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Introduction to Ultra Wideband Communication Systems, An

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Breaks down the fundamentals of UWB, equiping engineers with the understanding of this newly approved communication standard.

° Ultra Wide Band is a revolutionary new standard, expected to revitalize the

communications industry.

° The perfect sequel to "Understanding Ultra Wide Band Radio Fundamentals"

0131480030, published in June 2004.

° Authored by members of the prestigous Mobile and Protable Research Group

(MPRG), the first wireless research facility in the U.S. founded by Ted Rappaport.

Description

  • Copyright 2005
  • Edition: 1st
  • Premium Website
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-148103-7
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-148103-9

Introduction to Ultra Wide Band Communication Systems offers acomprehensive view of UWB system design, that spans propagation, antennas,receive and transmitter implementations, standards and regulations,interference issues, simulation techniques, modulation and multiple access,network issues, and applications. This book encompasses all areas of designand implementation of UWB systems crucial to their successful testing anddeployment.UWB offers unique capabilities, such as extremely high data rates, and buildingpartitions and ground penetrating transmission. The FCC acknowledged thebenefits of UWB when, in 2001, regulations were modified to allow thetransmission of UWB signals. The standardization effort has recently come tofruition with the creation of a new, regulated communication standard.However, a new standard brings along with it new regulations and equipment;and the design of UWB systems is very different than traditionalcommunication systems. The current general reference books for design ofcommunication systems are insufficient, and in some cases could be misleadingto a UWB designer. Furthermore, there is a tremendous need to unify thediverse concepts and fields of study embedded in the design of UWB systems.

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Table of Contents

Preface.

Acknowledgments.

1. Introduction.

    Fundamentals.

      Overview of UWB.

      A Brief History of UWB Signals.

      Types of UWB Signals.

      Regulatory, Legal, and Other Controversial Issues.

    What Makes UWB Unique?

      Time Domain Design.

      Impact of the Antenna.

      Propagation and Channel Models.

      Transmitter and Receiver Design.

      Difficulties in Using DSP Technology.

      Networking Issues.

      Future Directions.

    The I-UWB System Model.

      Overview of the I-UWB System.

      Pulse Shapes.

      Modulation Schemes.

      MultipleAccess Schemes.

      Receiver Decision Statistic.

    The MC-UWB System Model.

      Overview of the MC-UWB System.

      OFDM UWB.

    Overview of the Book.

2. Channel Measurement and Simulation.

    Introduction.

    Measurement Techniques.

      Time Domain Measurement Techniques.

      Frequency Domain Measurement Techniques.

    Measurement Results.

      Typical Results for Time Domain Measurements.

      Typical Results for Frequency Domain Measurements.

      The Role of Antennas.

      Impact of Building Architecture and Properties of Building Materials.

    Electromagnetic Simulation of UWB Propagation in Indoor Environments.

      Simulation of Transmitting and Receiving Antennas.

      Simulation of the UWB Channel.

      Organization of the Electromagnetic Simulator.

      Comparisons of Measurement and Simulation Results.

    Summary.

3. Channel Modeling.

    Introduction.

    What’s Different about UWB?

    Large-Scale Channel Modeling.

      Free-Space Path Loss Modeling: The Friis Transmission Formula.

      Path Loss Modeling for Non-Free-Space Environments.

      Frequency Dependent Models.

      Partition Dependent Approaches.

      Large-Scale Modeling Studies.

      Antenna Impact on Large-Scale Modeling.

      Better than Free-Space Propagation.

      Receiver-Dependent Path Loss Models.

      Shadowing.

      Link Budget Calculations.

    Small-Scale Channel Modeling.

      Statistical Modeling of the Channel Impulse Response.

      Saleh-Valenzuela Model.
     
-K Model.

      Single Poisson Model.

      Modified Poisson Model.

      Split-Poisson Model.

      Effect of Model Parameters.

      Stochastic Tapped-Delay Line Model.

      Amplitude Statistics.

      Summary of Measurement Campaigns and Modeling Efforts.

    Spatial Behavior and Modeling of UWB Signals.

      Introduction.

      Spatial Fading.

      Spatial Fading of Signal Components.

      Spatial Correlation.

      A Two-Dimensional Channel Model for UWB Indoor Propagation.

    Impact of Frequency Distortion on Discrete Channel Modeling.

      The CLEAN Algorithm.

      Impact of Frequency Dependent Distortion.

      Impact of Reflections.

    Summary.

4. Antennas.

    Basic Properties of Antennas.

      Reciprocity and Antenna Effective Length.

      Directivity, Gain, and Related Definitions.

      A Link Model Using S-Parameters.

      Link Budget Concepts.

      Fundamental Limits of Antennas.

    Antenna Measurements and Modeling in the Time Domain.

      Basic Responses.

      UWB Performance.

      Frequency and Time Relationships.

      Pattern Concept in Time.

      Time Domain Modeling (A Minimal Approach).

      Transient Responses of Scatterers.

    Summary.

5. Transmitter Design.

    I-UWB Signal Generators.

      Avalanche Pulse Generators.

      Step Recovery Diode Pulse Generators.

      Tunnel Diode Pulsers.

      Pulse Circuits Suitable for Integrated Circuits.

    Modulators.

    I-UWB Transmitters.

      TH-PPM and TH-(A-PAM) UWB Signals.

      OOC-PPM UWB Signals.

      DS-UWB Signals.

      Transmitter Reference (TR) UWB System.

    MC-UWB Transmitters.

      CI-UWB Signals.

      FH-UWB System.

      OFDM-UWB System.

    Spectral Encoded UWB Communication System.

    Summary.

6. Receiver Design Principles.

    I-UWB - RadioReceivers.

      System Model.

      Threshold/Leading Edge Detection.

      Correlation Detection (CD) Receivers.

      RAKEReceivers.

      Multi-User Detection (MUD) UWB Receivers.

      Hybrid RAKE/MUD UWB Receivers.

      Other I-UWB Receivers.

      Autocorrelation Transmitted Reference (TR) UWB Receiver.

      Synchronization and Timing Issues.

      Digital I-UWB Implementation.

      Example of IEEE Proposed Standards for PPM and DS-Based UWBReceivers.

    MC-UWBReceivers.

      Carrier Interferometry (CI) UWB Receiver.

      Frequency Hopped (FH) UWB Receivers.

      OFDM-UWBReceivers.

      Example on IEEE Proposed Standard for MC and OFDM-Based UWB Receivers.

    Spectral Encoded UWB Communication System.

    CaseStudy: Improving Range of UWB Using RAKE Receivers.

      GSC(N, L)withIndependent but Nonidentically DistributedFading Statistics.

      PMRC(N, L)withIndependent but Nonidentically DistributedFading Statistics.

      GSC(N, L)withEqually Correlated Nakagami-m FadingStatistics.

    Summary.

7. On the Coexistence Of Uwb and Narrowband Radio Systems.

    Introduction.

    Interference of UWB on NB: Waveform Analysis.

      UWB Pulse Model.

      Effect of NB Receive Filter.

      BER Analysis.

      Time-Hopped Case.

      Simulation Results.

    Aggregate UWB Interference Modeling.

      Received Power.

      Asymptotic Pdf of Aggregate Noise.

      Amplitudes: Aggregate Pdf.

      Bernoulli and Poisson Models.

      Simulation Examples.

    Interference Analysis: NB on UWB.

    Interference Analysis: UWB on UWB.

    Summary.

8. Simulation.

    What’s Different about UWB SystemSimulations?

      Direct/Quadrature Signal Decomposition.

      Model Development for UWB Systems.

      UWB Simulation Development Challenges.

    Developing a Simulation.

    Simulation Methodologies—A Brief Review.

      Monte Carlo Simulation Techniques.

      Semi-Analytic Simulation Techniques.

      Discrete Event Simulation Techniques.

      Multicarrier UWB (MC-UWB) Simulation.

    UWB Component Simulation.

      UWB Pulse Generation and Modulation.

      Signal Ampli?cation.

      Simulation of Antenna Effects.

      Simulation of UWB Channels.

    Summary.

9. Networking.

    How Is UWB Networking Different?

    UWB Physical Layer Issues.

    Data Link Layer Design.

      Objectives of the Data Link Layer.

      Contention-Based Medium Access Control.

      ChannelPartition Medium Access Control.

      MultipleAccess Protocols for UWB Networks.

      Forward Error Correction and Automatic Repeat Request.

    UWB Multiple Hop Ad Hoc Networks.

      Hierarchical Network Topologies.

      Flat Network Topologies.

    Other Networking Issues.

      TCP Performance in a Wireless Environment.

      Quality of Service Management.

    Summary.

10. APPLICATIONS AND CASE STUDIES.

    Specialized Applications for UWB Signals.

    Applications.

      High Resolution Radar Applications.

      Communications Applications.

      Location Aware Communications Applications.

      Channel Sounding Applications.

    Case Studies.

      XtremeSpectrum Incorporated (XSI)/Motorola Trinity Chipset.

      Time Domain Corp–PulsON Chipset.

      Multispectral Solutions Incorporated (MSSI).

      Aether Wire and Location Localizers.

      802.15.3a.

      802.15.4a Devices.

    Summary.

Appendix A. Range Analysis of UWB Signals Using Time of Arrival.

Appendix B. UWB Standards for WPANs.

    IEEE 802.15.3/3a MAC.

    IEEE 802.15.3a PHY.

    MB-OFDM PHY.

    DS-UWB PHY.

    Summary.

Appendix C. UWB Regulations.

    FCC.

    World.

About The Editor.

About The Authors.

Index.

Preface

Untitled Document

To a great extent, this book was inspired by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency project called NETEX. The program manager, Stephen Griggs, recognized that far too little information about Ultra Wideband (UWB), particularly pulse-based UWB systems, appeared in the literature. Moreover, he believed that the UWB information available in the public domain is sometimes incorrect and misleading, particularly regarding interference issues with UWB. Thus, the program participants were encouraged to widely disseminate the results of the NETEX program to help clarify many of these outstanding issues. Much of the information presented in this book is a direct result of this program and other UWB research programs from Virginia Tech and the Army Research Lab.

UWB activity has picked up immensely since the Federal Communication Commission's 2002 decision to allow for the transmission of UWB and the subsequent standardization efforts with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Some see UWB as an enabling technology for new wireless applications that span from high-data-rate transmission of raw multimedia video to new location-aware, low-data-rate, and low-power communication of sensor data. Non-communication applications, such as through-the-wall imaging and ground-penetrating radar, also capture the imagination of researchers and entrepreneurs.

The controversy surrounding the standardization efforts illustrates the many debatable issues of UWB. From an academic perspective, many fundamental research issues remain unresolved, including the best modulation types for particular applications, efficient broadband antennas with a desirable form factor, propagation characteristics of UWB in various environments, the impact of UWB physical layer attributes on the networking layers, and the list continues. UWB will certainly be the subject of many theses and dissertations to come.

This book provides a broad technical view of UWB. Chapters 2 and 3 deal with simulation of propagation issues, modeling, and channel simulation, and much of this information is presented to the public domain for the first time. Chapter 4 focuses on antennas and outlines some surprising differences in antenna performance with respect to narrowband systems. Chapter 5 examines transmitter design issues and covers some of the basic modulation principles of UWB. Chapter 6 presents an overview of receiver design issues and explains how impulse UWB systems are particularly different from conventional carrier-based systems. Chapter 7 addresses that UWB may intentionally transmit co-channel with other communication signals. Chapter 8 examines how to simulate UWB systems; such simulation requires more finesse since broadband signals encounter excessive simulation time if structured incorrectly. Chapter 9 describes how the physical layer capabilities of UWB impact the performance and design of upper layers. Finally, applications and case studies of existing UWB systems are addressed in Chapter 10.

We hope readers will find this book of interest and will check the web site ( http://www.mprg.org/publications/Reed/UWBbook.shtml ) for additional information about UWB and this book.

Jeffrey H. Reed

Virginia Tech, 2004


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