Home > Store

Executable Specifications with Scrum: A Practical Guide to Agile Requirements Discovery

Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon.

Executable Specifications with Scrum: A Practical Guide to Agile Requirements Discovery

eBook (Watermarked)

  • Your Price: $22.39
  • List Price: $27.99
  • Includes EPUB, MOBI, and PDF
  • About eBook Formats
  • This eBook includes the following formats, accessible from your Account page after purchase:

    ePub EPUB The open industry format known for its reflowable content and usability on supported mobile devices.

    MOBI MOBI The eBook format compatible with the Amazon Kindle and Amazon Kindle applications.

    Adobe Reader PDF The popular standard, used most often with the free Adobe® Reader® software.

    This eBook requires no passwords or activation to read. We customize your eBook by discreetly watermarking it with your name, making it uniquely yours.

Description

  • Copyright 2014
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9-1/8"
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-277652-9
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-277652-3

Most books about specifications still assume that requirements can be known up front and won’t change much during your project. In today’s “real world,” however, you must specify and build software in the face of high and continuing uncertainty. Scrum and other agile methods have evolved to reflect this reality. Now, there’s a complete guide to specifying software in agile environments when prerequisites are unclear, requirements are difficult to grasp, and anything about your project could change.

Long-time agile coach and enterprise architect Mario Cardinal shows how to create executable specifications and use them to test software behavior against requirements. Cardinal shows how to trawl requirements incrementally, step-by-step, using a vision-centric and emergent iterative practice that is designed for agility. Writing for analysts, architects, developers, and managers, Cardinal makes a strong case for the iterative discovery of requirements. Then, he moves from theory to practice, fully explaining the technical mechanisms and empirical techniques you need to gain full value from executable specifications.

You’ll learn to connect specifications with software under construction, link requirements to architecture, and automate requirements verification within the Scrum framework. Above all, Cardinal will help you solve the paramount challenge of software development: not only to solve the problem right, but also to solve the right problem.

You will learn how to
•    Establish more effective agile roles for analysts and architects
•    Integrate and simplify the best techniques from FIT, ATDD, and BDD
•    Identify “core certainties” on which your project team should rely to ensure requirements discovery
•    Manage uncertainty by discovering stakeholder desires through short feedback loops
•    Specify as you go while writing small chunks of requirements
•    Use storyboarding and paper prototyping to improve conversations with stakeholders
•    Express stakeholder desires that are requirements with user stories
•    Refine your user stories, and plan more effective Scrum sprints
•    Confirm user stories by scripting behaviors with scenarios
•    Transform scenarios into automated tests that easily confirm your software’s expected behavior as designs emerge and specifications evolve
•    Ensure higher-quality software by specifying nonfunctional requirements

Sample Content

Table of Contents

Preface     xvi
Chapter 1  Solving the Right Problem     1
Distinguishing the Requirements from the Solution     4
Recognizing the Impact of Uncertainty     5
Tackling Uncertainty    7
Summary     10
References     10

Chapter 2  Relying on a Stable Foundation     13
Defining What Will Hardly Change     14
Creating a Healthy Team     14
Requiring the Involvement of All Stakeholders     16
Expressing a Shared Vision     17
Distinguishing a Meaningful Common Goal     20
Identifying a Set of High-Level Features     21
Validating the “Can-Exist” Assumption     22
Summary     23
References     23

Chapter 3  Discovering Through Short Feedback Loops and Stakeholders’ Desirements     25
Applying the Trial-and-Error Method     25
Using Short Feedback Loops     29
Targeting Feedback Along the Expected Benefits     31
Focusing on the Stakeholders’ Desirements     31
Summary     34
References     34

Chapter 4  Expressing Desirements with User Stories     35
Describing Desirements by Using User Stories     35
Discovering Desirements by Exploring Roles and Benefits     38
Establishing a Ubiquitous Language     40
Recording Desirements by Using a Product Backlog     41
Summary     43
References     44

Chapter 5  Refining User Stories by Grooming the Product Backlog     45
Managing the Product Backlog     46
Collaborating to Groom the Product Backlog     48
Ranking User Stories with a Dot Voting Method     49
Illustrating User Stories with Storyboards     52
Sizing User Stories Using Comparison     56
Splitting User Stories Along Business Values     60
Tracking User Stories with a Collaboration Board     62
Delivering a Coherent Set of User Stories     68
Planning Work with User Stories     70
Summary     71
References     72

Chapter 6  Confirming User Stories with Scenarios     73
Scripting User Stories with Scenarios     74
   Expressing Scenarios with Formality     76
   Scripting Scenarios Using the FIT Tabular Format     77
   Scripting Scenarios Using Given-When-Then Syntax     79
   Choosing Between FIT Tabular Format or Given-When-Then Syntax     80
   Formalizing a Ubiquitous Language     81
   Splitting Scenarios into Commands or Queries     83
Confirming Collaboratively in a Two-Step Process     85
Removing Technical Considerations from Scenarios     89
Evolving Scenarios from Sprint to Sprint     91
   Organizing Scenarios by Feature     92
   Documenting Scenarios by Feature     93
   Avoiding Duplication and Merging Conflicts     94
Summary     95
References     96

Chapter 7  Automating Confirmation with Acceptance Tests     97
Evolving Scenarios into Acceptance Tests     98
Automating Scenarios Using the Red-Green-Refactor Cycle     101
Translating the Scenario into an Acceptance Test     104
   Transposing Using an Internal DSL     104
   Creating a Test     107
   Coding the DSL into the Newly Created Test     108
Connecting the Newly Created Test with the Interface     110
   Exercising the Interface     112
   Chaining Context Between the Steps of the Scenario     113
   Making the Test Fail     114
Implementing the Interface     115
   Replacing Unit Testing with Context-Specification Testing     116
   Making the Test Pass     117
Evolving the Acceptance Test     117
Running Acceptance Tests Side-by-Side with Continuous Integration     118
Enhancing Scenarios with Test Results     119
Summary     121
References     122

Chapter 8  Addressing Nonfunctional Requirements     123
Improving External Quality Using Restrictions     125
Translating Nonfunctional Requirements into Restrictions     127
Reducing the Functional Scope to a Single Scenario     129
Setting Measurable Quality Objectives     131
Testing Restrictions with Proven Practices     135
Ensuring Internal Quality Using Sound Engineering Practices     137
   Improving Software Construction with Explicit Practices     137
   Mastering Practices with Collaborative Construction     140
Summary     142
References     143

Chapter 9  Conclusion     145
Recapitulating the Book     146
Summarizing the Process     148
Drawing Attention to Individual Roles     149

Glossary     153
Index     159

Updates

Submit Errata

More Information

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020