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Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System, The, 2nd Edition

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Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System, The, 2nd Edition

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  • Adds a new chapter describing the Zettabyte filesystem
  • Adds a new chapter on security including Capsicum security sandboxes
  • Details the addition of super-page support in the virtual memory system
  • Describes techniques for doing fine-grained symmetric-multiprocessing
  • Updates information on networking, including virtual networks and¿new protocols such as SCTP
  • This edition will feature a full line of instructor resources


  • Copyright 2015
  • Dimensions: 6-1/4" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 928
  • Edition: 2nd
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-321-96897-2
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-321-96897-5

The most complete, authoritative technical guide to the FreeBSD kernel’s internal structure has now been extensively updated to cover all major improvements between Versions 5 and 11. Approximately one-third of this edition’s content is completely new, and another one-third has been extensively rewritten.

Three long-time FreeBSD project leaders begin with a concise overview of the FreeBSD kernel’s current design and implementation. Next, they cover the FreeBSD kernel from the system-call level down–from the interface to the kernel to the hardware. Explaining key design decisions, they detail the concepts, data structures, and algorithms used in implementing each significant system facility, including process management, security, virtual memory, the I/O system, filesystems, socket IPC, and networking.

This Second Edition

• Explains highly scalable and lightweight virtualization using FreeBSD jails, and virtual-machine acceleration with Xen and Virtio device paravirtualization

• Describes new security features such as Capsicum sandboxing and GELI cryptographic disk protection

• Fully covers NFSv4 and Open Solaris ZFS support

• Introduces FreeBSD’s enhanced volume management and new journaled soft updates

• Explains DTrace’s fine-grained process debugging/profiling

• Reflects major improvements to networking, wireless, and USB support

Readers can use this guide as both a working reference and an in-depth study of a leading contemporary, portable, open source operating system. Technical and sales support professionals will discover both FreeBSD’s capabilities and its limitations. Applications developers will learn how to effectively and efficiently interface with it; system administrators will learn how to maintain, tune, and configure it; and systems programmers will learn how to extend, enhance, and interface with it.

Marshall Kirk McKusick writes, consults, and teaches classes on UNIX- and BSD-related subjects. While at the University of California, Berkeley, he implemented the 4.2BSD fast filesystem. He was research computer scientist at the Berkeley Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG), overseeing development and release of 4.3BSD and 4.4BSD. He is a FreeBSD Foundation board member and a long-time FreeBSD committer. Twice president of the Usenix Association, he is also a member of ACM, IEEE, and AAAS.

George V. Neville-Neil hacks, writes, teaches, and consults on security, networking, and operating systems. A FreeBSD Foundation board member, he served on the FreeBSD Core Team for four years. Since 2004, he has written the “Kode Vicious” column for Queue and Communications of the ACM. He is vice chair of ACM’s Practitioner Board and a member of Usenix Association, ACM, IEEE, and AAAS.

Robert N.M. Watson is a University Lecturer in systems, security, and architecture in the Security Research Group at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. He supervises advanced research in computer architecture, compilers, program analysis, operating systems, networking, and security. A FreeBSD Foundation board member, he served on the Core Team for ten years and has been a committer for fifteen years. He is a member of Usenix Association and ACM.


Author's Site

Please visit the author's site here

Companion Site

For more information about obtaining FreeBSD, visit FreeBSD.org

For more information about supporting FreeBSD, visit FreeBSDfoundation.org

For more information about teaching FreeBSD, visit TeachBSD.org

Sample Content

Online Sample Chapter

Process Management in the FreeBSD Operating System

Sample Pages

Download the sample pages (includes Chapter 4 and Index)

Table of Contents

Preface xxi

About the Authors xxix

Part I: Over view 1

Chapter 1: History and Goals 3

1.1 History of the UNIX System 3

1.2 BSD and Other Systems 7

1.3 The Transition of BSD to Open Source 9

1.4 The FreeBSD Development Model 14

References 17

Chapter 2: Design Overview of FreeBSD 21

2.1 FreeBSD Facilities and the Kernel 21

2.2 Kernel Organization 23

2.3 Kernel Services 26

2.4 Process Management 26

2.5 Security 29

2.6 Memory Management 36

2.7 I/O System Overview 39

2.8 Devices 44

2.9 The Fast Filesystem 45

2.10 The Zettabyte Filesystem 49

2.11 The Network Filesystem 50

2.12 Interprocess Communication 50

2.13 Network-Layer Protocols 51

2.14 Transport-Layer Protocols 52

2.15 System Startup and Shutdown 52

Exercises 54

References 54

Chapter 3: Kernel Services 57

3.1 Kernel Organization 57

3.2 System Calls 62

3.3 Traps and Interrupts 64

3.4 Clock Interrupts 65

3.5 Memory-Management Services 69

3.6 Timing Services 73

3.7 Resource Services 75

3.8 Kernel Tracing Facilities 77

Exercises 84

References 85

Part II: Processes 87

Chapter 4: Process Management 89

4.1 Introduction to Process Management 89

4.2 Process State 92

4.3 Context Switching 99

4.4 Thread Scheduling 114

4.5 Process Creation 126

4.6 Process Termination 128

4.7 Signals 129

4.8 Process Groups and Sessions 136

4.9 Process Debugging 142

Exercises 144

References 146

Chapter 5: Security 147

5.1 Operating-System Security 148

5.2 Security Model 149

5.3 Process Credentials 151

5.4 Users and Groups 154

5.5 Privilege Model 157

5.6 Interprocess Access Control 159

5.7 Discretionary Access Control 161

5.8 Capsicum Capability Model 174

5.9 Jails 180

5.10 Mandatory Access-Control Framework 184

5.11 Security Event Auditing 200

5.12 Cryptographic Services 206

5.13 GELI Full-Disk Encryption 212

Exercises 217

References 217

Chapter 6: Memory Management 221

6.1 Terminology 221

6.2 Overview of the FreeBSD Virtual-Memory System 227

6.3 Kernel Memory Management 230

6.4 Per-Process Resources 244

6.5 Shared Memory 250

6.6 Creation of a New Process 258

6.7 Execution of a File 262

6.8 Process Manipulation of Its Address Space 263

6.9 Termination of a Process 266

6.10 The Pager Interface 267

6.11 Paging 276

6.12 Page Replacement 289

6.13 Portability 298

Exercises 308

References 310

Part III: I/OSystem 313

Chapter 7: I/O System Overview 315

7.1 Descriptor Management and Services 316

7.2 Local Interprocess Communication 333

7.3 The Virtual-Filesystem Interface 339

7.4 Filesystem-Independent Services 344

7.5 Stackable Filesystems 352

Exercises 358

References 359

Chapter 8: Devices 361

8.1 Device Overview 361

8.2 I/O Mapping from User to Device 367

8.3 Character Devices 370

8.4 Disk Devices 374

8.5 Network Devices 378

8.6 Terminal Handling 382

8.7 The GEOM Layer 391

8.8 The CAM Layer 399

8.9 Device Configuration 402

8.10 Device Virtualization 414

Exercises 428

References 429

Chapter 9: The Fast Filesystem 431

9.1 Hierarchical Filesystem Management 431

9.2 Structure of an Inode 433

9.3 Naming 443

9.4 Quotas 451

9.5 File Locking 454

9.6 Soft Updates 459

9.7 Filesystem Snapshots 480

9.8 Journaled Soft Updates 487

9.9 The Local Filestore 496

9.10 The Berkeley Fast Filesystem 501

Exercises 517

References 519

Chapter 10: The Zettabyte Filesystem 523

10.1 Introduction 523

10.2 ZFS Organization 527

10.3 ZFS Structure 532

10.4 ZFS Operation 535

10.5 ZFS Design Tradeoffs 547

Exercises 549

References 549

Chapter 11: The Network Filesystem 551

11.1 Overview 551

11.2 Structure and Operation 553

11.3 NFS Evolution 567

Exercises 586

References 587

Part IV: Interprocess Communication 591

Chapter 12: Interprocess Communication 593

12.1 Interprocess-Communication Model 593

12.2 Implementation Structure and Overview 599

12.3 Memory Management 601

12.4 IPC Data Structures 606

12.5 Connection Setup 612

12.6 Data Transfer 615

12.7 Socket Shutdown 620

12.8 Network-Communication Protocol Internal Structure 621

12.9 Socket-to-Protocol Interface 626

12.10 Protocol-to-Protocol Interface 631

12.11 Protocol-to-Network Interface 634

12.12 Buffering and Flow Control 643

12.13 Network Virtualization 644

Exercises 646

References 648

Chapter 13: Network-Layer Protocols 649

13.1 Internet Protocol Version 4 650

13.2 Internet Control Message Protocols (ICMP) 657

13.3 Internet Protocol Version 6 659

13.4 Internet Protocols Code Structure 670

13.5 Routing 675

13.6 Raw Sockets 686

13.7 Security 688

13.8 Packet-Processing Frameworks 700

Exercises 715

References 717

Chapter 14: Transport-Layer Protocols 721

14.1 Internet Ports and Associations 721

14.2 User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 723

14.3 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 725

14.4 TCP Algorithms 732

14.5 TCP Input Processing 741

14.6 TCP Output Processing 745

14.7 Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) 761

Exercises 768

References 770

Part V: System Operation 773

Chapter 15: System Startup and Shutdown 775

15.1 Firmware and BIOSes 776

15.2 Boot Loaders 777

15.3 Kernel Boot 782

15.4 User-Level Initialization 798

15.5 System Operation 800

Exercises 805

References 806

Glossary 807

Index 847

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