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Institutionalization of UX: A Step-by-Step Guide to a User Experience Practice, 2nd Edition

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Institutionalization of UX: A Step-by-Step Guide to a User Experience Practice, 2nd Edition

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  • Copyright 2014
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9-1/8"
  • Edition: 2nd
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-312382-0
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-312382-1

“This book is a great how-to manual for people who want to bring the benefits of improved user experience to their companies. It’s thorough yet still accessible for the smart businessperson. I’ve been working with user-centered design for over twenty years, and I found myself circling tips and tricks.”

–Harley Manning, vice president & research director, customer experience, Forrester Research

”Some argue that the big advances in our impact on user experience will come from better methods or new technologies. Some argue that they will come from earlier involvement in the design and development process. The biggest impact, however, will come as more and more companies realize the benefits of user-centered design and build cultures that embrace it. Eric offers a practical roadmap to get there.”

–Arnie Lund, connected experience labs technology leader and human—systems interaction lab manager, GE Global Research

“User experience issues are a key challenge for development of increasingly complex products and services. This book provides much-needed insights to help managers achieve their key objectives and to develop more successful solutions.”

–Aaron Marcus, president, Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc.

“This handy book should be required reading for any executive champions of change in any development organization making products that demand a compelling user experience. It does an excellent job in laying the foundation for incorporating user experience engineering concepts and best practices into these corporations. In today’s competitive economy, business success will greatly depend on instituting the changes in design methods and thinking that are so clearly and simply put forth in this most practical and useful book.”

–Ed Israelski, director, human factors, AbbVie

“If you’re tasked with building a user-experience practice in a large organization, this book is for you (and your boss). Informed by years of case studies and consulting experience, Eric Schaffer provides the long view, clearly describing what to expect, what to avoid, and how to succeed in establishing user-centered principles at your company.”

–Pat Malecek, former user experience manager, AVP, CUA, A.G. Edwards & Sons, Inc.

”For those of us who have evangelized user experience for so many years, we finally have a book that offers meaningful insights that can only come from years of practical experience in the real world. Here is a wonderful guide for all who wish to make user experience a ‘way of life’ for their companies.”

–Feliça Selenko, Ph.D., former principal technical staff member, AT&T

“Dr. Schaffer’s mantra is that the main differentiator for companies of the future will be the ability to build practical, useful, usable, and satisfying user experiences. This is a book that provides the road map necessary to allow your organization to achieve these goals.”

–Colin Hynes, president, UX Inc.

Computer hardware no longer provides a competitive edge. Software has become a broadly shared commodity. A new differentiator has emerged in information technology: user experience (UX). Executives recognize that the customer satisfaction that applications and websites provide directly impacts a company’s stock price.

While UX practitioners know how to design usable, engaging applications that create good user experiences, establishing that process on an industrial scale poses critical IT challenges for an organization.

  • How do you build user-centered design into your culture?
  • What infrastructure do you need in order to make UX design faster, cheaper, and better?
  • How do you create the organizational structure and staffing solution that will support UX design over time?

Institutionalization of UX shows how to develop a mature, user-centered design practice within an enterprise. Eric Schaffer guides readers step by step through a solid methodology for institutionalizing UX, providing practical advice on the organizational change, milestones, toolsets, infrastructure, staffing, governance, and long-term operations needed to achieve fully mature UX engineering.

First published in 2004 as Institutionalization of Usability, this new, expanded edition looks beyond the science of usability to the broader, deeper implications of UX: Once customers can use your applications and websites easily, how does your organization ensure that those engagements are satisfying, engaging, and relevant? Contextual innovation expert Apala Lahiri contributes a new chapter on managing cultural differences for international organizations.

Whether you are an executive leading the institutional-ization process, a manager supporting the transition of your organization’s UX practice, or an engineer working on UX issues, this guide will help you build a mature and sustainable practice in UX design.

Sample Content

Table of Contents

Preface           xiii

Acknowledgments        xvii

Read This First!        xix

About the Authors        xxxix

Part I: Startup              1

Chapter 1: The Executive Champion              3

The Value of Usability  4

Beyond Classic Usability  11

CEO Wants a Great Customer Experience: Now Don’t Fall for UX Fads or Half-measures  16

Who Can Be a Champion?  22

The Role of the Executive Champion  22

Keep Moving on the Strategy, Keep Expanding and Innovating  24

Chapter 2: Selecting a Usability Consultant         29

Staffing  32

Completeness of Solution  33

Domain Expertise  34

Methodology  35

Tools and Templates  36

Object-Oriented Approach  37

User-Centered Size and Stability  38

Corporate Cultural Match  39

Specializations  40

Organizational Structure  41

Change Management Ability  42

Quality Control and Feedback  42

Ongoing Training for the Consultancy’s Staff  43

Summary  44

Part II: Setup          45

Chapter 3: Institutionalization Strategy        47

What to Consider When Developing the Strategic Plan  51

A Proactive Organization 52

Coordinating Internal Staff and Consultants  53

The Importance of Sequence  54

Targets of Opportunity  57

Slower Can Be Better  58

Phasing in Design Standards  58

Key Groups for Support or Resistance  60

Training  63

Methodology and Infrastructure  64

The Project Path  65

Levels of Investment  65

Summary  66

Chapter 4: Methodology           67

What to Look for in a User-Centered Methodology  68

An Outline of The HFI Framework  73

A Quick Check of Your Methodology  82

The Challenges of Retrofitting a Development Life Cycle  82

Templates  87

Summary  88

Chapter 5: Interface Design Standards          89

What Is an Interface Design Standard?  90

Types of Standards  91

Screen Design Templates  92

Patterns  94

Other Contents of a Design Standard  95

The Scope of Design Standards  96

The Value of Design Standards  98

The Process and Cost of Developing Standards  100

Disseminating, Supporting, and Enforcing Standards  102

Summary  105

Chapter 6: Standard User Profiles and Ecosystem Models         107

The Worst Practice  108

Thin Personas: “Jane Is 34 and Has a Cat”  110

Quality Personas  111

The Best Practice: Working with Full Ecosystems  112

Standard User Profiles and Ecosystems  113

Static versus Organic Models  115

Summary  116

Chapter 7: Tools, Templates, and Testing Facilities        117

Introduction to Your Toolkit  118

Testing Facilities  119

Recording of Testing Sessions  122

Modeling Tools and Software  124

Data Gathering and Testing Techniques  131

Advanced Methods  134

The Special Needs of International Testing  135

Recruiting Interview and Testing Participants  137

Summary  140

Chapter 8: Training and Certification         141

Types of Training  142

Certification  149

A Typical Training Plan  151

Conferences  151

Summary  153

Chapter 9: Knowledge Management          155

Why Conventional Knowledge Management Fails  157

The Cost of Failure  158

Object-Oriented UX  159

Professionals Don’t Start from Scratch  162

Linkages   162

Summary   164

Part III: Organization           165

Chapter 10: Governance           167

The Roots of the Governance Problem   168

Memes That Kill   169

Education Helps   172

Verify That a Methodology Is Applied   174

Closing the Loop on Standards   178

Checking If the Practice Is Alive   180

Summary   184

Chapter 11: Organizational Structure        185

Organizational Structures for User Experience Design Teams   188

Placement of a Central Team in the Overall Organization   192

Escalation of Problems   198

Graphic Artists, Writers, and Other Usability-Oriented Staff   199

Summary   200

Chapter 12: Staffing        201

The Chief User Experience Executive   203

The Central Usability Organization Manager   204

The Central Usability Organization Staff   206

What to Look for When Hiring  219

An Offshore Model  230

Summary  233

Chapter 13: Projects         235

Doing It Right  237

Managing by Project Importance  237

Who Will Do the User Experience Design?  239

Different Strategies for Practitioner Involvement  240

Working Smart  242

Efficient Project Planning  244

Estimating Experience Design Work  244

Summary  246

Part IV: Long-Term Operations       247

Chapter 14: Long-Term Activities of the Central Team      249

Maintaining Respect and Negotiating Effectively  251

Maintaining Momentum  252

Evangelizing  255

Training  258

Mentoring  259

Supporting Standards  260

Supporting the Community  262

Performing Usability Testing  263

Focusing on Metrics  264

Having Responsibility  266

Reporting to Executives  267

Summary  271

Chapter 15: The Future        273

Symptoms of Leaping the Chasm  274

Maturity   276

Your Organization’s Maturity   277

Process, Capabilities, and Staffing   277

Strategy, Innovation, and Persuasion   280

New Technologies   281

Chapter 16: Design for Worldwide Applications          283

Do International Markets Really Matter?   283

How Does Bad Cross-Cultural Design Happen to Good Organizations?   284

Internationalization, Localization, and the Challenges of Current Practice   285

Between the Idea and the Reality Falls the Shadow   287

The Criteria for Success   287

A New Global Delivery Model for Local User Experience   288

Critical Tools   290

Local Understanding, Global Success   291

Are There Populations We Cannot Reach?   294

Can We Look Forward to a Unified Globe?   296

Emergence of the “Third China”   298

References        301

Index         305


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