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Apache Phrasebook

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Apache Phrasebook


  • Sorry, this book is no longer in print.
Not for Sale


  • Copyright 2006
  • Dimensions: 4-1/2" x 7"
  • Pages: 240
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-672-32836-4
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-672-32836-7

What is the new essential for Apache developers? The Apache Phrasebook. Packed with practical solutions, or "phrases," for tasks that the Apache developer much accomplish every day, the phrasebook fills the need for a short, functional, to-the-point reference for Apache. The code contained in the phrasebook is flexible, so it can be easily adapted to your needs. Today's problem is likely to be tomorrow's problem, so don't waste your time on lengthy tutorials. Go straight to practical Apache tools that provide immediately applicable solutions for any situation with the Apache Phrasebook.

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Logs and Monitoring

Logs and Monitoring in Apache

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Table of Contents


Chapter 1    Apache Basics

                Discovering Apache

                Determining Whether Apache Is Already Installed

                Installing Apache 1.3 on Linux and Unix

                Installing Apache 2.0 on Linux and Unix

                Installing Apache on Windows

                Configuration File Basics

                Using Multiple Configuration Files

                Starting, Stopping, and Restarting Apache

                Changing the Address and Port Apache Uses

                Changing the User Apache Runs As

                Specifying a Server Name

                Providing an Icon for my Web Page

                Discovering the Modules Available on the Server

                Enabling and Disabling Individual Modules

                Adding Modules after Compiling Apache Without Recompiling

                Publishing Content

                    Default Apache Directive Containers

                    Directive Containers for Conditional Evaluation

Chapter 2    Troubleshooting

                Help! My Apache Server Does Not Work!

                The Error Log

                Logging to the System Log Daemon

                Controlling the Amount of Information Logged

                Testing the Apache Configuration for Problems

                Testing Apache from the Command Line

                Checking That Apache Is Running

                Alternate Ways of Stopping Apache

                Using Apache to Debug Apache

                Startup Errors

                    Syntax Error

                    Address Already in Use

                    Could Not Bind to Port

                    Module Not Compatible

                    Name Resolution

                    Cannot Open Log or Configuration File

                Access Denied Errors

                Internal Server Errors

                    Segmentation Faults

                    Premature End of Script Headers

                    Malformed Headers

                Additional Error Log Files

                Redirections Do Not Work

                Troubleshooting Checklist

                    Starting the Server

                    Connecting to the Server

                    Document Not Found

                    Access Forbidden

                    Internal Server Errors

                    If All Else Fails

Chapter 3    Logs and Monitoring

                Introduction to Logging in Apache

                Default Apache Log Files

                Creating Log Formats

                Creating a Custom Log File

                Redirecting Logs to an External Program

                Logging Requests Conditionally

                Monitoring Who Is Linking to Your Website

                Monitoring Apache with mod_status

                Monitoring Apache with SNMP

                Analyzing Your Logs with Open-source Tools

                Monitoring Your Logs in Real Time

                Logging Requests to a Database

                Rotating and Archiving Logs

                Controlling IP Address Resolution

                Processing Logged IP Addresses

                Restarting Apache Automatically If It Fails

                Merging and Splitting Log Files

                Keeping Separate Logs for Each Virtual Host

                Common Log Entries

Chapter 4    URL Mapping and Dynamic Content

                URL Mapping

                Mapping URLs to Files with Alias

                Mapping URL Patterns to Files with AliasMatch

                Redirecting a Page to Another Location

                Redirecting to the Latest Version of a File

                Redirecting Failed or Unauthorized Requests

                Defining Content Handlers

                Understanding MIME Types

                Configuring MIME Types

                Basics of Running CGI Scripts

                Marking Resources As Executable CGIs

                Associating Scripts with HTTP Methods and MIME Types

                Troubleshooting the Execution of CGI Scripts

                Improving CGI Script Performance

                Understanding Server Side Includes

                Configuring Server Side Includes

                Setting Environment Variables

                Setting Environment Variables Dynamically

                Special Environment Variables

                Understanding Content Negotiation

                Configuring Content Negotiation

                Assigning Default Charsets and Language Priorities

                Advanced URL Mapping with mod_rewrite

                Understanding the “Trailing Slash” Problem

                Fixing Spelling Mistakes

                Fixing Capitalization Problems

                Validating Your Pages with Tidy

Chapter 5    Virtual Hosting

                What Is Virtual Hosting?

                What Is IP-based Virtual Hosting?

                Configuring IP-based Virtual Hosting

                What Is Name-based Virtual Hosting?

                Configuring Name-based Virtual Hosting

                What Happens If a Request Does Not Match Any Virtual Host?

                Configuring a Default Name-based Virtual Host

                Configuring a Default IP-based Virtual Host

                Mixing Name-based and IP-based Virtual Hosts

                Debugging Virtual Host Setups

                Using SSL with Name-based Virtual Hosts

                Alternate Virtual Hosting

                Alternate Virtual Hosting Modules

                Per-directory Configuration Files

                Controlling the Scope of Per-directory Configuration Files

                Disabling Per-directory Configuration Files

Chapter 6    Security and Access Control

                Understanding the Need for Access Control

                Differences Between Apache Versions

                Understanding Basic and Digest Authentication

                Introducing Apache Access Control

                Introducing Apache Authorization and Authentication Configuration

                Creating a User Database

                Using Require to Authorize Users and Groups

                Handling a Large Number of Users

                Allowing Access Only to Specific IP Addresses

                Denying Access to Specific IP Addresses

                Combining Access Control Methods

                Customizing Your Access Denied Page

                Putting Users in Control

                Denying Access to System and Sensitive Files

                Restricting Program Execution

                Preventing Abuse

                Disabling Directory Listings

                Changing the Server: Header

                Preventing Hotlinking to Your Images

                Restricting Specific HTTP Methods

                Restricting Access Based on the Browser Type

                Using Location and Directory Sections

                Additional Authentication Modules


                Apache 2.2

                Keeping Up to Date with Apache Security

                Security Checklist

                    Disable Unneeded Modules

                    Remove Sample Scripts

                    Limit or Disable CGI Execution and SSI

                    Check File Permissions

                    Limit or Disable Proxy Functionality

                    Restrict Access to Your Server by Default

Chapter 7    SSL/TLS

                What Is SSL?

                How Does SSL Work?

                Compiling OpenSSL

                Encryption Keys

                Creating a Key Pair

                Creating a Password-protected Key Pair

                Remove the Password from a Key


                Creating a Certificate Signing Request

                Showing the Contents of a Certificate Signing Request

                Creating a Self-signed Certificate

                Compiling SSL Support in Apache 1.3

                Compiling SSL Support in Apache 2.x

                Minimal Apache Configuration

                Starting Apache with SSL Support


                Improving SSL Performance

                Forcing All Content to Be Served Using SSL

                SSL and Name-based SSL Virtual Hosts

                Using Apache Auth Modules with SSL

                Warning Messages When Accessing an SSL-enabled Website

                Creating Client Certificates

                Authentication Using Client Certificates

                Alternatives to mod_ssl

                Testing SSL-enabled Websites from the Command Line

                Working Around Buggy SSL Implementations

                Complex Access Control with mod_ssl

                Related Chapters

Chapter 8    Content Publishing with DAV

                Content Publishing and Apache

                Introducing WebDAV

                Advantages of Using mod_dav

                WebDAV and the HTTP Protocol

                Installing mod_dav on Apache 2.0

                Installing mod_dav on Apache 1.3

                Basic WebDAV Configuration

                Securing Your WebDAV Configuration

                Accessing DAV Resources from Microsoft Office

                Accessing DAV from Microsoft Windows

                Accessing DAV Resources from Firefox

                Accessing DAV from the Command Line

                Dealing with Buggy Clients

                mod_speling and DAV

                Dynamic Content and DAV

                Enabling Per-user Pages

                Alternate User Directories

                Fixing Problems with DAVLockDB

Chapter 9    Performance and Scalability

                Tuning Apache

                Understanding Performance and Scalability

                Tuning Your Hardware

                Increasing OS Limits

                Increasing OS Limits on Processes

                Increasing OS File Descriptors

                Controlling External Processes

                Improving File System Performance

                    Mounting File Systems with noatime Option

                Handling Symbolic Links

                    Disabling Per-directory Configuration Files

                    Configuring Content Negotiation

                    Disabling or Minimizing Logging

                Tuning Network and Status Settings


                    Request Accept Mechanism




                Preventing Abuse

                Limiting Connections and Bandwidth

                Dealing with Robots

                Reverse Proxies and Load Balancers

                Caching and Compression

                Module-specific Optimizations

                Alternatives to Apache

Chapter 10    Apache Proxy and Caching Support

                Understanding the Need for Caching and Proxies

                Understanding Forward and Reverse Proxies

                Differences Between Apache 1.3, 2.0, and 2.2

                Enabling mod_proxy Support

                Enabling Forward Proxy Support

                Using a Reverse Proxy to Unify Your URL Space

                Hiding the Backend Servers

                Preventing URLs from Being Reverse Proxied

                Improving Performance

                Offloading SSL Processing

                Passing Proxy Information in Headers

                Manipulating Headers

                Implementing a Caching Proxy

                Caching in Apache 2

                Load Balancing

                Connecting to Tomcat

                Alternate Proxies

                Transparent HTTP Proxies

Chapter 11    Multi Processing and Protocol Modules

                The Evolution of Apache’s Architecture

                Selecting a Multi Processing Module

                Understanding Process-Based MPMs

                Configuring the Prefork MPM

                Understanding Threaded and Hybrid MPMs

                Configuring the Worker MPM

                Using Alternate MPMs

                Understanding Apache 2 Filters

                Using Apache As an FTP Server

                Using Apache As a POP3 Server

                Compressing Content on the Fly

0672328364, TOC, 5/24/06


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