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Wireless Internet Applications and Architecture: Building Professional Wireless Applications Worldwide

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Wireless Internet Applications and Architecture: Building Professional Wireless Applications Worldwide


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  • Copyright 2002
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-73354-4
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-73354-9

"The world is going wireless and Mark Beaulieu explains how it's done. Wireless Internet Applications and Architecture is a complete description of what is, what will be, and how they both work."
--Tom Wheeler, president/CEO, Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association

Wireless Internet Applications and Architecture: Building Professional Wireless Applications Worldwide is a comprehensive technical overview of wireless Internet technology, applications, and content issues. The wireless Internet of the future will be able to serve large, specialized market segments with new devices, services, and content through wide bandwidth (MMDS, GPRS) and always-on capability, offering people the freedom to communicate in ways they never have before.

Divided into three easy-to-follow parts, the book begins with an introduction to the wireless Internet, the language, and the core wireless concepts. This part examines the trends, forces, and organizations that are shaping the growth of wireless Internet technology. The next part shows how to create mobile personas and wireless applications and make them effective. The chapters here tackle how to construct messaging, browsing, and interactive and conversational voice portal applications by highlighting application code and examples of mobile content. In the final part, components of wireless architecture are described so that readers can learn about wireless WAN, LAN, and PAN standards and practices and XML server strategies, as well as the effect wireless architectural elements are having on the market. An added plus is the discussion on mCommerce servers – the next step in eCommerce – and location-based applications that enable users to make purchases from mobile devices.

Wireless Internet Applications and Architecture is intended for both wireless application developers and architects who are building the next generation of wireless services, and the general IT audience. This book is a key reference for producing anything from applications to wireless information services to interactive wireless computer games. Ultimately, it is all one Internet, but it is the wireless Internet that offers special properties for reaching a different group of end users and will provide revenue opportunities that are not available in the wired world.


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Table of Contents



Living the Wireless Life.

What This Book Covers.

How This Book Is Organized.



1. The Wireless Internet World Stage.

The Internet: From Wired to Wireless.

A Short History of Wireless Networks and Devices.

The Invention of the Cellular Phone.

CDMA Networks: The Genius of QUALCOMM.

The Handheld Communicator and the PDA.

A Brief History of Paging.

The Second-Generation Pager Standards Battle.

Third-Generation Pager Standards and Two-Way Paging.

Wireless Networks.

Software and Content That Make Hardware Useful.

The World Wireless Scoreboard.

World Spectrum Auctions.

Wireless Content and Applications around the World.

Japanese Wireless Applications.

The i-mode Story.

Lessons from Japan's i-mode Success.

Understanding the i-mode Economy.

The Future of i-mode: Competition and 3G.

European Wireless Applications.

European Wireless Mobile Portals.

WAP Applications.

European Wireless Banking.

The Wild, Wild Wireless United States.

Wireless Development in the United States.

Global Wireless Internet Development.

Wireless Internet Projections.

Standards Bodies and Consortiums.

Getting Ready for a Wireless Future.

Living Wirelessly.

2. The Needs of the Wireless Internet User.

We Are at the Beginning.

The Technology Adoption Curve.

Entering the Market at the Right Point on the Curve.

Mobile Users Are the Secret 52@BHEADS = World Mobile Use.

Subscriber or User?

You Are the Next Wireless Application.

The Secret Initiation.

Making Applications Personal and Easy.

3. The Equipment and Technology of the Wireless Internet.

Six Wireless Device Families Mobilize the Internet.

Web Phones.



Voice Portals.

Web PCs.

Communicating Appliances and Other PC Devices.

Wireless Networks That Support Wireless Devices.

The One Essential Device.

The Language and Science of the Wireless Internet.

Wireless Spectrum.

4. Wireless Networks.

The Three Wireless Internet Networks: WAN, LAN, and PAN.

From Analog to Digital Networks.

Two-Way Communication Signals.

Telco and Internet Networks.

Comparing Circuit-Switched and Packet-Switched Networks.

Phone Numbers and IP Addresses.

Comparing Networks by Software Stack.

The Network's Effect on Society.

WANs: Citywide Towers Serve Nationwide Networks.

Towers Power the Mobile Spectrum.

Cell Phones and Handhelds as Radios.

Connecting to the Internet.

The Three Generations of WAN Air Interfaces.

WAN Channel Capacity for Data.

WAN Messaging, Paging, and SMS.

WAN Data Networks.

LANs: Blockwide Basestations Reach Business and Home.

Wireless Applications for Business.

Wireless Ethernet.

Home Networks: HAN and SOHO.

Building Your Own LAN Towers.

Local Area Network Interference.

IP Cellular Phones.

Next-Generation Wireless LAN.

PANs: Roomwide Transmitters Coordinate Nearby Devices.

PAN Roomware Applications.

Bluetooth Network.

Infrared Technology.

PAN Synchronizing Protocols.

5. Wireless Internet Applications and Content.

The Four Wireless Internet Applications.

Types of General Wireless Applications.

Location, Time, Personalization, Simple Transaction.


Signaling and Messaging.

Push Protocol.

Unified Messaging.

Microbrowsing Web Sites.

Read-Only Publishing.

Dynamic Content.

Interacting with Applications.

Wireless Vertical Market Interactive Applications.

Emerging Collaborative and Synchronized Applications.

Software Distribution and Provisioning with Middleware.

Wireless Games.

Wireless Interface Components.

Wireless Multimedia.

Conversing via Voice Portals.

Matching Applications to Wireless Devices.

The Markup Languages of Wireless Publishing.

Understanding Microbrowser Markup Languages for Devices.

Software Independence with XML Servers.


The Importance of Being Simple.

Personal Content Drives the Wireless Internet.

Searching for the Killer Application of Wireless.

Valuing Personal Wireless Content.

New Spectrum and Capacity Create New Wireless Applications.

CDMA and HDR versus GSM and EDGE.

Emerging Wireless Network Technology.

The Shock of Digital Capacity.

3G Wireless Applications.

The Near Future of Wireless Technology.

Building the Wireless Internet.


6. Concepts for Working with Wireless Applications.

Remembering That Small Is Beautiful.

Experiencing Wireless Development.

Wireless Core Team.

The Process for a Universal Industry.

The Wireless Development Method.

Wireless Demo.

Wireless Developer Best Practices.

Defining Your Mobile Audience.


Creating Scenarios.

Creating Storyboards.

Location-Based Scenario.

Using the Wireless Application Plan.

Feedback: The Beginning and the End of Testing.

Exploiting Mobile Operation.

Wireless Development Tools.

7. Developing Wireless Content.

Getting Started with Content.

Content Professionals.

Information Architecture and Information Design.

General Values of Wireless Content.

Text: The Medium of Wireless.

Using Journalistic Style.

Writing a Message.

Using Text Symbols.

Messaging the Gist.

Encoding Text.

Using CDATA.

Geocodes, Time Codes, and Personalized Data.

All about Geocodes.

Location in Geocodes.

Time in Content.

Personalizing Content.

Structuring Content.

Partitioning Wireless Data.

Delivering Wireless Content from Databases and Servers.

Describing Data with XML.

Repurposing Databases with Geocodes.

8. Putting Location, Time, Personalization, and Transactions to Use.

Using Location.

GIS and Location Servers.

Industrial Location-Based Applications.

Primary Location Applications.

ALI Networks and GPS Devices.


Immediate Request Services.

Directional Services.

Identity Applications.

Tracking Services.

Messaging Locations with List Servers.

Friend Finder.

Area Information.

Proximity Applications.

Geospatial Information Models.

Surveying the Neighborhood with Precision.

Shared Locations.

Geonetworks and Location-Aware Guides.

Latlon Proximity Algorithms.

Using Time.

Using Personalization.

Using Transactions.

9. Getting to Know Wireless Networks and Devices.

Comparing Wireless Networks: WAN, LAN, and PAN.

Comparing Wireless Devices.

General Features of Mobile Devices.

Buying Devices.

Understanding Mobile Operating Systems for Interactive Applications.

Close-up Characteristics of Wireless Devices.

Web Phone Messaging and Predictive Input.

Web Phone Characteristics Based on WAP.

Characteristics of Handhelds.

Mixed-Function Handhelds.

Characteristics of Pagers.

Characteristics of Voice Portals.

Characteristics of Communicating Appliances.

Getting Ready to Program Wireless Applications.

Real Applications.

10. Developing WAN Browsing Applications.

WAP and i-mode Development.

General Wireless Tools and Where to Get Them.

Wireless Application Development.

Writing WAP WML Applications for Wireless Browsing.

WAP Tools and Where to Get Them.

Write WML First, HDML Second.

WAP Directory Example: The Deck of Cards.

Setting up Your WAP Server.

Writing i-mode cHTML Applications for Wireless Browsing.

i-mode Tools and Where to Get Them.

Developing i-mode Applications.

Making i-mode Pages in cHTML.

Writing Pixo cHTML.

Writing Palm Query Applications for Wireless Browsing Applications.

PQA Tools and Where to Get Them.

Developing PQAs.

11. Developing WAN Interactive Applications in Java.

Java J2ME Tools and Where to Get Them.

Developing Java Wireless Applications.

J2ME Application Development.

MIDlet.3@AHEADS = Writing for the Java Phone.

Java Phone Tools and Where to Get Them.

Inside Java Phones.

Writing Java Code for Interactive Wireless Applications on a Pager.

Pager Tools and Where to Get Them.

Developing Pager Messaging, SMS Games, and Interactive Applications.

Wireless XML Browsers.

Developing WAN Interactive BREW Applications in C++ and Java.

BREW Tools and Where to Get Them.

12. Developing LAN Interactive Applications.

Handheld Industrial Tools and Where to Get Them.

Writing Professional Wireless Business Applications.

Using RAD Tools to Write Wireless Applications.

Developing Palm LAN Applications for Interactive Applications.

Palm Handheld Tools and Where to Get Them.

Developing with the Microsoft WinCE Devices.

Developing for EPOC Symbian Devices.9

13. Developing PAN Device Applications.

PAN Tools and Where to Get Them.

Developing PAN Applications.

Signature Capture.

Smart Card, SIM, SD, and MMC.

14. Developing Voice Portal Applications.

Voice Portal Tools and Where to Get Them.

Developing Voice Applications.

Basic Dialog.

National Weather Using VoiceXML Dialog.

Horoscope Using Tellme VoiceXML Dialog.

XML for Voice and Data.


What Is Wireless Internet Architecture?
15. Getting Started with Wireless Internet Architecture.

Understanding Architectural Scope and Scale.

Architecture in Layers.

Internet Services and Protocols.

OSI Bottom-Layer Secure Architecture.

Understanding Security.

Wireless Security Concerns.

Wireless Security Model.

Implementing Wireless Security.

The Bluetooth Stack.

16. Evaluating Spectrum and Site: Every 20 Years.

The Site: Wireless Business Models.

What Is a Wireless Business?

The Value of Wireless Content.

World Spectrum.

The Power of Your Network.9

Current U.S. Spectrum.

PCS Bands.

Filling the Spectrum with CDMA.

The 3G Wireless Internet.

UMTS and IMT-2000.

3G Spectrum Auctions.

The U.S. Allocation of 3G Spectrum.

3G Spectrum Europe.

The Five 3G Air Interfaces.

3G Harmonization.

TDD Coalition.

“4G,” New Spectrum, and Emerging Wireless Air Interfaces.

IPMA @irPointer (20 Mbps) and SDMA I-BURST 40 Mbps).

W-OFDM (32 Mbps to 155 Mbps).

LAN Wireless Data Rates (56 Mbps to 100 Mbps).

MMDS Fixed Wireless (5 Mbps to 36 Mbps).

LMDS Fixed Wireless (155 Mbps).

Ultra Wideband (1 Gbps).

Fixed Wireless.

Other High-Frequency Wireless Technologies (155 Mbps to 10 Gbps).

17. Planning Towers and Network as a Structure: Every 10 Years.

Putting up Towers.

Deploying Fixed Wireless Access Towers.

Deploying LAN and PAN Towers.

Moveable Access Points.

Understanding Cellular Networks.

Reaching Subscribers.

Coverage Maps.

Planning Data Network Architecture.

Worldwide Wireless Data Migration.

Examining Qualities of Cellular Networks.

Network Storage for the Wireless Internet.

Using Satellites.

GEO (35,785 km).

MEO (10,000 km).

LEO (1,000 km).

Anticipating Location-Based Network Features.

The E911 Mandate.

GPS, LBS, and MPS, ANI Technology.

Location with LAN and PAN.

Messaging Networks and Protocols.

The Future of SMS.

18. Building Servers and Matching Client Applications: Every 5 Years.

Rebuilding Your Web Site

Architectural Reconstruction.

Understanding Server Architecture.

Supporting Multiple Devices and Networks.

Specifying Server and Gateway Architecture.

Wireless Publishing Framework.

Device Detection and Content Service.

Implementing Wireless Application Servers.

Using XSL or DOM for Presentation.

Application Server Manipulation of a Wireless DOM.

Wireless Server Configuration for MIME Types.

Wireless Middleware for Large Systems.

Serving International Languages Locally.

Heavy-Duty Application Servers.

Personalization Engines.

Planning XML Architecture for Content.

XML Data Portability and Exchange.

Rethinking the Wireless Client/Server Relationship.

City Guides as Models.

Bluetooth Servers.

19. Working with Devices as Skins: Every 2 Years.

Six-Family Programming Model.

The Changing Device Landscape.

Commercial and Industrial Devices.

Industrial Handhelds.

Handset and Handheld Design Excellence.

Reprogrammable Devices.

The Revolution in 3G Chips.

Communication Software in Wireless Devices.

20. Making Content, Defining Space: Every Season, Every Month, Every Week.

The Value of Wireless Content.

Leveraging Feedback and Creating Mobile User Identity.

Gauging the Frequency of Wireless Publishing.

Radio Publishing Model.

Operating the Cycles of Content.

Wireless Internet Content as Media.

Qualities of Wireless Internet Content.

Designing a Content System.

Selecting Content Tools.

Using Databases.

Studying Newspaper Systems.

Content Management Engines.

Creating Self-Maintaining Content Systems.

21. Allowing Personal Stuff: Every Day, Every Moment.

Building a Mobile Architecture.

Keeping Content Alive.

New Sources of Content.

Building Networks for Mobile People.

People Relate to Content.

Demographics, Profiles, Personas, Identities.

The Active Experience in the User Interface.

Wireless Notation and Tools.

Wireless Activity Diagrams in Development.

Studying Users in Motion.

Measuring Interfaces.

Putting the Internet in Motion with Live Sources.

Anticipating the Personal Value of Networks.

Increasing Awareness to Facilitate Participation.

Personalizing the World.

Personalization Engines and Agents.

22. The Future of Wireless Technology.

The Future of World Spectrum.

The Internet of the Future.

Internet Ipv.

Universal Messages.

The Wireless Internet and Open Source.

The Open Source Internet.

Qualities of Open Source.

Wireless Open Source Technology.

Open Content.

Transcoding the Scalable Signal.

True Source.

Communicating Devices.

Universal Spectrum, Ultrafast Data, and All-Optical Networks.

Appendices: Wireless Internet Resources.

Appendix A. Codes and Conventions.

ASCII Text for WAP and i-mode.

Soundex for Gisting.



International Morse Code.

Bits, Hertz, and Prefixes of Magnitude.

Working Frequency Standards.

FCC Spectrum Allocation.

Appendix B. Research and Standards.

Wireless Research.

Standards Bodies.

Appendix C. Wireless Companies.

Wireless Client Companies.

Wireless Server Companies.

Wireless Middleware Companies.

Appendix D. Further Reading.

Books and Periodicals.

White Papers and Reports.

Articles on the Web

Developer Resources.

Appendix E. Endnotes.Index and Glossary. 0201733544T12042001


Living the Wireless Life

Building wireless applications for businesses and consumers is as challenging for me today as it was in the early 1990s. Today's challenge: Given a miniature device, microscreen, and low data-transmission rate, figure out how to deliver interesting and useful mobile applications. This means being a detective to discover the identity of the mobile person. It also means living the wireless mobile life, with all its devices. These are the vital parts of the ongoing stories wireless developers get to tell.

There is a magic point in mobile wireless development when, as you are building, you find the medium of wireless. Often at that point, what you build no longer makes sense on the PC desktop. Using wireless handhelds, Web phones, pagers, voice portals, and radio-based appliances, you can provide personal services that no one on the Internet has ever seen. You create. You find purpose. Newfound purposes and new wireless content can challenge and change the way traditional "unmobile" businesses operate.

Your customers, and most people, already use the conventional Internet. But when they are mobile, with wireless Internet devices, they use a new breed of information and services. If you can tune in to how a mobile business works and see what a person on the go actually needs, then you will begin to understand why engineers are building innovative and powerful wireless applications.

When I speak with new engineers and wireless clients, I naturally start with devices and move on to wireless networks and applications. It seems that the less the audience knows, the more eager we become to teach. I am always tempted to fill them in on the advantages of CDMA, SMS, XML, i-mode, GPS, HDR, 802.11a . . . until at some point, I can see that my audience is lost. As Miles Davis once said, "If you understood what I said, you would be me." Everyone wants to know wireless technology, because people are ready to build the wireless Internet and would like to know all the rules. Yet, I have found that long speeches saturate any listener. A book is my way to slow down and give the reader the time to measure out what he or she wants to know. Upon reflection, that is how I learned the wireless Internet--over time, in successive overlays of wireless concepts gained from professionals and practice. I thought it best to produce this for you in the same way--as a progressive set of illustrations and explanations of the key ideas, experiences with mobile users, the thinking that goes into a wireless application, and source code learned from wireless projects worldwide. Each overlay helps form a better engineering practice, improves client communications, and helps you do your best work.

Our job is to make new things. To bring things into existence, there is no substitute for downloading wireless device emulators, writing code, hacking databases to mobilize them, and watching it all come together as a new wireless Internet service. This is a time when open source and wireless technology are restructuring the Internet. The world has become an exchange for wireless professionals who are fast at work and are willing to share knowledge.

Some of the best wireless applications may have been written years ago; others are yet to be. In anticipation of great future wireless technology, I summon many good years of lessons from the wireless industry and have tried to capture inspiration from the best, for I have worked with the best. My early years at General Magic, Sony, and Motorola were spent helping produce intriguing wireless consumer and business applications. As a result, this book offers knowledge from great engineers, masters in telecommunications, programmers of key applications, hackers of mobile content, designers of great interaction interfaces, and builders of smart wireless architectures. You will see why professional developers see that the wireless Internet, not the PC Internet, is already the primary access method in Japan and Europe, and is emerging in North America. Producers of wireless applications in the wireless hot spots of Tokyo, Taiwan, San Diego, and Finland talk about their mobile wireless applications, practices, essential principles, rules of thumb, and ideas.

My main goals are to help you understand key wireless ideas, speak the correct language, and make relevant wireless applications and architectures. The critical telecommunications and computer concepts will give you the edge to build current and next-generation wireless services. Some wireless technology may change, but basic concepts and principled thinking should remain the same and give you a solid footing.

As a project team learns a common language, it can rapidly build effective products to create the "houses" of the mobile wireless world. The mobile user is a visitor to the "wireless house." This book is written for those who will build that house.

−−  •−  •−• −•−  −•••  •  •−  ••−  •−••  ••  •  ••−

To decipher this, see the "International Morse Code" section in appendix A.

What This Book Covers

To make good, perhaps great, wireless Internet applications is our goal. To help you understand the technology of two industries equally well, this book tells the story of telecommunications and the Internet. If you are a software programmer, an experienced engineer, or an interested executive manager, this book explains and illustrates the key technologies in a uniform manner. It is for you, your team, or your interested clients who like being well informed. It shows how wireless applications on every major platform are developed, and it explains the central issues of wireless architecture. Perhaps you need to tell your boss about why you needed to buy this book.

Wireless Internet Applications and Architecture is comprehensive. It covers the core telecommunications and computer technologies and many wireless software techniques, applications, and architectural standards in one place. This book discusses wireless hardware, software, network, and new content from a neutral point of view; it is not wedded to one device or technology. If you are working on a wireless project, the information in this book can save time in the process because it lists the resources you will need and shows how experts solve the tough problems. It contains invaluable contributions from developers working on existing and emerging wireless technology, who shared some examples of their wireless applications. It explains the wireless XML, Java, and Web tools and content production techniques.

To get the big picture, we show wireless networks, the programming model for devices, and wireless Internet applications close up. Web cell phones, handhelds, pagers, voice portals, and Web PCs are examined in detail. This book dissects the new classes of mobile wireless applications for professionals and general consumers. Two special features of this book are the rare source code in Part II (industrial location-based algorithms fundamental to content and services) and the section "Rebuilding Your Web Site" in chapter 18, which explains how to transition your Web site to the wireless Internet.

This book appears at an interesting time, when the world's telephony and computer standards are converging to deliver a wireless digital carrier. It shows developers how to use the new portable communication devices to connect mobile users with purposeful wireless applications and personalized content that originates entirely from the Internet. The good news for developers is that wireless Internet development is largely an extension of familiar Web site engineering. Server engineers will learn the many new and changing standards and find out in detail the best ways to reach all the wireless targets. Mobile end users' requirements are new to many developers. This book teaches skills and techniques such as persona development to help you understand, discover, invent, and deliver a new personal technology that has already changed parts of the world.

Wireless Internet Applications and Architecture, an ideal companion for the single-platform development book, provides a full context for wireless development. This book covers essential aspects of popular wireless development environments and wireless servers. It is helpful in understanding embedded wireless systems, such as an in-car dashboard navigator, satellites, and other "closed" systems. The book takes a quick but important look at fixed wireless systems such as MMDS. The focus remains, however, on mobile systems that developers are programming today.

After you read this book, you should be able to explain wireless technology, be able to produce good wireless applications, and know what it takes to build servers and make long-term architectural decisions. This book also serves as a continuing wireless applications reference.

How This Book Is Organized

To help you understand, write, and build wireless applications, the book is divided into three parts. Essential wireless themes, however, are woven throughout.

Part I introduces the wireless Internet, language, and core concepts. In the first part, you are the general developer, learning the sometimes confusing language and technical issues of wireless computing and communication development. The part begins by describing the trends, forces, and organizations that are shaping the growth of the wireless Internet.

Part II shows how to create wireless applications and how to make them better. In the second part, you are the application developer, learning how to build great wireless applications. This part walks you through key applications for the Web phone, the handheld, the pager, and the voice portal. The chapters examine how to construct messaging, browsing, interactive, and voice portal applications by showing application code and examples of mobile content. Wireless projects are described fully with diagrams, examples, and source code. By building a few of these projects (this book looks at a series of them), your skills will mature and you will learn to make sound architectural decisions.

Part III examines the components of wireless architecture. In the third part, you are the architect, learning the principles of wireless architecture and how servers for multiple wireless devices are built. These chapters describe wireless standards and practices, as well as the effect wireless architectural elements have over time. This part of the book goes beyond wireless applications to provide a more comprehensive set of technical standards and useful reference materials that people throughout the computer and telecommunications business use. It has been organized sequentially from long-term to short-range issues for the architect who must make lasting decisions. Whereas Part II shows single wireless client applications, Part III looks at the back-end server and multiple-client solutions. It is for the software engineer who is looking to become an architect, to advance a relationship with senior design members, or to understand how to make significant development decisions for wireless applications and servers.

The appendices offer a broad range of resources. They contain references such as the FCC spectrum allocation and a "tip sheet" for looking up auctions or examining unallocated spectrum. There are some "retro" resources commonly used in wireless projects today. For example, ASCII is used in byte encoding for WAP; Morse code is used in messaging; and Soundex encoding is handy for wireless text messaging. The appendices also include information about wireless research, standards bodies, and companies, as well as lists of written resources in books, periodicals, papers, reports, and articles on the Web.

Although the content of this book is presented in three parts, each part contains important wireless concepts that developers tend to overlook, but that deserve discussion. Each theme is introduced as a subject, then applied, and finally deployed. For example, in Part I you discover wireless location-based applications. In Part II you see how to develop them with source code to key industrial algorithms. In Part III you can go on to understand GPS satellites, what the FCC docket says about E911 requirements and their Revision Order schedules to 2006 for handsets and networks, and the alternatives to consider. Another important theme is the uniqueness of the mobile audience, which is introduced in Part I. Part II shows how the audience can be characterized as personas. Part III continues with a wireless publishing model, personalization engines, and transcoding architectures to support real identities.



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California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020