A comprehensive guide to the best common practices for Internet service providers
Cisco IOS Software documentation is extensive and detailed and is often too hard for many Internet service providers (ISPs) who simply want to switch on and get going. Cisco ISP Essentials highlights many of the key Cisco IOS features in everyday use in the major ISP backbones of the world to help new network engineers gain understanding of the power of Cisco IOS Software and the richness of features available specifically for them. Cisco ISP Essentials also provides a detailed technical reference for the expert ISP engineer, with descriptions of the various knobs and special features that have been specifically designed for ISPs. The configuration examples and diagrams describe many scenarios, ranging from good operational practices to network security. Finally a whole appendix is dedicated to using the best principles to cover the configuration detail of each router in a small ISP Point of Presence.
1. Software and Router Management.
Which Cisco IOS Software Version Should I Be Using? Where to Get Information on Release 12.0S. Further Reference on IOS Software Releases. IOS Software Management. Flash Memory. System Memory. When and How to Upgrade. Copying New Images to Flash Memory. Configuration Management. NVRAM, TFTPserver, and FTPserver. Large Configurations. Command-Line Interface. Editing Keys. CLI String Search. Detailed Logging. Syslog Topologies. Analyzing Syslog Data. Network Time Protocol. NTP Architecture. Client/Server Models and Association Modes. Implementing NTP on an ISP's Routers. NTP Deployment Examples. NTP in a PoP (Example). Further NTP References. Simple Network Management Protocol. SNMP in Read-Only Mode. SNMP in Read-Write Mode. SNMP and Commercial Network Management Software. HTTP Server. Core Dumps. Conclusion. Endnotes.
IOS Software and Loopback Interfaces. Motivation for Using the Loopback Interface. BGP Update Source. Router ID. Exception Dumps by FTP. TFTP Server Access. SNMP Server Access. TACACS/RADIUS Server Source Interface. NetFlow Flow Export. NTP Source Interface. Syslog Source Interface. Telnet to the Router. RCMD to the Router. Interface Configuration. Description. Bandwidth. ip unnumbered. Interface Status Checking. show interface switching. show interface stats. show idb. Cisco Express Forwarding. NetFlow. NetFlow Feature Acceleration. NetFlow Statistics-Basics. NetFlow Data Export. Turn On Nagle. DNS and Routers. Mapping IP Addresses to Names. DNS Resolver in IOS Software. Conclusion. Endnotes.
CIDR Features. IP Classless. The Zero IP Subnet. Selective Packet Discard. Hot Standby Routing Protocol. IP Source Routing. Configuring Routing Protocols. Router ID. Choosing an IGP. Putting Prefixes into the IGP. IGP Summarization. IGP Adjacency Change Logging. Putting Prefixes into BGP. IGP Configuration Hints. Network Design. Prefix Types. Configuring OSPF. Configuring IS-IS. Configuring EIGRP. Design Summary. The BGP Path-Selection Process. The BGP Best-Path Algorithm for IOS Software. BGP Features and Commands. Stable iBGP Configuration. BGP Autosummary. BGP Synchronization. BGP Community Format. BGP Neighbor Shutdown. BGP Dynamic Reconfiguration. BGP Route Reflectors and the BGP Cluster ID. next-hop-self. BGP Route Flap Damping. BGP Neighbor Authentication. BGP MED Not Set. BGP Deterministic MED. Comparing Router IDs. BGP network Statement. Removing Private Autonomous Systems. BGP local-as. BGP Neighbor Changes. Limiting the Number of Prefixes from a Neighbor. Limiting the AS Path Length from a Neighbor. BGP fast-external-fallover. BGP Peer Group. BGP Multipath. Applying Policy with BGP. Using Prefix Lists in BGP Route Filtering. BGP Filter Processing Order. BGP Conditional Advertisement. BGP Outbound Route Filter Capability. BGP Policy Accounting. Configuration. Displaying BGP Policy Accounting Status. Displaying BGP Policy Accounting Statistics. Multiprotocol BGP. Motivation for a New CLI. Command Group Organization. Comparison Between Old and New Styles. Upgrading to the New CLI. Examples of the New CLI in Use. Summary. Endnotes.
Securing the Router. Unneeded or Risky Global Services. Unneeded or Risky Interface Services. Cisco Discovery Protocol. Login Banners. Use enable secret. The ident Feature. SNMP Security. Using the trap-source loopback 0. Router Access: Controlling Who Can Get into the Router. Principles. VTY and Console Port Timeouts. Access Lists on the VTY Ports. VTY Access and SSH. User Authentication. Using AAA to Secure the Router. Router Command Auditing. One-Time Password. Managing ICMP Unreachables from the Router. Building a New Router or Switch. Securing the Routing Protocol. Authenticating Routing Protocol Updates. Securing the Network. Egress and Ingress Filtering. Route Filtering. Packet Filtering. Access Control Lists: General Sequential-Based ACLs. Access Control Lists: Turbo ACLs. ASIC-Based ACLs. Using ACLs for Egress Packet Filtering: Preventing Transmission of Invalid IP Addresses. Using ACLs for Ingress Packet Filtering: Preventing Reception of Invalid IP Addresses. Black-Hole Routing as a Packet Filter (Forwarding to Null0). BCP 38 Using Unicast RPF. Background. Routing Tables Requirements. BCP 38 Implementation with uRPF Strict Mode. Committed Access Rate to Rate-Limit or Drop Packets. The Smurf Attack. Rate-Limiting with CAR. Smurf Defense Summary. Reacting to Security Incidents. Approaches. Some Examples. Summary. Endnotes.
Point-of-Presence Topologies. Core. Distribution. Access. Hosting. Commentary. Point-of-Presence Design. Backbone Network Design. ISP Services. DNS. Mail. News. Keeping Software Up-to-Date. IPv4 Addressing in an ISP Backbone. Business Model and IP Address Space. Address Plan. Putting Together an Address-Deployment Plan. Address Space for Customers. Applying to the RIRs or Upstream ISP for Addresses. Conclusion. Interior Routing. The ISP IGP Versus BGP Model. Scaling Interior Routing Protocols. Exterior Routing. AS Number. Scalable External Peering. Multihoming. Basics. Multihoming Options. Multihoming to the Same ISP. Multihoming to Different ISPs. Outbound Traffic Load Sharing. Using Communities. Security. ISP Border Packet Filters. Aggregation Router Filters. Customer Router Filters. ISP Server Considerations. Firewalls. Remote Access. Out-of-Band Management. Modem. Console Server. Out-of-Band ISDN. Out-of-Band Circuits. Testing Out of Band. Commentary. Test Laboratory. Testing New Hardware and Software. Designing a Test Lab. Commentary. Operational Considerations. Maintenance. Network Operations Versus Customer Support. Engineering. Change Management. Summary. Endnotes.
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