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Mastering Internet Video: A Guide to Streaming and On-Demand Video: A Guide to Streaming and On-Demand Video

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Mastering Internet Video: A Guide to Streaming and On-Demand Video: A Guide to Streaming and On-Demand Video


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A comprehensive reference explaining all aspects of adding video to a website, and covering all major vendors' technologies.

° Other books only cover one aspect of Internet video, or one vendor, such as Adobe, RealNetworks, QuickTime, or Microsoft Media

° Written for any web professional involved with adding video to their site, with a balance of conceptual and practical information

° Provides a comprehensive and easy to use solutions guide for a wide variety of the most common Internet video scenarios


  • Copyright 2005
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 504
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-321-12246-1
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-321-12246-9

All you need to master preparing, capturing, compressing, securing, and delivering Internet video

Finally, there's a start-to-finish guide to Internet video for everyone who needs to understand it: Web professionals, managers, software developers, marketers, and hobbyists, even investors. Mastering Internet Video brings together clear, coherent coverage of every key issue: compression, formats, standards, servers, software, hardware, networking, multicasting, digital rights management, video editing—even troubleshooting. Damien Stolarz offers both conceptual and practical information, as well as coverage of all leading formats and platforms. Best of all, he presents easy-to-use, step-by-step solutions for each of today's most common Internet video usage scenarios. Coverage includes

  • Comprehensive conceptual coverage of capturing, preparing, and deploying video on the Internet

  • A practical guide to video compression—including expert help with performance and quality tradeoffs

  • Objective information for evaluating streaming servers, software, and hardware—including solutions from Microsoft, Real, Apple, Macromedia, and others

  • How networks and the Internet handle video data—including the challenges of real-time data delivery

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.


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Table of Contents

1. Video Preparation and Capture.

    Video Basics.

       Frame Rate.


       Television Video Versus Film.

       Interlaced and Progressive Video Tradeoffs.

       Film-to-Video Conversion.

       Film-to-Video-to-Film Conversion.

       Frame Shape (Aspect Ratio).

       Analog Versus Digital.

       Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Conversion.


         Scan Lines (Vertical Resolution).

         Lines of Horizontal Resolution.

         Higher and Lower Resolution Sources.

       Color Resolution.

       Connectors and Image Quality.

       Rectangular Pixels and Non-Square Projection.



       Broadcast Standards.

       Video Basics Summary.

    Capturing Video.

       Digital Tape Formats.

         Digital Video Cameras.

       Film Formats.

       Analog Tape Formats and Cameras.

       Analog Capture.

       Computer Graphics.

    Creating New Internet Video Content.

       Audience Internet Connection.




2. Video Compression.

    Compression: How Much Is Bad?

    What Codec Should I Use?

    The Decision-Making Process.

       Delivery Method.

       Bandwidth Target.

       Player Choice.


       Encoding Systems.

    Basic Settings.

       Balancing Audio and Video Bit Rates.


       Frame Rate.

       Video Size.


    Advanced Settings.

       Quality-Based Versus Bit Rate-Based Compression.

       Constant Bit Rate (CBR).

       Variable Bit Rate (VBR).

       1-Pass and 2-Pass Encoding.

       Key Frames.

       Frame Dropping.

       Bandwidth Scalability.

    A Brief History of Internet Codecs.

       Early 1980s: DAT and CD Audio.

       1984: Macintosh Audio.

       Mid-1980s: GIF.

       Mid-1980s: Amiga MOD and MIDI .

       Late 1980s: Videoconferencing and H.261.

       Early 1990s: JPEG.

       Early 1990s: QuickTime.

       Early 1990s: Cinepak.

       1991: MPEG-1.

       1995: H.263 and MPEG-2.

       1996: Sorenson.

       1996 to the Present: MP3.

       1997 to the Present: Commercial Efforts.

       1997 to the Present: Macromedia Flash.

       1998: Quake.

       2000: Scalable Codecs.

       Present: MPEG-4.

    Video Compression: Under the Hood.

       Spatial Compression: JPEG.

         Step 1: Color Space Transform.

         Step 2: Downsampling.

         Step 3: Frequency Transform.

         Step 4: Quantization.

         Step 5: Output.

       Temporal Compression: MPEG.

    Recommending a Codec for Your Content.


3. Video Storage File Formats.

    An Ideal File Format for Video Storage.

       Requirements of Internet Video File Formats.

         Store Compressed Audio/Video.

         Efficient Playback.

         Efficient Scrubbing.

         Efficient Seeking.

         Defining Codecs.

         Other Header Information: Metadata.

         Non-Video Content.

         Multiple Bit Rates.

         Protecting Files Against Unauthorized Use.

         Video Editing.

         Checking File Integrity.


    Common Internet File Formats.

       Internet Video Container File Formats.

       Simple Raw or Stream Video Formats.

       Internet Playlist, Index, and Scripting Formats.

    File Formats Versus Codecs: “How Do I Play Back an AVI?”

    A Brief History of File Formats.

       Apple’s QuickTime: MOV Files (.MOV).

       Audio-Video Interleaved: AVI Files (.AVI).

       MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 (.MPG, .MPEG, .DAT, and .VOB).

       Progressive Networks: Real Audio and RealVideo (.RA, .RM, and .RAM).

       Advanced Streaming Format and Windows Media Format (.WMV, .WMA, .WMX, .ASF).

       DivX: A De Facto Standard.

       Shockwave/Flash (.SWF, .FLA, .FLV).

       Simple Multimedia Integration Language: SMIL (.SML, .SMIL).

       MPEG-4 (.MPG, .MP4).

    Common Features.

       Under the Hood.


4. Streaming Media Server Software.

    Types of Internet Media Delivery: Streaming Versus Downloading.

    Streaming Thoroughly Defined.

    Internet Streaming Servers.

       Television Experience: Broadcast or Live Video.

         “Live” Video.

       Video on Demand (VoD).

       Instant Gratification: Network Condition and Bandwidth Awareness.

         Real-Time Viewing.

         Time Awareness and Real-Time Delivery.

         Throttling Down for Narrow Pipes or Clogged Connections.

         Faster Stream Starting.

         ForwardError Correction.

       Content Tracking.

         User Experience Tracking.

         Better Logging.

         Third-Party Verification and Reporting.


         Better Tracking Than Offline Advertising.

         Ad Syndication.

         Regional Advertising.

       Content Control.

         Keeping the Content on the Server.

         Digital Rights Management.

         Controlling Access: Restricting Viewership to Permitted Viewers.

         Region Restriction.

         Billing Integration.

       Scalability and Fault Tolerance.

         Reality of Scale.

         Hierarchical Server Arrangements: Live Broadcast.

         Caching Server Hierarchies.

         Content Delivery Networks.

         Limiting Bandwidth Use.

    Streaming Server Drawbacks.


       Unstable Terminology.



       Technology Maintenance and Updates.

       Three Times the Headaches.

       Missing Features.


5. Video Transport Protocols.

    How Video Travels Across the Internet.




       Internet Basics.

         The Internet Backbone.

         Public Exchange Points.


         Private Peering.

       Internet Complexity.

         Packet Loss.

         Different Routes.

         Delay (Latency).

         Bandwidth Variation.

    Scalable Media Transmission.


       Content Delivery Networks.

       Distributed or Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networking.

    Network Layers: A Brief Primer on Internet Protocols (and Relevant Acronyms).

       Physical Layer.

       DataLink Layer.

       Network Layer.

       Transport Layer.

         Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

         User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

       Application Layer.

    Streaming Protocols.

       Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP).

       Microsoft Media Server Protocol (MMS).

       Shoutcast/Icecast Protocol (ICY).

    Streaming Through Firewalls.


6. Enterprise Multicast.

    Multicast Simplified.

       Example: CEO Video Broadcast.

       Example: Stock Ticker.

       Multicast Concepts.

       Bandwidth Control.

       Assumptions Made.

    Multicast Complicated.


       Group Membership.

       Multicast Addresses.

       Creating an Efficient Tree.

       Source, Group (S,G) Combinations.

       Multiple Sources Versus Single Source.

       Different Multicast Algorithms.

         Dense Mode.

         Sparse Mode.

       Internet Protocol Version 6.

       Multimedia Backbone.

       Routers and Switches.

       Quality of Service.

       Reliable Multicast.

    Multicast Summarized.

7. Video Security and Digital Rights Management (DRM).

    The Hope of Digital Rights Management.

    A Tale of Two Consumers…or How to Feel Like You Are Protecting Content When You Are Not.

    DRM Conceptual Ingredients.

       The MP3 Experience.

    Under the DRM Hood: Encryption Technology.

       Encryption Overview.

       Using Encryption in DRM.

       How DRM Is Compromised.

    Encryption Concepts.

       Simple Encryption Algorithm.

    Tools in the Encryption Toolbox.

       One-Time Pad.

       Symmetric Encryption.

       Asymmetric Encryption.

       Hashing: One-Way Encryption.

       Key Management and Revocation.

       Digital Signatures.

       Certificate (Key) Authorities.


       Combining It All.

    Truly Effective DRM.

       Hardware Solutions.

       Guidelines for Effective DRM.

         “Safe” Online Distribution Models.


8. Internet Video Standards.

    A Nonstandard World.

    The Two Types of Standards.

    The Browser Wars.

    Standards Organizations Relevant to Internet Video.

       General Purpose Standards Organizations.

       Internet Standards Organizations.

       Video Standards Organizations: MPEG.

       More Video Standards Organizations.

    Creating MPEG Standards.


    Some Final Notes.

Appendix A. Quick List of Problems and Concise Solutions.

Appendix B. The MPEG-4 Standard.


Mastering Internet Video Web Bibliography.



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