Home > Articles

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

Strong and Weak Artificial Intelligence

John Searle didn’t just create the Chinese room argument. He also pointed out that you can think of AI in two different ways. He called them strong and weak AI (Figure 1.6).

  • With strong AI, a machine displays all the behavior you’d expect from a person. If you’re a Star Trek fan, this is Lieutenant Commander Data. If you prefer Star Wars, then this might be C3PO or R2-D2. These artificial beings have emotions, a sense of purpose, and even a sense of humor. They may learn a new language just for the joy of learning it. Some computer scientists refer to strong AI as general AI—a broad intelligence that doesn’t apply only to one narrow task.

  • Weak (or narrow) AI is confined to a narrow task, such as product recommendations on Amazon and Google in response to the keywords a user enters. A weak AI program doesn’t engage in conversation, recognize emotion, or learn for the sake of learning; it merely does whatever job it was designed to do.

Most AI experts believe that we’re just starting down the path of weak AI—using AI to answer factual questions, provide directions, manage our schedules, make recommendations based on our past choices and reactions, help us do our taxes, prevent online fraud, and so on. Many organizations already use weak AI to help with narrow tasks, such as these. Strong AI is still relegated to the world of science fiction.

You can witness weak AI at work in the latest generation of personal assistants, including Apple’s Siri and Microsoft’s Cortana. You can talk to them and even ask them questions. They convert spoken language into machine language and use pattern matching to answer your questions and respond to your requests. That’s not much different from traditional interactions with search engines such as Google and Bing. The difference is that Siri and Cortana behave more like human beings; they can talk. They can even book a reservation at your favorite restaurant and place calls for you.

These personal assistants don’t have general AI. If they did, they’d certainly get sick of listening to your daily requests. Instead, they focus on a narrow task of listening to your input and matching it to their database.

John Searle was quick to point out that any symbolic AI should be considered weak AI. However, in the 1970s and 1980s, symbolic systems were used to create AI software that could make expert decisions. These were commonly called expert systems.

In an expert system, people who specialize in a given field input the patterns that the computer can match to arrive at a given conclusion. For example, in medicine, a doctor may input groupings of symptoms that match up with various diagnoses. A nurse inputs the patient’s symptoms into the computer. The computer can then search its database for a matching diagnosis and present the most likely diagnosis to the patient. For example, if a patient has a cough, shortness of breath, and a slight fever, the computer may conclude that the patient probably has bronchitis. To the patient, the computer may seem to be as intelligent as a doctor, but in reality all the computer is doing is matching symptoms to possible diagnoses.

Expert systems run into the same problems as other symbolic systems; they ultimately experience combinatorial explosions. There are simply too many symptoms, diagnoses, and variables to consider when trying to diagnose an illness. Just think about all the steps a doctor must take to arrive at an accurate diagnosis—conducting a physical exam, interviewing the patient, ordering lab tests, and sometimes ruling out a long list of other illnesses that have similar symptoms. Imagine all the possible ways a patient could answer each question the doctor asks and all the various combinations of lab results.

These early expert systems also had a serious limitation—the real possibility that given certain input, the system would be unable to find a match. You have probably experienced this on various websites; you input your search phrase, and the site informs you that it found no match.

Even with these drawbacks, the symbolic approach was a key starting point for AI and is still in use today, typically with some modifications (as you’ll see next).

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020