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3D User Interfaces: Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition

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  • Copyright 2017
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9"
  • Pages: 400
  • Edition: 2nd
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-403448-1
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-403448-5

The Complete, Up-To-Date Guide to Building Great 3D User Interfaces for Any Application

3D interaction is suddenly everywhere. But simply using 3D input or displays isn’t enough: 3D interfaces must be carefully designed for optimal user experience. 3D User Interfaces: Theory and Practice, Second Edition is today’s most comprehensive primary reference to building state-of-the-art 3D user interfaces and interactions. Five pioneering researchers and practitioners cover the full spectrum of emerging applications, techniques, and best practices. The authors combine theoretical foundations, analysis of leading devices, and empirically validated design guidelines. This edition adds two new chapters on human factors and general human-computer interaction—indispensable foundational knowledge for building any 3D user interface. It also demonstrates advanced concepts at work through two running case studies: a first-person VR game and a mobile augmented reality application.

Coverage Includes

  • 3D user interfaces: evolution, elements, and roadmaps
  • Key applications: virtual and augmented reality (VR, AR), mobile/wearable devices
  • What 3D UI designers should know about human sensory systems and cognition ergonomics
  • How proven human-computer interaction techniques apply to 3D UIs
  • 3D UI output hardware for visual, auditory, and haptic/ tactile systems
  • Obtaining 3D position, orientation, and motion data for users in physical space
  • 3D object selection and manipulation
  • Navigation and wayfinding techniques for moving through virtual and physical spaces
  • Changing application state with system control techniques, issuing commands, and enabling other forms of user input
  • Strategies for choosing, developing, and evaluating 3D user interfaces
  • Utilizing 2D, “magic,” “natural,” multimodal, and two-handed interaction
  • The future of 3D user interfaces: open research problems and emerging technologies

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Table of Contents

Foreword to the Second Edition     xvi
Foreword to the First Edition     xviii
Preface to the Second Edition     xx
Preface to the First Edition     xxiii
Acknowledgments     xxv
About the Authors     xxix

Chapter 1  Introduction to 3D User Interfaces     3
1.1  What Are 3D User Interfaces?     4
1.2  Why 3D User Interfaces?     4
1.3  Terminology     6
1.4  Application Areas     8
1.5  Conclusion     9
Chapter 2  3D User Interfaces: History and Roadmap     11
2.1  History of 3D UIs     12
2.2  Roadmap to 3D UIs     14
2.3  Scope of this Book    27
2.4  Introduction to Case Studies     27
2.5  Conclusion     30

Chapter 3  Human Factors Fundamentals     33

3.1  Introduction     34
3.2  Information Processing     35
3.3  Perception     41
3.4  Cognition     58
3.5  Physical Ergonomics     66
3.6  Guidelines     74
3.7  Conclusion     75
Recommended Reading     76
Chapter 4  General Principles of Human—Computer Interaction     77
4.1  Introduction     78
4.2  Understanding the User Experience     80
4.3  Design Principles and Guidelines     95
4.4  Engineering the User Experience     109
4.5  Conclusion     121
Recommended Reading     121

Chapter 5  3D User Interface Output Hardware     125

5.1  Introduction     126
5.2  Visual Displays     127
5.3  Auditory Displays     153
5.4  Haptic Displays     158
5.5  Characterizing Displays by Level of Fidelity     170
5.6  Design Guidelines: Choosing Output Devices for 3D User Interfaces     171
5.7  Case Studies     178
5.8  Conclusion     183
Recommended Reading     183
Chapter 6  3D User Interface Input Hardware     187
6.1  Introduction     188
6.2  Traditional Input Devices     190
6.3  3D Spatial Input Devices     200
6.4  Complementary Input for 3D User Interfaces     226
6.5  Special-Purpose Input Devices     228
6.6  Do It Yourself (DIY) Input Devices     234
6.7  Choosing Input Devices for 3D User Interfaces     238
6.8  Case Studies     244
6.9  Conclusion     247
Recommended Reading     248

Chapter 7  Selection and Manipulation     255

7.1  Introduction     256
7.2  3D Manipulation Tasks     257
7.3  Classifications for 3D Manipulation     262
7.4  Grasping Metaphors     264
7.5  Pointing Metaphors     273
7.6  Surface Metaphors     280
7.7  Indirect Metaphors     286
7.8  Bimanual Metaphors     297
7.9  Hybrid Metaphors     301
7.10  Other Aspects of 3D Manipulation     303
7.11 Design Guidelines     309
7.12  Case Studies     312
7.13  Conclusion     314
Recommended Reading     315
Chapter 8  Travel     317
8.1  Introduction     318
8.2  3D Travel Tasks     319
8.3  Classifications for 3D Travel     322
8.4  Walking Metaphors     325
8.5  Steering Metaphors     339
8.6  Selection-Based Travel Metaphors     344
8.7  Manipulation-Based Travel Metaphors     349
8.8  Other Aspects of Travel Techniques     353
8.9  Wayfinding in 3D Environments     361
8.10  Design Guidelines     367
8.11  Case Studies     371
8.12  Conclusion     376
Recommended Reading     377
Chapter 9  System Control     379
9.1  Introduction     380
9.2  System Control Issues     381
9.3  Classification     384
9.4  Physical Controllers     384
9.5  Graphical Menus     386
9.6  Voice Commands     396
9.7  Gestural Commands     398
9.8  Tools     404
9.9  Multimodal Techniques     409
9.10  Design Guidelines412
9.11  Case Studies     414
9.12  Conclusion     417
Recommended Reading     417

Chapter 10  Strategies in Designing and Developing 3D User Interfaces     421

10.1  Introduction     422
10.2 Designing for Humans     423
10.3 Inventing 3D User Interfaces     436
10.4  Design Guidelines     447
10.5  Case Studies     451
10.6  Conclusion     454
Recommended Reading     454
Chapter 11  Evaluation of 3D User Interfaces     455
11.1  Introduction     456
11.2  Evaluation Methods for 3D UIs     457
11.3  Evaluation Metrics for 3D UIs     460
11.4  Characteristics of 3D UI Evaluations     463
11.5  Classification of Evaluation Methods     468
11.6  Three Multimethod Approaches     470
11.7  Guidelines for 3D UI Evaluation     487
11.8  Case Studies     489
11.9  Conclusion     493
Recommended Reading     493
Acknowledgment     494

Chapter 12  The Future of 3D User Interfaces     497

12.1  User Experience with 3D Displays     498
12.2  3D UI Design     500
12.3  3D UI Development and Evaluation     505
12.4  3D UIs in the Real World     507
12.5  Applications of 3D UIs     509
Bibliography     513
Index     563


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