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Digital Communications Test and Measurement: High-Speed Physical Layer Characterization

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Digital Communications Test and Measurement: High-Speed Physical Layer Characterization

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  • Copyright 2008
  • Pages: 976
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-279938-3
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-279938-6

A Comprehensive Guide to Physical Layer Test and Measurement of Digital Communication Links

Today's new data communication and computer interconnection systems run at unprecedented speeds, presenting new challenges not only in the design, but also in troubleshooting, test, and measurement. This book assembles contributions from practitioners at top test and measurement companies, component manufacturers,and universities. It brings together information that has never been broadly accessible before—information that was previously buried in application notes, seminar and conference presentations, short courses, and unpublished works.

Readers will gain a thorough understanding of the inner workings of digital high-speed systems, and learn how the different aspects of such systems can be tested. The editors and contributors cover key areas in test and measurement of transmitters (digital waveform and jitter analysis and bit error ratio), receivers (sensitivity, jitter tolerance, and PLL/CDR characterization), and high-speed channel characterization (in time and frequency domain). Extensive illustrations are provided throughout.

Coverage includes

  • Signal integrity from a measurement point of view
  • Digital waveform analysis using high bandwidth real-time and sampling (equivalent time) oscilloscopes
  • Bit error ratio measurements for both electrical and optical links
  • Extensive coverage on the topic of jitter in high-speed networks
  • State-of-the-art optical sampling techniques for analysis of 100 Gbit/s + signals
  • Receiver characterization: clock recovery, phase locked loops, jitter tolerance and transfer functions, sensitivity testing, and stressed-waveform receiver testing
  • Channel and system characterization: TDR/T and frequency domain-based alternatives
  • Testing and measuring PC architecture communication links: PCIexpress, SATA, and FB DIMM

Sample Content

Table of Contents

Preface xxi

About the Authors xxvii

Acknowledgments xxxiii

Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Digital Communications Systems 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 System Architectures 2

1.3 Line Coding of Digital Signals 12

1.4 Electrical Signaling 23

1.5 Summary 26

1.6 References 26

Chapter 2 Jitter Basics 29

2.1 Definition of Jitter 29

2.2 Jitter as a Statistical Phenomenon34

2.3 Total Jitter and Its Subcomponents 38

2.4 Analytical Solutions for Jitter Mixtures 42

2.5 The Dual Dirac Model 52

2.6 Summary 58

2.7 References 59

Chapter 3 Serial Communication Systems and Modulation Codes 61

3.1 Introduction 62

3.2 Encoders and Modulation Code Examples 68

3.3 Telephone System History and Evolution 89

3.4 SONET Design Requirements 107

3.5 Measuring the Band-Pass Response 112

3.6 Jitter 114

3.7 Measuring Power Supply Noise Immunity 120

3.8 Power Supply Distribution, Grounding, and Shielding 123

3.9 Measuring SONET Jitter 124

3.10 Modulation Codes for the Last Mile 140

3.11 Gigabit Ethernet 149

3.12 Summary 163

3.13 References 164

Chapter 4 Bit Error Ratio Testing 169

4.1 Basics of Bit Error Ratio Testing 170

4.2 Bit Error Ratio Statistics 178

4.3 Advanced BER Measurement Topics 192

4.4 Summary 193

4.5 References 193

Chapter 5 BERT Scan Measurements 195

5.1 Basics of BERT Scan Measurements 195

5.2 Sample Delay Scan 200

5.3 Sample Threshold Scan 226

5.4 Full Eye Scan 228

5.5 Spectral Jitter Decomposition 238

5.6 Summary 241

5.7 References 242

Chapter 6 Waveform Analysis--Real-Time Scopes 243

6.1 Principles of Operation of Real-Time Digital Oscilloscopes 245

6.2 Eye Diagram Analysis on Real-Time Instruments 258

6.3 Methods of Analyzing Individual Jitter Components 279

6.4 Analysis of Composite Jitter 299

6.5 Measurement Procedures 302

6.6 Interpreting Jitter Measurement Results 315

6.7 Summary 325

6.8 References 327

Chapter 7 Characterizing High-Speed Digital Communications Signals and Systems with the Equivalent-Time Sampling Oscilloscope 329

7.1 Sampling Oscilloscope Basics 330

7.2 Triggering the Oscilloscope 330

7.3 Oscilloscope Bandwidth and Sample Rate 331

7.4 Waveform Acquisition Process for the Sampling Oscilloscope 335

7.5 Sources of Instrumentation Noise 346

7.6 Parametric Analysis of Waveforms 350

7.7 The Effect of Oscilloscope Bandwidth on Waveform Results 353

7.8 Measurements of the Eye Diagram 358

7.9 Return-to-Zero Signals 382

7.10 Advanced Jitter Analysis 387

7.11 Summary 417

7.12 References 418

Chapter 8 High-Speed Waveform Analysis Using All-Optical Sampling 421

8.1 Introduction 422

8.2 Principles of Optical Sampling 427

8.3 Performance Measures of All-Optical Sampling Systems 441

8.4 Timebase Designs 464

8.5 Experimental Implementation and Key Building Blocks 475

8.6 Related Applications and Possible Future Directions 492

8.7 Summary 498

8.8 References 499

Chapter 9 Clock Synthesis, Phase Locked Loops, and Clock Recovery 505

9.1 Oscillators and Phase Noise 506

9.2 Phase Locked Loops and Clock Synthesis 510

9.3 Clock Data Recovery Circuits 512

9.4 PLL and Clock Recovery Dynamic Behavior 517

9.5 Measuring PLL Dynamics 523

9.6 Measuring Phase Noise and Jitter Spectrum 525

9.7 Summary 531

9.8 References 532

Chapter 10 Jitter Tolerance Testing 533

10.1 Introduction 533

10.2 Jitter Tolerance: Basic Measurement Method and Test Setup 536

10.3 Generation of Jitter Tolerance Test Signals 539

10.4 Jitter Tolerance Measurement Method and Test Setup 555

10.5 Summary 560

10.6 References 560

Chapter 11 Sensitivity Testing in Optical Digital Communications 563

11.1 Introduction: Optical Digital Receivers 564

11.2 The Basics of Optical Sensitivity Measurements 565

11.3 BER Calculations in Real Communications Systems 588

11.4 Summary 602

11.5 References 603

Chapter 12 Stress Tests in High-Speed Serial Links 605

12.1 The Need for High-Speed Serial Communication 606

12.2 Early High-Speed Optical Stressed-Eye Tests 607

12.3 BER versus OSNR 609

12.4 10 Gigabit Ethernet: IEEE 802.3ae 618

12.5 The Advent of Electronic Dispersion Compensation 629

12.6 LRM Stress Testing (IEEE 802.3aq) 634

12.7 Future Standards 641

12.8 Summary 654

12.9 References 655

Chapter 13 Measurements on Interconnects 657

13.1 Measurements and Characterization of Interconnects 658

13.2 Modeling of System Performance from Measurements 689

13.3 Summary 709

13.4 References 710

Chapter 14 Frequency Domain Measurements 713

14.1 Introduction 714

14.2 Understanding Network Analyzer Hardware 716

14.3 Understanding S-Parameters 729

14.4 Error Correction and Calibration Methods 740

14.5 Graphical Representations 749

14.6 Example Devices 758

14.7 Summary 783

14.8 References 783

Chapter 15 Jitter and Signaling Testing for Chip-to-Chip Link Components and Systems 785

15.1 Introduction 785

15.2 Multiple Gigabit per Second Computer Chip-to-Chip I/O Link Architectures 788

15.3 Chip-to-Chip Link System BER and Signaling Tests 800

15.4 Testing Examples 811

15.5 Future Technology Trends for High-Speed Links 815

15.6 Summary 817

15.7 References 817

Appendix A Pseudo-Random Binary Sequences 819

Appendix B Passive Elements for Test Setups 835

Appendix C Coaxial Cables and Connectors 847

Appendix D Supplemental Materials for Chapter 3 861

Index 911


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