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Mobile Location Services: The Definitive Guide

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Mobile Location Services: The Definitive Guide

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  • Copyright 2003
  • Edition: 1st
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  • ISBN-10: 0-13-008456-5
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-008456-9

  • The first comprehensive guide to building and deploying mobile location-based services
  • Detailed coverage of mobile location servers, client platforms, protocols, and standards
  • Mapping, geocoding, mobile positioning, security, personalization, privacy, and more

Foreword by Joe Astroth, Executive Vice President, Autodesk Location Services

"I expect this comprehensive book to inspire a new generation of engineers and to help propel a new wave of independent software vendors. I only wish it was available to our staff as we developed some of our earliest services."

—Joe Astroth,
Executive Vice President,
Autodesk Location Services

The first start-to-finish guide to developing location-based services.

Tomorrow's mobile applications must be smarter than ever, accessing and intelligently using a wide range of location data. In Mobile Location Services, leading mobile application consultant Andrew Jagoe presents the first end-to-end solutions guide to building and deploying location-based services and applications. Jagoe addresses every key development challenge and presents insightful case studies and interviews with key industry leaders.

  • Mobile location servers and the components of an end-to-end location-based solution
  • Spatial analysis: digital mapping, geocoding, routing, map image generation, and point-of-interest searches
  • Mobile positioning: using and augmenting GPS technology
  • Authentication and security in location-based applications
  • Personalization, profiling, and privacy
  • Mobile location clients: platform, protocols, languages, and localization issues
  • Key applications: navigation, emergency assistance, travel services, advertising/marketing, and more
  • Includes detailed appendices on the Geography Markup Language (GML), the Location Interoperability Forum's Mobile Location Protocol, and P3P privacy standards

The accompanying CD-ROM contains several useful tools for developing mobile location services, as well as a list of important resources on the Internet.

Sample Content

Online Sample Chapter

Mobile Location Services: The Application Server

Table of Contents





1. Mobile Location Services.

The GIS and Wireless Industries Meet. Market Drivers. Auto Manufacturers and Mobile Operators. Government Mandate. New Opportunities and Challenges for Application Developers.

2. Building a Mobile Location Services Solution.

Wireless and Mobile Network Basics. Mobile Location Services Deployment Environment. How Does a Wireless Network Work? The Mobile Location Services Industry. Solution Components: What Makes a Mobile Location Solution?


3. The Application Server.

What Is an Application Server? Why Is an Application Server Important? Intellectual Property Protection. Reuse. Manageability. Network Communications Security. Performance. J2EE Application Server. Why Java on the Server? What Is a J2EE Application Server? Application Server Architecture. Additional Server Sizing Resources. Endnotes.

4. Spatial Analysis.

Sample Spatial Analysis Server. Hybrid Database Model. Relational Database Model. Object-Oriented Database Model. Digital Maps. What Is a Digital Map? How Are Digital Maps Created and Maintained? Geographical Data Types. Points. Nodes. Lines and Arcs. Polygons. Linked Attributes. Computer Storage of Geographic Data Structures. Projections and Coordinate Systems. Geocoding. Technical Definition of Geocoding. How Does Geocoding Work? What Makes Geocoding So Difficult? Why Is Geocoding Important to Mobile Location Services? Reverse Geocoding. Routing. Routing Problems Defined. What Impacts Route Calculation Performance? Map Image Generation. People Are Visual. Maps Aid Decision Making. Maps Consumers Can Use. Raster Maps. Vector Maps. POI Searches. Search Types. POI Databases. Routing With POIs. POI Sources. Real-Time Attribute Editing. Traffic Applications. Other Map Updates. Endnotes.

5. Mobile Positioning.

Cell of Origin. GPS. How GPS Works. A-GPS. Augmenting GPS With Dead Reckoning. Enhanced-Observed Time Difference. Angle of Arrival. Time Difference of Arrival. Location Pattern Matching. Map Matching. Positioning Accuracy and Speed Requirements for Mobile Location Services Applications.

6. Authentication and Security.

Special Concerns in Wireless Networks. GSM and Security. Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS): Security for WAP. Endnotes.

7. Personalization and Profiling.

What Is Personalization and Why Is It Important? A Personalization and Profiling System. Generation and Control of Location Information. Integration With Customer Relationship Management. P3P. Microsoft .NET and Passport. Privacy Issues. Industry Self-Regulation Efforts. Endnotes.

8. Billing.

Technology and Business Models. Roaming. Who Will Pay? Endnotes.

9. Mobile Commerce.

What Is M-Commerce? Mobile Electronic Transactions Standard.


10. Client Platforms and Protocols.

Platforms. Palm OS. Microsoft Windows CE. Symbian OS. Sample LBS Client Devices: The Car Dashboard. Client Protocols and Languages. XML. WAP and WML. Voice and VoiceXML. Java and J2ME. BREW. Internationalization and Localization. Localization: The Voice System Challenge in Europe. Localization: The Map Data Challenge. Endnotes.


11. Mobile Location Service Applications.

Navigation and Real-Time Traffic. Traffic. Emergency Assistance. Concierge and Travel Services. Location-Based Advertising and Marketing. Location-Based Billing. Endnotes.


12. Digital Map Databases.

“Best of Breed”. When Is a Best of Breed Map Required? Example Merge: Kivera Combined NavTech/GDT Solution. Endnotes.

Appendix A. Abbreviations.
Appendix B. Geography Markup Language.
Appendix C. LIF Mobile Location Protocol.
Appendix D. Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P).
Appendix E. Internet Resources.



The mobility provided by the proliferation of wireless devices presents a new class ofopportunities and problems for application developers. Mobile applications must be much smarterthan desktop applications. As a mobile user, you want personalized applications that instantly knowwhere you are, what things are around you, and how you get to them. Application developers facemany challenges in building these applications, including how to pinpoint a user's location andthen retrieve relevant spatial data from a digital map database sometimes as large as 20 gigabyteswith the sub-second response times necessary for a mobile user.

A mobile location service platform requires knowledge of three highly complex technologies: mobiletelephony, geographic information systems, and enterprise (or perhaps, more precisely, Internet)application development. The idea for this book came from my experience working with a number ofcompanies developing mobile location service platforms and from the observation that organizationsdeveloping mobile location service solutions typically had significant experience in only one ortwo of the necessary technology areas. Good mobile location service solutions must:

  • Seamlessly interface with the mobile operator's network and consider bandwidth, security,and mobile device form factor constraints.
  • Provide scalable and high-speed spatial data retrieval.
  • Leverage the paradigms of the most successful Web architectures to promote useradoption and provide for massive scalability.

The primary goal of this book is to provide a high-level overview of how all the pieces of a mobilelocation service application fit together. A second goal of the book is to provide a basic overviewof how each underlying technology component in a mobile location service architecture works and aframework for evaluating commercial mobile location service platforms.

Who Is This Book For?

This book is for people who want to understand what mobile location services are and what type ofmobile location service applications are being built today. This book is also for those who want tograsp the underlying mobile location service platform technology for evaluation purposes and whowant to understand the technical architecture that must be employed to support a carrier-classmobile location service application. For the technically oriented, the book focuses on the manytechnical challenges that mobile location service applications face. Although some technologyindustry background is assumed, this book is not a programming manual and is accessible to readerswith even the most basic programming and systems engineering background.


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