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Applied Subsurface Geological Mapping with Structural Methods, 2nd Edition

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Applied Subsurface Geological Mapping with Structural Methods, 2nd Edition


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  • Copyright 2003
  • Dimensions: 8-1/4" x 11"
  • Pages: 800
  • Edition: 2nd
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-091948-9
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-091948-9

Applied Subsurface Geological Mapping, With Structural Methods, 2nd Edition is the practical, up-to-the-minute guide to the use of subsurface interpretation, mapping, and structural techniques in the search for oil and gas resources. Two of the industry's leading consultants present systematic coverage of the field's key principles and newest advances, offering guidance that is valuable for both exploration and development activities, as well as for "detailed" projects in maturely developed areas.

Fully updated and expanded, this edition combines extensive information from the published literature with significant material never before published. The authors introduce superior techniques for every major petroleum-related tectonic setting in the world.

Coverage includes:

  • A systematic, ten-step philosophy for subsurface interpretation and mapping
  • The latest computer-based contouring concepts and applications
  • Advanced manual and computer-based log correlation
  • Integration of geophysical data into subsurface interpretations and mapping
  • Cross-section construction: structural, stratigraphic, and problem-solving
  • Interpretation and generation of valid fault, structure, and isochore maps
  • New coverage of 3D seismic interpretation, from project setup through documentation
  • Compressional and extensional structures: balancing and interpretation
  • In-depth new coverage of strike-slip faulting and related structures
  • Growth and correlation consistency techniques: expansion indices, Multiple Bischke Plot Analysis, vertical separation versus depth, and more
  • Numerous field examples from around the world

Whatever your role in the adventure of finding and developing oil or gas resources–as a geologist, geophysicist, engineer, technologist, manager or investor–the tools presented in this book can make you significantly more effective in your daily technical or decision-oriented activities.

Sample Content

Table of Contents




Reviewers. Contributors. Drafting. Support Personnel. Contributing Authors. Special Recognition from Daniel J. Tearpock. Special Recognition from Richard E. Bischke. Biography of Daniel J. Tearpock. Biography of Richard E. Bischke.

1. Introduction to Subsurface Mapping.

Textbook Overview. The Philosophical Doctrine of Accurate Subsurface Interpretation and Mapping. Types Of Subsurface Maps and Cross Sections.

2. Contouring and Contouring Techniques.

Introduction . Three-Dimensional Perspective. Rules of Contouring. Methods of Contouring By Hand. Computer-Based Contouring Concepts and Applications.

3. Directionally Drilled Wells and Directional Surveys.

Introduction. Application of Directionally Drilled Wells. Common Types of Directionally Drilled Wells. Directional Well Plan. Directional Tools Used for Measurements. Directional Survey Calculations. Directional Survey Uncertainties. Directional Well Plots.

4. Log Correlation Techniques.

Introduction. Electric Log Correlation Procedures and Guidelines. Correlation Type Log. Electric Log Correlation—Vertical Wells. Electric Log Correlation—Directionally Drilled Wells. Electric Log Correlation—Horizontal Wells. Computer-Based Log Correlation. Repeated Section. Estimating Restored Tops. Unconformities. Annotation and Documentation.

5. Integration of Geophysical Data in Subsurface Mapping.

Introduction and Philosophy. The Process. Data Validation and Interpretation. Data Extraction. Some Final Thoughts on Seismic Mapping.

6. Cross Sections.

Introduction. Planning a Cross Section. Structural Cross Sections. Stratigraphic Cross Sections. Problem-Solving Cross Sections. Finished Illustration (Show) Cross Sections. Correlation Sections. Cross Section Design. Vertical Exaggeration. Projection of Wells. Cross Section Construction Across Faults. Three-Dimensional Views. Cross Section Construction Using a Computer. Fault Seal Analysis.

7. Fault Maps.

Introduction. Fault Terminology. Definition of Fault Displacement. Mathematical Relationship of Throw to Vertical Separation. Fault Data Determined From Well Logs. Fault Surface Map Construction. Types of Fault Patterns. Fault Data Determined From Seismic Information. Growth Faults. Directional Surveys and Fault Surface Maps. Vertical Separation—Correction Factor and Documentation.

8. Structure Maps.

Introduction. Guidelines to Contouring. Summary of the Methods of Contouring By Hand. Contouring Faulted Surfaces. Manual Integration of Fault and Structure Maps. Fault Traces and Gaps—Shortcuts and Pitfalls. Structure Map—Generic Case Study. The Additive Property of Faults. Integration of Seismic and Well Data for Structure Mapping. Other Mapping Techniques. Application of Contour Compatibility Across Faults. Mapping Techniques for Various Tectonic Habitats. Requirements for a Reasonable Structural. Interpretation and Completed Maps.

9. Interpretation of Three-Dimensional Seismic Data.

Introduction and Philosophy. Planning, Organizing and Documenting a Project. Fault Interpretation. Horizon Interpretation. Preliminary Structure Mapping. Horizon and Fault Integration on a Workstation. Conclusion.

10. Compressional Structures: Balancing and Interpretation.

Introduction. Structural Geology and Balancing. Mechanical Stratigraphy. Classical Balancing Techniques. Cross Section Consistency. Cross Section Construction. Depth to Detachment Calculations. Nonclassical Methods.

11. Extensional Structures: Balancing and Interpretation.

Introduction. Origin of Hanging Wall (Rollover) Anticlines. A Graphical Dip Domain Technique for Projecting Large Growth Faults to Depth. Origin of Synthetic and Antithetic Faults, Keystone Structures, and Downward Dying Growth Faults. Three-Dimensional Effects and Cross Structures. Strike-Ramp Pitfall. Compaction Effects Along Growth Normal Faults.

12. Strike-Slip Faults and Associated Structures.

Introduction. Mapping Strike-Slip Faults. Criteria for Strike-Slip Faulting. Analysis of Lateral Displacements. Scaling Factors for Strike-Slip Displacements. Balancing Strike-Slip Faults. Summary. Conclusions.

13. Growth Structures.

Introduction. Multiple Bischke Plot Analysis and d/d Methods. Accuracy of Method. Examples of the d/d Method. The Multiple Bischke Plot Analysis. Vertical Separation Versus Depth Method. Conclusions.

14. Isochore and Isopach Maps.

Introduction. Sand—Shale Distribution. Basic Construction of Isochore Maps. Methods of Contouring the Hydrocarbon Wedge. Vertical Thickness Determinations. Vertical Thickness and Fluid Contacts in Deviated Wells. Mapping the Top of Structure Versus The Top of Porosity. Fault Wedges. Nonsealing Faults. Volumetric Configuration of a Reservoir. Reservoir Volume Determinations from Isochore Maps. Introductory Reservoir Engineering. Interval Isopach Maps.






Many textbooks cover numerous geologic subjects; however, since Margaret S. Bishop's classic textbook (1960), and the first edition of this textbook, no complete and detailed book on the subject of subsurface mapping and structural methods has been published.

Subsurface geological maps are the most important and widely used vehicle to explore for and develop hydrocarbon reserves. Geologists, geophysicists, and engineers are expected to understand the many aspects of subsurface mapping and to be capable of preparing accurate subsurface maps. Yet, the subject of subsurface mapping is probably the least taught of all petroleum-related subjects. Many colleges and universities do not teach applied subsurface mapping courses, and over the past decade, many company-sponsored training programs have been curtailed or eliminated.

As we enter the new millennium, we must become more aware of our limitations. This involves questioning our methods and thinking more about our interpretation techniques. We need to consider the tools we have at our disposal to support our interpretations and to generate a better quality product. Inaccurate procedures, unjustified shortcuts, and limited mapping and structural skills will result in a poor product. During the past decade, the petroleum industry has experienced sweeping changes; new technologies have emerged requiring new skills.

In today's petroleum exploration and development activities, a geoscientist spends a great deal of his or her time in front of a workstation or computer correlating, interpreting and mapping with the ultimate goal of generating viable interpretations resulting in economic prospects. The computers provide increased speed and efficiency in nearly every aspect of exploration and development. However, problems have developed with the computer-based activities. What we often see today is the computers, not the interpreters, driving interpretations and maps, with blind acceptance of the results. Too often, this procedure results in contour maps that violate geologic principles, interpretations that are unlikely in three dimensions, and prospects that depict subsurface geology and geometry that are outright impossible.

We cannot accept computers driving interpretations, nor can we blindly accept the resultant maps (Tearpock and Brenneke 2001a, 2001b). In the hands of geoscientists properly educated in the basics and fundamentals of geology, including field experience, the workstations and personal computers are powerful tools. This text contains many of the techniques and methods required to generate sound geologic interpretations and prospects. It can help you become a more productive and successful geoscientist or engineer.

It has been estimated that 30 percent or more of future reserve additions will be found in areas that are maturely developed. These reserves will come from redeveloping older oil and gas fields. This future potential is to be found in proved producing reservoirs, reservoirs with proved reserves behind pipe, various types of accumulations (attic, infill, and untested fault blocks), and wildcatting in and around the fields and in deeper stratigraphic sections than the current limit within the area.

The techniques presented in this book, from correctly mapping well data to structural balancing, are ideally suited for both exploration and development activities, but especially valuable when conducting detailed geoscience projects involving the development or redevelopment of a mature area.

We have expanded this second edition to include new methods or techniques developed during the last 10 years, the understanding and applications of computer-based log correlation, cross section construction and 3D seismic interpretation. We have organized a wealth of information that exists in the literature, in addition to material that has never been published. This second edition builds on the new advances and our experience in petroleum exploration and exploitation, as well as our extensive experience in teaching subsurface exploration and development mapping and structural geology courses to geologists, geophysicists, and engineers in the energy industry (worldwide), and at the college and university level.

We present a variety of subsurface mapping and structural techniques applicable in the four major petroleum-related tectonic settings: extensional, compressional, strike-slip, and diapiric. The detailed techniques presented throughout the book are intended to expand your knowledge and improve your skills in preparing geologic interpretations. The knowledge of the principles and techniques presented, plus a burning desire to explore the unknown, will ensure your success.

This textbook is specifically designed for geologists, geophysicists, and engineers who prepare subsurface geological interpretations with accompanying maps. This book should also be beneficial to supervisors, managers, technical assistants, investors, and other persons who have a requirement for the use, preparation, or evaluation of subsurface interpretations and maps.

Good luck and good prospecting.

Daniel J. Tearpock
Richard E. Bischke


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