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Interdomain Multicast Routing: Practical Juniper Networks and Cisco Systems Solutions: Practical Juniper Networks and Cisco Systems Solutions

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Interdomain Multicast Routing: Practical Juniper Networks and Cisco Systems Solutions: Practical Juniper Networks and Cisco Systems Solutions


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  • Copyright 2002
  • Dimensions: 7-1/4" x 9-1/2"
  • Pages: 384
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-74612-3
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-74612-9

IP multicast is rapidly coming of age: its principles are solid, its protocols are being finalized, and it is increasingly being implemented in real-world ISP and enterprise networks. Now, a team of Juniper Networks IP multicast experts have written the most authoritative and up-to-date guide to IP multicast implementation. This book covers everything network professionals must know about IP multicast protocols, applications, network design and integration, deployment, configuration, and management. The authors, who support many of the world's largest networks, also offer never-before-published solutions to the key challenges and pitfalls encountered by early implementers. They review the goals and fundamental principles, then introduce all new IP multicast protocols, including DVMRP, PIM-DM, PIM-SM, MSDP, multiprotocol extensions to BGP; SSM, M-ISIS, and more. Next, they demonstrate the configuration of Internet -based multicasting on both Juniper and Cisco routers; and present a detailed case study. For network engineers and designers; network backbone engineers; technical leaders at ISPs and large enterprise networks; and network professionals connecting to backbones that support IP multicast.

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Interdomain Multicast Fundamentals

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Table of Contents



1. Interdomain Multicast Fundamentals.

What Is Multicast?

Internetworking Basics.

Multicast Basics.

Reverse Path Forwarding.

Populating the RPF Table.

Interdomain Multicast Routing.

Where Is Multicast?

Multicast on the LAN.


IGMP Proxying.

Layer 3 to Layer 2 Mapping.

Layer 2 Switches.

ASM versus SSM.

Addressing Issues.


Multicast Performance in Routers.

RP Load.

Disclaimers and Fine Print.

Why Multicast?

Multicast Lacks the “Killer App”.

The Content versus Audience Chicken-and-Egg Scenario.

The “How Do We Charge for It?” Syndrome.

Multicast Protocols Are Complex and May Break the Unicast Network.

Cannibalization of Unicast Bandwidth Revenues.

End-to-End Connectivity Required.

Lack of Successful Models.

Not Ready for Prime-Time Television.

Susceptibility to DoS.

Unfriendly Last Mile Technologies, Less Friendly Firewalls.

The Need for Multicast.

Final Outlook.

2. IMR Overview.

Receiving Multicast Traffic: IGMP from the Perspective of the Host.

Detecting Multicast Receivers: IGMP from the Perspective of the Router.

Generating Multicast Traffic.

Detecting Multicast Sources.

Routing Multicast Traffic within a Domain Using PIM-SM.

Phase 1: Building the RPT That Delivers Packets from the RP to Interested Listeners.

Phase 2: Building the Distribution Tree that Delivers Packets from the Source to the RP.

Phase 3: Building the SPT that Delivers Packets Directly from the Source to the Interested Listeners.

Routing Multicast Traffic across Multiple Domains with MSDP.

MSDP in the Example Network.

Populating a Routing Table Dedicated to RPF Checks with MBGP.

MBGP in the Example Network.

3. Multicast Routing Protocols.

Dense Protocols.



Sparse Protocols.

Sparse-Dense Mode.

4. Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM).


PIM Versions.

Version 1.

Version 2.

Group-to-RP Mapping.

Static Group-to-RP Mapping.

Dynamic Group-to-RP Mapping: Cisco Systems Auto-RP.

Dynamic Group-to-RP Mapping: PIM Bootstrap.

Anycast RP.

PIM Register Message Processing.

Distribution Tree Construction and Teardown.

Scenario 1: Source Comes Online First, Then a Receiver Joins.

Scenario 2: Second Receiver Joins after SPT Is Set Up for Another Receiver.

Scenario 3: Receiver Ends Group Membership.

Scenario 4: Conference Model.

Designated Routers and Hello Messages.

PIM Assert Messages.

Multicast Scoping.

5. Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP).


MSDP Operation.

MSDP Peering Sessions.

The MSDP SA Message.

Determining the RPF Peer.

The Current Versions RPF-Peer Rules.

RPF Rules from Draft Version 2

Avoiding Pitfalls.

Mesh Groups.

MSDP Policy.

SA Storms, Ramen, and MSDP Rate Limiting.

Outlook for MSDP.

6. Source-Specific Multicast (SSM).


Overview of SSM Operation.

SSM Addresses.


Advantages and Disadvantages of SSM.

IGMPv3 in SSM.

IGMP Version Compatibility.


7. Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP (MBGP).


Other Ways to Populate the Multicast RPF Table.

Juniper Networks and Cisco Systems Conventions.

Recursive Lookup for BGP Next Hops.

BGP and Related Terminology.

BGP Internals—Foundation for Understanding MBGP.


BGP Route Selection.

Extending BGP: MBGP.

MBGP Internals.

BGP Capabilities Negotiation.

New Path Attributes in MBGP.

Using MGBP for Multicast Routing.

Manipulation of Path Attributes.

8. Multitopology Routing in Intermediate System to Intermediate System (M-ISIS).

Overview of IS-IS.

IS-IS Background8.1.2 ISO Addresses

IS-IS Areas and Levels.

Type Length Values (TLVs).

Specifics of IS-IS.

IS-IS Packets.

IS-IS Neighbor State Machine on Point- to-Point Links.

IS-IS on Multiaccess Networks.

Exchanging Link-State Information with Neighbors.

Interarea Leaking.

Extending TLVs.

Overview of M-ISIS.

Specifics of M-ISIS.

Forming Adjacencies.


Examples of Using M-ISIS.

9. Configuring and Verifying Multicast Routing on Juniper Networks Routers.

Configuring IGMP and PIM.

Enabling Interfaces for IGMP and PIM.

SSM Group Range.

The Tunnel PIC and the pe and pd Interfaces.

Configuring Static Group-to-RP Mapping.

Configuring the PIM Bootstrap Mechanism.

Configuring Auto-RP.

Configuring Anycast RP.

Monitoring PIM Join State and Multicast Forwarding.

Configuring MSDP.

Configuring a Dedicated RPF Table.

Configuring MBGP.

Configuring M-ISIS.

Configuring OSPF to Place Routes in inet.2.

Configuring DVMRP to Provide RPF Information to PIM.

10. Configuring and Verifying Multicast Routing on Cisco Systems Routers.

Configuring PIM and IGMP.

Enabling Interfaces for IGMP and PIM.

SSM Group Range.

Configuring Static RP.

Configuring the PIM-SM Bootstrap Mechanism.

Configuring Auto-RP.

Configuring Anycast RP.

Monitoring PIM Join State and Multicast Forwarding.

Configuring MSDP.

Configuring a Dedicated RPF Table.

Configuring MBGP.

Configuring DVMRP to Provide RPF Information to PIM.

11. Case Study: Service Provider Native Deployment.

Network Architecture.





ISP Router Configurations.

ISP RP Configuration: Juniper Networks.

ISP RP Configuration: Cisco Systems.

ISP Non-RP Configuration: Juniper Networks.

ISP Non-RP Configuration: Cisco Systems.

Customer Router Configurations.

Customer Without RP Configuration: Juniper Networks.

Customer Without RP Configuration: Cisco Systems.

Customer RP Configuration: Juniper Networks.

Customer RP Configuration: Cisco Systems.

SSM-Only Domain.

SSM-Only Configuration: Juniper Networks.

SSM-Only Configuration: Cisco Systems.

12. Management Tools for Multicast Networks.


Multicast Routing MIB (ipMRouteStdMIB).

IGMP MIB (igmpStdMIB).



The mtrace Facility.

The MSDP Traceroute Facility.

13. Other Related Topics.

Border Gateway Multicast Protocol (BGMP).

Multicast Address Set Claim Protocol (MASC).

Bi-Directional PIM (Bi-Dir PIM).

Multicast Data Packets and Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP).

Appendix A. IGMP Packet Formats.

IGMP Version 3 Packet Formats.

IGMP Version 2 Packet Formats.

IGMP Version 1 Packet Formats.

Appendix B. PIM Packet Formats.

PIM Version 2 Packet Formats.

PIM Version 1 Packet Formats.

Appendix C. MSDP Packet Formats.

MSDP Packet Formats.



About the Authors.

Index. 0201746123T04022002


Interdomain Multicast Routing is a book on the timely technology of multicasting and is written, mainly, for network engineers responsible for configuring and maintaining that capability within their networks. It is a practical reference guide that includes Cisco Systems and Juniper Networks technology. The authors' goals are to explain the rationale and benefits of multicast routing on the Internet, to include the two leading vendors of routers and routing technology and note how they differ when applying interdomain multicast routing (IMR), and to explain the underpinnings of interdomain multicasting in simple, clear language. For a preview of the topics within this book, the following chapter listings detail the topic matter.

Chapter 1, "Interdomain Multicast Fundamentals," begins with a definition of multicast transmisson of data in contrast to other means of data delivery, within and outside the Internet, and then provides an introductory explanation of some of the issues affecting successful routing of multicast traffic on the Internet. Those seeking to understand the enormous potential for multicast may wish to tune in directly to this section.

Chapter 2, "IMR Overview," is a general description of how to generate and receive multicast traffic, including a description of methods for routers to detect sources and receivers of multicast traffic. The discussion then proceeds from multicast single-domain routing using PIM-SM (Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode) to interdomain multicast routing using MSDP (Multicast Source Discovery Protocol).

Chapter 3, "Multicast Routing Protocols," examines the two primary types of multicast routing protocols, describing the main features and examples of each.

Chapter 4, "Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)," lays out PIM-SM, the predominant multicast routing protocol for interdomain routing. Since PIM-SM is commonly used in the initial sequence of activities that gets multicast up and running within a single domain, the procedure dominates the scope of this chapter. PIM messages for both version 1 and version 2 of the protocol are covered, as is the use of anycast rendezvous point (RP) to improve load balancing and redundancy. Ample diagrams and corresponding examples describe distribution tree construction and teardown for various topologies, and the chapter ends with a discussion of multicast scoping.

Chapter 5, "Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)," demonstrates how to use MSDP to connect multiple PIM-SM domains and subdomains. MSDP is an any source multicast (ASM) mechanism for giving Internet multicast routing its "interdomain" reach. This chapter contains a number of illustrations of the rules that determine the reverse path forwarding (RPF) peer, a critical component in MSDP. Recognizing the paucity of clear information about MSDP peer-RPF rules, which are quite complex, the authors have provided detailed rule descriptions, as well as diagrams and realistic examples. The intent is for Chapter 5 to become the most definitive guide available on the subject (MSDP peer-RPF rules). The chapter concludes with sections on mesh groups, susceptibility to operational problems, and a discussion of the prospects for the widely used MSDP vis a vis the upcoming version of Border Gateway Multicast Protocol (BGMP).

Chapter 6, "Source-Specific Multicast (SSM)," is a critical component of the book. SSM, a recent addition to the ever-changing multicast routing landscape, holds the greatest amount of promise for deployment, considering that many believe the most dominant commercial use of Internet multicast will likely conform to a one-to-many model. This chapter explains the rationale for development of this SSM service model versus ASM and how SSM can serve as a basis for learning the more complex world of ASM.

Chapter 7, "Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP (MBGP)," and Chapter 8, "Multitopology Routing in Intermediate System to Intermediate System (M-ISIS)," focus on how to create two separate virtual topologies, one for unicast and one for multicast. MBGP and M-ISIS can be used side-by-side to build a dedicated multicast RPF table, just as BGP and ISIS have traditionally coexisted in unicast intra-AS and inter-AS environments.

The remaining chapters of Interdomain Multicast Routing cover critical hands-on, real-world examples and tools. Chapter 9, "Configuring and Verifying Multicast Routing on Juniper Networks Routers," and Chapter 10, "Configuring and Verifying Multicast Routing on Cisco Systems Routers," provide practical methods and guidelines for actually configuring and verifying multicast routing on Juniper Networks and Cisco Systems routers.

Chapter 11, "Case Study: Service Provider Native Deployment," provides a representative case study for native deployment of IMR by an Internet service provider; Juniper Networks and Cisco Systems router configurations for all router roles in this example network are also set forth.

Chapter 12, "Management Tools for Multicast Networks," discusses management tools for multicast networks, chiefly Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and the mtrace facility for IP multicast.

Chapter 13, "Other Related Topics," covers topics such as the development of BGMP incorporating Multicast Address Set Claim (MASC) protocol mapping, bidirectional PIM, and use of real-time transport protocol (RTP) for host-to-host transport over IP networks. RTP is suited to real-time applications such as video and audio streaming.

The Appendixes list packet formats for Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), PIM, and MSDP.

Finally, because any new world of knowledge comes to be mastered only by intelligent use and definition of its key concepts, we spent a considerable amount of time gathering and refining pertinent terminology; we hope the Glossary clarifies key abbreviations, acronyms, and definitions and even serves to stimulate dialog leading to more exact rendering of terms in future iterations of the book.

Brian Edwards,
Leonard Giuliano,
Brian Wright
January 2002



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