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Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology

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Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology


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  • Follows the recently published objectives of the Center for the Advancement of Process Technology
  • Fills a major gap in the marketplace: the only book to combine both the physics and chemistry requirements taught in foundation science courses on process technology
  • Establishes a basis for communication between process operators and the chemical engineers who supervise them
  • An indispensable resource for students and faculty in programs on process operations and technology


  • Copyright 2016
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9"
  • Pages: 648
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-338833-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-338833-6

A Practical Guide to Physical and Chemical Principles and Calculations for Today’s Process Control Operators

In Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology, author T. David Griffith walks process technologists through the basic principles that govern their operations, helping them collaborate with chemical engineers to improve both safety and productivity. He shows process operators how to go beyond memorizing rules and formulas to understand the underlying science and physical laws, so they can accurately interpret anomalies and respond appropriately when exact rules or calculation methods don’t exist.

Using simple algebra and non-technical analogies, Griffith explains each idea and technique without calculus. He introduces each topic by explaining why it matters to process technologists and offers numerous examples that show how key principles are applied and calculations are performed. For end-of-chapter problems, he provides the solutions in plain-English discussions of how and why they work. Chapter appendixes provide more advanced information for further exploration.

Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology is an indispensable, practical resource for every process technologist who wants to know “what the numbers mean” so they can control their systems and processes more efficiently, safely, and reliably.

T. David Griffith received his B.S. in chemical engineering from The University of Texas at Austin and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, then top-ranked in the discipline. After working in research on enhanced oil recovery (EOR), he cofounded a small chemical company, and later in his career he developed a record-setting Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) software package. He currently instructs in the hydrocarbon processing industry.

Coverage includes

• Preparing to solve problems by carefully organizing them and establishing consistent sets of measures

• Calculating areas and volumes, including complex objects and interpolation

• Understanding Boyle’s Law, Charles’s Law, and the Ideal Gas Law

• Predicting the behavior of gases under extreme conditions

• Applying thermodynamic laws to calculate work and changes in gas enthalpy, and to recognize operational problems

• Explaining phase equilibria for distillation and fractionalization

• Estimating chemical reaction speed to optimize control

• Balancing material or energy as they cross system boundaries

• Using material balance calculations to confirm quality control and prevent major problems

• Calculating energy balances and using them to troubleshoot poor throughput

• Understanding fluid flow, including shear, viscosity, laminar and turbulent flows, vectors, and tensors

• Characterizing the operation of devices that transport heat energy for heating or cooling

• Analyzing mass transfer in separation processes for materials purification

Sample Content

Online Sample Chapter

Gas Laws: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature

Table of Contents

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xxi

About the Author xxiii

Part I: Basic Principles 1

Chapter 1: Introductory Concepts 3

1.1 Using This Book 4

1.2 Steps for Solving a Problem 5

1.3 Degrees of Freedom 12

1.4 Dimensional Consistency and the Dimensional Equation 16

1.5 The Big Four: Unit Operations of Process Technology 17

1.6 Concluding Comments 19

Problems 20

Chapter 2: Areas, Volumes, Complex Objects, and Interpolation 21

2.1 Calculating Areas 22

2.2 Calculating Volumes 28

2.3 Complex Objects: Areas and Volumes 33

2.4 Interpolation and Extrapolation 40

2.5 Concluding Comments 46

Problems 46

Chapter 3: Units of Measure 51

3.1 Time 53

3.2 Length 54

3.3 Volume 55

3.4 Temperature 56

3.5 Mass, Weight, and Force 61

3.6 Vectors 63

3.7 Torque, Moments, and Couples 66

3.8 Density and Specific Gravity 68

3.9 The Mole Unit 69

3.10 Concentrations 72

3.11 Pressure 76

3.12 Work and Power 78

3.13 Accuracy, Precision, and Variance 80

3.14 Engineering Accuracy and Significant Figures 84

3.15 Scientific Notation 85

3.16 The Vernier Scale 86

3.17 Prefixes: M versus m 87

3.18 Concluding Comments 88

References 89

Problems 90

Chapter 4: Gas Laws: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature 93

4.1 Boyle’s Law 94

4.2 Charles’s Law 96

4.3 Absolute Temperature 97

4.4 The Ideal Gas Law 98

4.5 Real Gases 108

4.6 Volumetric Fractions and Mole Fractions 110

4.7 Standard Conditions 111

4.8 Concluding Comments 112

Appendix 4A: Equations of State 113

Problems 119

Chapter 5: Thermodynamics: Energy, Heat, and Work 123

5.1 Heat and Its Equivalence 127

5.2 The Conservation of Energy and Matter 128

5.3 Work 130

5.4 Heat Capacity 131

5.5 Enthalpy and Internal Energy 135

5.6 Power 138

5.7 Entropy 139

5.8 Reversible versus Irreversible Systems 142

5.9 Functions of State 144

5.10 The Mollier Diagram 145

5.11 Steam Tables 148

5.12 The Entropy of Mixtures 151

5.13 Latent Heat versus Sensible Heat 158

5.14 Free Energy, Chemical Potential, and Entropy 160

5.15 Laws of Thermodynamics 164

5.16 Adiabatic Processes: Compression and Expansion 167

5.17 The Carnot Cycle and Thermodynamic Efficiency 168

5.18 Refrigeration and Heat Pumps 176

5.19 Joule-Thomson Expansion 179

5.20 Turbo-Expanders 181

5.21 Systems 182

5.22 Concluding Comments 186

Appendix 5A: Concepts of Activity and Fugacity 186

Problems 188

Chapter 6: Phase Equilibria 193

6.1 The Units of Equilibrium: Partial Pressure and Mole Fraction 194

6.2 Equilibrium Vapor Pressure 195

6.3 Chemical Potential 199

6.4 Boiling 200

6.5 Azeotropes 201

6.6 Degrees of Freedom and the Gibbs’ Phase Rule 203

6.7 Phase Transitions 206

6.8 Effects of Impurities 208

6.9 Quality, Bubble Point, and Dew Point 210

6.10 Equilibrium Equations 212

6.11 Effects of Mass and Volume 217

6.12 Osmotic Pressure 218

6.13 Ion Exchange 219

6.14 Supercritical Fluids 222

6.15 Concluding Comments 224

Problems 224

Chapter 7: Chemical Reaction Kinetics 227

7.1 Effect of Reactant Concentration 228

7.2 Complex Mechanisms with Intermediates 231

7.3 Effect of Temperature 236

7.4 Catalysts 238

7.5 Yield, Fractional Conversion, and Extent of Reaction 241

7.6 Equilibrium Reactions and the Law of Mass Action 248

7.7 Effect of Phase Behavior 250

7.8 Concluding Comments 251

Problems 252

Part II: Calculations: Material and Energy Balances 259

Chapter 8: Material Balances 261

8.1 Methodology 262

8.2 The Assumption of Steady-State 273

8.3 Single-Phase Material Balances for Separation Processes 273

8.4 Single-Phase Material Balances for Blending Processes 283

8.5 Multiple-Phase Material Balances 295

8.6 Material Balances with Chemical Reactions 304

8.7 Material Balances in the Real World 313

8.8 Concluding Comments 314

Appendix 8A: Business Economics 315

Problems 320

Chapter 9: Energy Balances 337

9.1 Methodology 338

9.2 Simple Energy Balances 340

9.3 Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances 344

9.4 Simultaneous Balances with Chemical Reactions 351

9.5 Concluding Comments 357

Appendix 9A: Heat of Mixing 358

Problems 362

Part III: Application of Basic Principles and Calculations to Transport Phenomena 371

Chapter 10: Transport Phenomena: Fluid Flow 373

10.1 Shear Rate and Viscosity 375

10.2 Laminar versus Turbulent Flow 382

10.3 Vectors and Tensors 385

10.4 Shell Balances 386

10.5 The Equations of Motion 392

10.6 Dimensional Analysis 393

10.7 The Reynolds Number and the Fanning Friction Factor 396

10.8 The Bernoulli Equation 402

10.9 Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow 412

10.10 Centrifugal Pumps and Feet of Head 413

10.11 Concluding Comments 415

References 416

Problems 416

Chapter 11: Transport Phenomena: Heat Transfer 419

11.1 Heat Conduction 421

11.2 Convection 431

11.3 Combined Conduction and Convection 435

11.4 Radiation 439

11.5 Dimensional Analysis 448

11.6 Shell Balances 456

11.7 Cocurrent versus Countercurrent Heat Transfer 459

11.8 Concluding Comments 462

References 463

Problems 463

Chapter 12 : Transport Phenomena: Mass Transfer 469

12.1 Diffusion 471

12.2 The Entropy of Mass Transport 476

12.3 Shell Balances 477

12.4 Dispersion 481

12.5 Mass Transport in the Real World 482

12.6 Mass-Transfer Processes: Unit Operations 483

12.7 Material and Energy Balances 498

12.8 Cocurrent versus Countercurrent Flow 516

12.9 Dimensional Analysis, the HETP, and Efficiency 518

12.10 Concluding Comments 528

References 529

Problems 530

Postface 535

Appendix A: Answers to Selected Problems 537

Chapter 1 537

Chapter 2 537

Chapter 3 538

Chapter 4 538

Chapter 5 538

Chapter 6 539

Chapter 7 539

Chapter 8 539

Chapter 9 546

Chapter 10 547

Chapter 11 547

Chapter 12 548

Appendix B: Conversion Factors 551

Appendix C: Gas Constants 555

Appendix D: Steam Tables 557

Index 593

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