you to capitalize on current and future integration technologies. He also dives deep into the key Web services technologies for implementing the next generation integration architecture. Highly recommended for those thinking of moving from traditional EAI to Web services."
--Dr. Ravi Kalakota, CEO, E-Business Strategies
Author of Services Blueprint: Roadmap for Execution

For a majority of businesses, application integration is an outright failure. Most companies' computer systems are labyrinthine at best and self-destructive at worst. With the arrival of Web services, the new service-oriented middleware technology standard, and increasingly complex and challenging problem domains, it's time to take application integration to the next level.

In Next Generation Application Integration distributed computing and application-integration expert David S. Linthicum describes the effect that this new generation of middleware will have on traditional application-integration efforts. Using key industry examples and case studies, Linthicum reveals the techniques and practices that are necessary to revolutionize data-sharing for any company--from sole-proprietorship to Fortune 500.

In this book you'll find a thorough discussion of today's most advanced application-integration concepts, approaches, technologies, and solutions. Written with the technical manager and enterprise architect in mind, this book addresses essential application integration issues such as:

  • Strategies for dealing with complex problem domains
  • Forward-looking approaches to ensure long-term solutions that are right for your company
  • Techniques for implementation of new Web services middleware
  • Introductions to the appropriate technologies for next generation application integration
  • Scenarios for Web services integration
  • Support concepts outlined by case studies and real-world examples
  • Descriptions and analyses of the different types of Web service integration--standards, implementation, and enabling technology
  • Full analysis of Web services and integration, including the relationship between EAI and Web services
  • How to leverage both vertical and horizontal application-integration standards

If you're responsible for managing or implementing application-integration middleware, Next Generation Application Integration will prove to be an indispensable resource.


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Approaching Application Integration

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Table of Contents



1. Approaching Application Integration.

Moving from Information-Oriented to Service-Oriented Application Integration.

Application Integration Approaches.


Business Process Integration-Oriented.



Application Integration: Clearly the Future. @PARTHEAD -= I. TYPES OF APPLICATION INTEGRATION.

2. Information-Oriented Application Integration.

Coupling versus Cohesion.

It's Just Data.

IOAI: The Gory Details.

Information Producers and Consumers: Common Patterns.



User Interface.

Embedded Device.

Approaching Information Integration.

Identify the Data.

The Data Dictionary.

Catalog the Data.

Logical Model.

Building the Enterprise Metadata Model.

Normalizing the Problem Domain.

Working with Information-Oriented Application Integration.

3. Business Process Integration-Oriented Application Integration.

BPIOAI Defined.

Drilling Down on BPIOAI?

Implementing BPIOIAI.

Tools and Approaches.

Process Modeling.

Middleware Interfaces.

BPIOAI and Application Integration.

4. Service-Oriented Application Integration.

The Basics.

Enter Web Services.

Web Services Exposed.

Where's the Fit?


Understanding Service Frameworks.

Moving to Application Services.

5. Portal-Oriented Application Integration.

POAI by Example.

Portal Power.

Web-Enabled World.

Single-System Portals.

Multiple-Enterprise-System Portals.

Trading Community.

Portal Architecture.

Web Clients.

Web Servers.

Database Servers.

Back-End Applications.

Application Servers.


6. Middleware Basics.

What Is Middleware?

Middleware Models.

Point-to-Point Middleware.

Many-to-Many Middleware.

Synchronous versus Asynchronous.

Connection-Oriented and Connectionless.

Direct Communication.

Queued Communication.


Request Response.

Fire and Forget.

Types of Middleware.


Message-Oriented Middleware.

Distributed Objects.

Database-Oriented Middleware.

Transaction-Oriented Middleware.

TP Monitors.

Application Servers.

Integration Servers.

Tough Choices.

7. Middleware Types and Application Integration: What Works Where?

Transactional Middleware and Application Integration.

Notion of a Transaction.

The ACID Test.

Scalable Development.

Database Multiplexing.

Load Balancing.

Fault Tolerance.


Application Servers.

Evolving Transactions.

Enterprise JavaBeans.

Transactional COM+ (Using AppCenter).

RPCs, Messaging, and Application Integration.


Message-Oriented Middleware.

Future of MOM.

Distributed Objects and Application Integration.

What Works?

What's So Difficult?

What's So Easy?

What's a Distributed Object?

The General Idea of ORBs.


The Realities.

Database-Oriented Middleware and Application Integration.

What Is Database-Oriented Middleware?

Types of Database-Oriented Middleware.

Going Native.

Database Gateways.


Ready for Prime Time.

8. Java-Based Middleware Standards and Application Integration.

Java-Based Middleware Categories.

Database Oriented.


Message Oriented.

Messaging Models.

JMS and Application Development.

Application Hosting.



Transactional J2EE.

Messaging J2EE.

Distributed Application J2EE.

Java and Middleware.

9. Integration Servers and Application Integration.

Integration Servers Defined.

Integration Server Services.

Why a New Layer?

Applications, Databases, and Middleware.

Transformation Layer.

Schema Conversion.

Data Conversion.

Intelligent Routing.

Rules Processing.

Message Warehousing.

Repository Services.

User Interface.

Directory Services.



Other Features.


The Future of Application Integration and Integration Servers.

10. Adapters and the J2EE Connector Architecture.

The Purpose of Adapters.

Thin Adapters.

Thick Adapters.

Static and Dynamic Adapters.

Information-Oriented versus Service-Oriented Adapters.

Interface Types.


Breaking Down JCA.

Understanding JCA Resource Adapters.

Packaging Your JCA Adapter.



11. XML, XSLT, and Application Integration.

So, What's the Big Deal?

The Value of XML.

What XML Adds.

What XML Does Not Add.

XML Meets Middleware.

Integration Solutions.

XML-Enabled Standards.

Using XSLT for B2B Application Integration.

What Is XSLT?

The Mechanisms.

XSLT Processors and Processing.

Transformation Process.

XSLT Applications.

Schema Conversions.

Converting XML to Something Else, and Vice Versa.

XSLT and Application Integration.

XML and Application Integration.

12. ebXML and Application Integration.

ebXML for Trade.

ebXML Components.

ebXML Architecture.

Business Process Modeling.

Conformance to ebXML.


13. bPEL4WS and Application Integration.

The BPEL4WS Basics.


BPEL4WS Process Syntax.

Exception Handling.

Life Cycle.

Message Properties.


Data Handling.

BPEL4WS by Example.

Value of BPEL4WS.

14. UCCnet and RosettaNet: Supply Chain Integration Standards.

Categories of Standards.

UCCnet: The Basics.

UCCnet Components.

UCCnet Message Set.

UCCnet: A Contender?


RosettaNet History.

What's RosettaNet?

Business Process Analysis.

PIP Development.


It's the PIP.

The Technology.

PIP Communication.

PIP Message Structure.

RosettaNet Networked Application Protocols.

RosettaNet and B2B Application Integration.

Supply Chain Standards Moving Forward.

15. SOAP, WSDL, and UDDI, Oh My . . . Web Services Foundations and Application Integration.




Web Services as an Enabling Standard.

16. Other Standards.


XML Encryption.

XML Signature.




Playing the Standards Game. @PARTHEAD -= IV. ADVANCED TOPICS.

17. The "Verticalization" of Application Integration Technology.

A Huge Shift in Thinking.

Approaching Finance with STP.




Approaching Health Care with HIPPA.

Approaching Manufacturing, Retail, and Distribution with Supply Chain Integration.

Value of the Chain.

Supply Chain Entities.

Defining Your Supply Chain.

Forecasting and Supply Chains.

Extending Applications.

Binding the Home System to a Stranger's.

The Process.

Supply Chain Technology.

It's a Vertically Aligned World.

18. 12 Steps to Application Integration.

Step 1: Understand the Enterprise and Problem Domain.

Step 2: Make Sense of the Data.

Identify the Data.

The Data Dictionary.

Catalog the Data.

Build the Enterprise Metadata Model.

Logical Model.

Physical Model.

Normalizing the Enterprise.

Step 3: Make Sense of the Processes.

Process Integration.

Process Cataloging.

The Common Business Model.

Leveraging Patterns for Service-Oriented Application Integration.

Types of Patterns.

Application-to-Application Integration.

The Value of Patterns.

Step 4: Identify any Application Interfaces.

Application Interface Directory.

Step 5: Identify the Business Events.

Step 6: Identify the Data Transformation Scenarios.

Step 7: Map Information Movement.

Step 8: Apply Technology.

Step 9: Test, Test, Test.

Step 10: Consider Performance.

Step 11: Define the Value.

Step 12: Create Maintenance Procedures.

Method or Madness?

19. Leveraging Ontologies and Application Integration.

Ontologies: A Deeper Dive.

Finding the Information.

Ontology Treatment.

Web-Based Standards and Ontologies.

Types of Vertical Ontologies.

Value of Ontologies.

20. Application Integration Manifesto.



Support for Information-Oriented Connections.

Support for Service-Oriented Connections (a.k.a. Web Services).

Support for Coupling.

Support for Cohesion.

Support for Transaction-Oriented Connections.

Support for Abstraction.


Support for Differences in Application Semantics.

Support for Differences in Content.

Support for Abstract Data Types.

Information Routing.

Intelligent Routing.




Message Warehousing.


Short-Term Transactions.

Long-Term Transactions.

State Management.

Process Awareness.

Support for Modeling.

Support for Monitoring (a.k.a. Business Activity Monitoring).

Support for Optimization.

Support for Abstraction.

Need for Rules.


Appendix A. PIP Specification.

Appendix B. Where XML Fits with Application Integration.

Understanding the Application Integration Problem.

Integration Realities and XML.

XML Meets Middleware.

Integration Solutions.

XML Standards and Application Integration.

XML and Application Integration.

Appendix C. Knowledge-Oriented Middleware.

The Next Level of Middleware.





In the last several years application integration, at least the notion, has worked its way into most information technology departments. This has been driven by a number of emerging developments including the need to expose information found in existing systems to the Web, the need to participate in electronic marketplaces, the necessity the integrate their supply chain, and more importantly, just enabling their existing enterprise systems to finally share information and common processes.

By now we know that application integration is important, thus there is not much need for me to restate that here. What is not as well understood is the amount of planning and coordination that needs to occur in order to pull off application integration today, EAI or B2B, this, despite the availability of some pretty good technology that can make short work of joining systems together.

Moreover, while many are interested in application integration few have taken the time to read books such as this, or the books I've written in the past, to better understand both the limitations and the opportunities. More often than not application integration architects are driven more by the hype around the emerging standards and technology and less by their business needs and technology requirements. The end result is many failed projects, more due to lack of knowledge than lack of technology.

In essence application integration is less about J2EE versus .NET, and more about understanding the requirements and future growth of the problem domain, a not-so-sexy activity that is all to often left on the side of the road, choosing instead to "management by magazine."

Indeed application integration is more of an all-encompassing concept, consisting of, but not limited to metadata, business logic, interfaces, performance management, business processes, workflow, information processing, database integrity, standards strategies, vertical subsystems, accountability, application design, and middleware technology. Application integration is a strategic activity and technology set that can enable an organization to run much more efficiently, and in most instances provide a significant competitive advantage.

Why a New Book?

If you've been following my writings for the last several years you'll know that this is the third book on application integration, and perhaps the most significant. We need a new book for a few reasons:

First, the arrival of a new service-oriented middleware technology standard, web services. As we move further into the world of application integration, we're finding that application service-based approaches make sense for many problem domains. I've stated that in both previous books. Now with the advent of a new service-based approach, web services, we now have another opportunity to put that into perspective. I'll talk about web services and how they related to application integration, albeit this is not a book about web services, just the proper application of web services in application integration problem domain.

Second, there is a need to take application integration to the next level. The first book on application integration, Enterprise Application Integration, the first of its kind, covered the basic concepts of allowing two or more business systems to share processes and data. That book was written for the rank beginner since EAI, at least the notion and buzzword, was new. The next book, B2B Application Integration: eBusiness-Enable Your Enterprise, really extended the concepts put forth in the first book to the inter-enterprise problem domain, which reuses many of the same approaches and technologies, but does require knowledge of old and new B2B standards and technologies including XML, EDI, RosssetaNet, BizTalk, ebXML, etc.

This book is all about looking at advanced application integration concepts, approaches, and technologies, with many topics typically not covered in the previous books or any other books for that matter. We'll be looking at how to approach very complex and challenging application integration problem domains, and leverage forward-looking concepts and technology, including how to understand your problem domain, determine your requirements, create a logical application integration architecture, and most importantly, backing the correct grouping of application integration technologies into your solution to create an infrastructure that is strategic to the success of your organization.

Target Audience

This books is written with the technical manager and enterprise architect in mind, those that live on the frontlines of technology everyday and have to make key technology decisions that can make or break their businesses. This does not mean, however, that developers and IT executives won't benefit from this information, especially when it comes to understand application integration in context of their day-to-day activities.

What this Book is, What this Books is Not

At its essence this is an information technology strategy book with some detailed technology discussion, just enough technology content to support the notions put forth. This book is looking to take an important topic, application integration, to the next level by suggesting certain ways to view the problem that may not have been understood in the past.

This means we'll focus on higher-level approaches and solutions, rather than spending a lot of time describing the technologies. There are plenty of other books that do that. For example, while I may talk about the Java Message System (JMS) in terms of the general ideas behind this important standard, at its use in an application integration solution set, you can obtain more details by reading the 200+ page standard found on www.javasoft.com, or other books specifically on JMS. The same can be said about .NET, J2EE, ebXML, and other technologies I'll discuss in this book.

Indeed, I will cover the enabling technologies by focusing on their value in solving the application integration problem. For most of you, further research into these technologies or standards won't be required; there will be enough information here. Others, however, looking for implementation level details will have to take a deeper dive using further research outside the scope of this book.


This book follows a clearly structure it will make your reading experience more valuable.

There are 4 parts:

  • Part I: Types of Application Integration
  • Part II: Application Integration Technology
  • Part III: Application Integration Standards
  • Part IV: Advanced Topics

In Part I I'm focusing on the types of application integration approaches you'll find in your problem domain, in other words general approaches to sharing information, processes and application services between any number of applications. It's important that you read this section since it sets up concepts for the rest of the book. Also, if you've read my previous books you'll see how my thinking is morphing after building and implementing a lot of application integration technology.

In Part II we'll talk about application integration technology including middleware, and specifically application integration middleware including integration servers and application servers. Once again, we will discuss the technology in terms of their uses within the world of application integration. If you're a middleware god, perhaps you can skip this section, else it will be a good review.

In Part III we'll talk about application integration standards. If you've been in this world at all you'll know that standards are the way people are looking to approach this problem rather than vendor solutions. In this section I'll talk about the issues with doing that, as well as describe the standards that are relevant to application integration.

In Part IV we'll talk about how you need to approaches your own application integration problem domain, including procedures, methodologies, and techniques that you can employ to improve your chance of success. Moreover, we'll address advanced application integration topics, including the advent of vertically oriented application interaction technology as well as the advanced use of metadata.

Other Stuff

The Appendixes. There I'll find some useful reference information supporting the core content of the book. While in many cases people skip the appendixes, I urge you to read through what's there.

So, if you're moving on to Chapter 1, relax. It will be a painless process, perhaps fun. See you at the end.



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