Home > Store

Crimeware: Understanding New Attacks and Defenses

Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon.

Crimeware: Understanding New Attacks and Defenses


  • Sorry, this book is no longer in print.
Not for Sale


  • Copyright 2008
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 608
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-321-50195-0
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-321-50195-0

“This book is the most current and comprehensive analysis of the state of Internet security threats right now. The review of current issues and predictions about problems years away are critical for truly understanding crimeware. Every concerned person should have a copy and use it for reference.”

—Garth Bruen, Project KnujOn Designer

There’s a new breed of online predators—serious criminals intent on stealing big bucks and top-secret information—and their weapons of choice are a dangerous array of tools called “crimeware.” With an ever-growing number of companies, organizations, and individuals turning to the Internet to get things done, there’s an urgent need to understand and prevent these online threats.

Crimeware: Understanding New Attacks and Defenses will help security professionals, technical managers, students, and researchers understand and prevent specific crimeware threats. This book guides you through the essential security principles, techniques, and countermeasures to keep you one step ahead of the criminals, regardless of evolving technology and tactics. Security experts Markus Jakobsson and Zulfikar Ramzan have brought together chapter contributors who are among the best and the brightest in the security industry. Together, they will help you understand how crimeware works, how to identify it, and how to prevent future attacks before your company’s valuable information falls into the wrong hands. In self-contained chapters that go into varying degrees of depth, the book provides a thorough overview of crimeware, including not only concepts prevalent in the wild, but also ideas that so far have only been seen inside the laboratory.

With this book, you will 

  • Understand current and emerging security threats including rootkits, bot networks, spyware, adware, and click fraud
  • Recognize the interaction between various crimeware threats
  • Gain awareness of the social, political, and legal implications of these threats
  • Learn valuable countermeasures to stop crimeware in its tracks, now and in the future
  • Acquire insight into future security trends and threats, and create an effective defense plan

With contributions by Gary McGraw, Andrew Tanenbaum, Dave Cole, Oliver Friedrichs, Peter Ferrie, and others.

Sample Content

Online Sample Chapter

Cybercrime and Politics: The Dangers of the Internet in Elections

Sample Pages

Download the sample pages

Table of Contents

Preface xvii

About the Authors xxi

Chapter 1: Overview of Crimeware 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Prevalence of Crimeware 4

1.3 Crimeware Threat Model and Taxonomy 5

1.4 A Crimeware Menagerie 8

1.5 Crimeware Distribution 19

1.6 Infection and Compromise Points, Chokepoints, and Countermeasures 25

1.7 Crimeware Installation 29

1.8 Crimeware Usage 31

1.9 Organizing Principles for the Remainder of This Text 35

Chapter 2: A Taxonomy of Coding Errors 37

2.1 The Trinity of Trouble 38

2.2 The Seven Pernicious Kingdoms 40

2.3 The Phyla 46

2.4 More Phyla Needed 52

Chapter 3: Crimeware and Peer-to-Peer Networks 55

3.1 Malware in Peer-to-Peer Networks 55

3.2 Human-Propagated Crimeware 76

Chapter 4: Crimeware in Small Devices 83

4.1 Propagation Through USB Drives 83

4.2 Radio Frequency ID Crimeware 89

4.3 Mobile Crimeware 99

Chapter 5: Crimeware in Firmware 103

5.1 Propagation by Firmware Updates 103

5.2 Modeling WiFi Malware Epidemics 130

Chapter 6: Crimeware in the Browser 155

6.1 Transaction Generators: Rootkits for the Web 155

6.2 Drive-By Pharming 160

6.3 Using JavaScript to Commit Click Fraud 167

Chapter 7: Bot Networks 183

7.1 Introduction 183

7.2 Network-Oriented Features of Botnets 188

7.3 Software Features of Bots 205

7.4 Web Bots and the General Future of Botnets 215

7.5 Countermeasures 224

Chapter 8: Rootkits 229

8.1 Introduction 229

8.2 Evolution of Rootkits 231

8.3 User-Mode Windows Rootkits 233

8.4 Kernel-Mode Rootkit Techniques 240

8.5 Linux Rootkits 260

8.6 BIOS Rootkits 264

8.7 PCI Rootkits 265

8.8 Virtual Machine—Based Rootkits 267

8.9 Rootkit Defense 271

Chapter 9: Virtual Worlds and Fraud 275

9.1 Introduction 275

9.2 MMOGs as a Domain for Fraud 278

9.3 Electronic Fraud 283

9.4 Fraud in MMOGs 285

Chapter 10: Cybercrime and Politics 293

10.1 Domain Name Abuse 295

10.2 Campaign-Targeted Phishing 307

10.2.1 Profit-Motivated Phishing 307

10.3 Malicious Code and Security Risks 312

10.4 Denial-of-Service Attacks 315

10.5 Cognitive Election Hacking 316

10.6 Public Voter Information Sources: FEC Databases 319

10.7 Intercepting Voice Communications 320

Chapter 11: Online Advertising Fraud 325

11.1 History 325

11.2 Revenue Models 326

11.3 Types of Spam 332

11.4 Forms of Attack 335

11.5 Countermeasures 342

11.6 Click Fraud Auditing 347

11.7 The Economics of Click Fraud 352

Chapter 12: Crimeware Business Models 355

12.1 The Crimeware Business 355

12.2 A Closer Look at Adware 386

Chapter 13: The Educational Aspect of Security 397

13.1 Why Education? 397

13.2 Case Study: A Cartoon Approach 408

Chapter 14: Surreptitious Code and the Law 413

14.1 Introduction 413

14.2 The Characteristics of Surreptitious Code 415

14.3 Primary Applicable Laws 418

14.4 Secondary Applicable Laws 430

Chapter 15: Crimeware and Trusted Computing 457

15.1 Introduction 457

15.2 Anatomy of an Attack 458

15.3 Combating Crimeware with Trusted Computing 460

15.4 Case Studies 466

Chapter 16: Technical Defense Techniques 473

16.1 Case Study: Defense-in-Depth Against Spyware 475

16.2 Crimeware-Resistant Authentication 484

16.3 Virtual Machines as a Crimeware Defense Mechanism 510

Chapter 17: The Future of Crimeware 515

17.1 Crimeware, Terrorware, Vandalware, and Ransomware 515

17.2 New Applications and Platforms 517

17.3 Using Social Networks to Bootstrap Attacks 520

17.4 New Use of the Internet: Controlling the Infrastructure 520

17.5 Moving Up the Stack 520

17.6 The Emergence of an E-Society: Are We Becoming More Vulnerable? 521

17.7 The Big Picture 522

References 525

Index 557


Submit Errata

More Information

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020