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Implementing ADSL


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  • Copyright 2000
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 320
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-65760-0
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-65760-9

A practical, service-oriented guide to large-scale ADSL implementation.

From service architecture to applications, standards to business case, Implementing ADSL delivers a complete, up-to-date analysis of what it takes to deploy ADSL. Written by a leading authority in the field, this book will be equally valuable for implementers and decision-makers in both service provider and enterprise IT organizations.

The author begins with a detailed look at the business drivers and financial models associated with ADSL implementation. Learn how to estimate ADSL service demand, revenue, capital, and ongoing expenses over the short and long-term; then review the current status of ADSL, G.Lite, and other xDSL technologies, cable modems, and other alternatives.

Next, Ginsburg introduces the ADSL service architecture, outlining an end-to-end service model from the physical layer to the network layer, and addressing crucial issues such as Quality of Service (QoS), security, and IP multicasting. Understand ADSL's physical infrastructure, including splitters and other premises equipment; DSLAMs and other central office equipment; aggregation, access, and core networks; digital loop carriers; gateways; caching solutions; and other key elements.

The author also reviews a wide range of ADSL services, including end-to-end ATM virtual circuits, PPP connections, bridging, routing, voice, video, and portals. You'll find seven detailed implementation scenarios, complete with diagrams and configuration listings based on actual deployments:

  • Residential and corporate Internet access
  • Telecommuting
  • Portals and media distribution
  • Internet wholesaling
  • Corporate intranets and extranets
  • Voice over IP
  • Video streaming

Whether you are a network manager, architect, administrator, or engineer, Implementing ADSL brings together crucial information and insight for making the best possible decisions about today's most important access technology.



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Sample Content

Table of Contents

(Chapters conclude with a Summary and/or Endnotes.)

1. ADSL History and Requirements.

Growth of the Internet.

Role of Service Providers.

Competition Among Service Providers.

The Business Case for ADSL.

Analysis of an ADSL Business Case.

The DSLs.





ADSL History and Standardization.

ADSL Forum.

Universal ADSL Working Group (UAWG).

ATM Forum.

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

International Telecommunications Union (ITU).

American National Standards Institute (ANSI).

European Telecommunications Standardization Institute (ETSI).

ADSL Deployment.

United States ILECs and the JPC.

Global Deployment.


2. Architecture.

The ADSL Layer.

ADSL Standardization History.


Performance of CAP and DMT.

Interference within CAP and DMT.



Basic Concepts and Background.

Physical Layer.

ATM Layer.

ATM Adaptation.

Connection Types and Signaling.

Routing—The Network-Network Interface.

ATM Addressing Plans.

Traffic Management.

Frame—An Alternative.

Data Encapsulations.


Classical IP.


Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) over ATM.

Native ATM Services.

The Network and Transport Layers.

The Internet Protocol.

Routing IP Packets.

IP Multicasting.

Quality of Service.

Security (IPSec).

Network Address Translation.

The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

The Domain Name System.


The Transmission Control Protocol and the User Datagram Protocol.

3. ADSL Infrastructure.

The New Internet Infrastrucure.

The Customer Premises.

Terminal Equipment.

Premises Distribution Network.


POTS Splitters.

Central Office Equipment.

MDFs and Splitters.



Access and Core Networks.

ATM Access and Core Networks.

Packet-Based Core and Access Networks.

Digital Loop Carrier Systems and the Full Service Access Network.

ISP/Corporate Gateways.

Content, Caching, and Gateways.

Web Caching.

Video Servers.

Push Servers.

VoIP Gateways.

Management and Provisioning.

Telecommunications Management Network.

Management Protocols.

Element Layer Management—G.997.1 and the ADSL Line MIB.

Network Layer Management.

Subscriber Provisioning.

Authorization and Directory Services.

Regulatory Considerations.

United States and Telecommunications Deregulation.

European Regulatory Environment.

Pacific Rim and Other Regulatory Environments.

4. Services.

End-to-End ATM Virtual Circuit Connections.

Advantages and Disadvantages to ATM.


SVCs Switched Virtual Circuits.

PPP Point-to-Point Protocol.

PPP Termination.

Policy Routing.

ISP Contexts.

L2TP - Layer Two Tunneling Protocol.

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS).

IP Security (IPSec) Tunnels.

Multi-Destination Support.

Extending PPP to the Desktop.

L2TP to the Desktop.

PPP Proxy.



Subscriber Bridging and Bridge Groups.

Half Bridging.





5. ADSL Implementation Examples.

Internet Access: Residential and Corporate.

Review of DSL Deployment.

ILEC Preparation.

CPE Installation and Configuration.

DSLAM Installation and Configuration.

Service Aggregator Installation and Configuration.

The Last Hundred Meters: PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE).

Beyond Aggregation.

DiffServ Marking.



Combining Policies into Tariffed Services.

Internet Wholesaling.

Subscriber Service Gateway Configuration.

ISP OSPF Configuration.


Corporate Intranet Access: PPP/L2TP Tunneling.

LAC Configuration.

Subscriber Configuration.

LNS Configuration.

Corporate Extranet Connectivity: VPRNs.

IP VPN Requirements.

VPRN Deployment.

Service Aggregator Configuration.

PSTN Bypass: VoIP.

Entertainment: Video Streaming.

Performance Testing.

6. Alternatives to ADSL.

Integrated Digital Subscriber Line (IDSL).

Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL).

High-Speed Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL).

Very High Speed Digital Subscriber.

Line (VDSL).

Other DSLs.

Cable Modems.

POTS/ISDN Dial-Up Options.

T1, Wireless, and Satellite Services.

Wireless Technologies.

Rural Subscriber Issues.


Index. 0201657600T04062001


The growth of the Internet has been phenomenal. In just 15 short years, backbone capacity in the United States alone has grown from single T1s (1.544 Mbps) to multiples of OC-48 (2.4 Gbps), a 10,000 percent increase. In the same timeframe, applications have evolved from simple (and sometimes unreliable) email and FTP connectivity to the Web, e-commerce, Internet telephony, and video streaming.

However, until recently, access bandwidth has not kept pace. Except for dedicated corporate access, which has more or less followed the backbone bandwidth curve, bandwidth available to the typical residential user or even telecommuter has grown from 1200 bps to 56 Kbps, or in some cases ISDN at 128 Kbps, a paltry 1000 percent increase. Thus, a disconnect in the Internet's ability to support high-bandwidth content and the average user's ability to take advantage of it.

Only in the last year has this situation changed, with the introduction of the Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and cable modems. These two technologies deliver, for the first time, megabit connectivity to the masses at an acceptable price point. This last point is critical, since nothing actually precluded running an OC-3 ATM connection to the house down the street: whether they could afford it was another matter.

This book focuses on DSL; specifically, ADSL, the flavor most relevant for casual Internet users and telecommuters. Irrespective of any rhetoric concerning provisioning and reach, ADSL is quickly growing in popularity, as evidenced by the number of users applying to local offerings and the ISPs signing on to support the service. Early difficulties in provisioning have been overcome, and both the ILECs and CLECs are now deploying the technology in quantity.

The availability of megabit connectivity to the average household opens up a wealth of new services, and enables true convergence between Internet content and media. For the first time, high-quality video streaming becomes a reality, and the "world wide wait" experienced when browsing graphic intensive catalogs or auction sites is a thing of the past. For the telecommuter, ADSL delivers on the promise of productivity; access to corporate resources no different than from the corner cubicle.

ADSL is therefore an important technology to understand, both in terms of standardization, and more importantly, how it forms a basis for high-speed Internet services.

Who Should Read This Book

This book is for the networking professional who is either involved with ADSL deployment or is interested in how the technology plays a part in Internet service deployments. This is probably the most important point: how the technology finds a role in practical network implementations.

This book covers a broad base of topics, including standardization, the hardware components found within a typical ADSL deployment, and the various higher layer protocols and services riding above this infrastructure. It ties these various components together into a service of implementation examples. However, Implementing ADSL is not intended to be an in-depth treatise on any one of the subjects such as the details of ADSL encoding or ATM traffic management and signaling. For this, the reader is referred to more detailed books on these individual subjects.

How This Book is Organized

This book is organized in the following manner:

  • Chapter 1, "An Introduction to ADSL," presents a business case for high-speed connectivity as well as providing an overview of ADSL standardization.
  • Chapter 2, "ADSL Architecture," takes a layered approach to a typical ADSL deployment, beginning with ADSL as a modem technology. Using this as a basis, it introduces ATM as the encapsulation of choice, and then IP as the network layer protocol. Associated with IP are the various transport and service protocols found within a typical ADSL deployment.
  • Chapter 3, "ADSL Infrastructure," takes a step back, introducing ADSL from the hardware perspective, describing the various CPE, DSLAM, splitter, ATM switching, routing, authentication, and provisioning systems found within a service provider's network.
  • Chapter 4, "ADSL Services," integrates the earlier descriptions, combining the various protocols and hardware into currently deployed end-to-end service models. These models include the first model deployed, bridging, as well as the more current PPP and PPP over Ethernet.
  • Chapter 5, "ADSL Implementation Examples," then integrates this into actual implementation examples based on commercially available hardware. It includes examples of router and aggregator configurations, as well as the necessary subscriber provisioning systems. Applications include residential access, telecommuting, small business connectivity, portals, media distribution, and DSL wholesaling.
  • Finally, Chapter 6, "Alternatives to ADSL," introduces alternative technologies, including cable modems, wireless access, and other DSL variants such as IDSL, SDSL, HDSL, and VDSL.
  • Finally, the appendixes provide a general ADSL resource, including services and tariffs, compliance, relevant documents from the ADSL Forum, ATM Forum, IETF, and ITU-T, vendor and service provider web sites, and a glossary.


Craig Sharper, Sayuri Sharper, Enzo Signore, Rene Tio, Guy Fedorkow, and Tim McShane, all of Cisco Systems. Gil Tene, Chin Yuan, and many others at Shasta Networks. And finally, my current employer, Shasta Networks, and former employer, Cisco Systems, who provided me with the opportunity to research and complete this book.


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