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Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 16th Edition

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Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 16th Edition


  • Sorry, this book is no longer in print.
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  • Comprehensive, authoritative PC hardware coverage—Covers every PC component: processors, BIOS, memory, drives, optical storage, video, audio, USB, FireWire, power supplies, cases, and much more.
    • Gives students a single source for understanding all aspects of PC maintenance and troubleshooting.

  • Extensive troubleshooting index—Contains troubleshooting index pointing to solutions for over 250 common PC hardware problems.
    • Helps students rapidly solve the problems they are most likely to encounter.

  • Extensive technical reference on DVD-ROM—Contains an extensive technical reference with thousands of pages of content drawn from previous versions of the book.
    • Helps students troubleshoot problems with older, more failure-prone PCs.

  • Coverage of network and Internet connections—Covers LANs, modems, cable/DSL modems, performance issues, and more.
    • Gives students practical guidance for understanding and troubleshooting problems with networks and Internet connectivity.

  • Comprehensive PC technical glossary—Includes hundreds of definitions of the PC hardware terminology and acronyms students are most likely to encounter.
    • Gives students a single resource for understanding virtually all contemporary PC hardware terminology.


  • Copyright 2005
  • Edition: 16th
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-7897-3173-8
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-3173-9

Learn from the undisputed leading PC hardware teacher-World renowned PC hardware expert Scott Mueller. Scott has taught thousand in his weeklong seminars and millions through his books, videos and articles. Often his students refer to him with nicknames, such as "St.Scott" and claim that Upgrading and Repairing PCs has changed their lives.

This runaway best-selling PC hardware book of all-time is used by students, hobbyists, and PC professionals around the world. Upgrading and Repairing PCs is found on desks everywhere. Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 16th Edition includes hundreds of pages of new content, including an ALL NEW chapter on PC overclocking and hardware hacking. In this new chapter, Scott shows readers how to perform custom PC modifications, safely and within industry standard specifications, as well as how to pump up the performance of your PC.

For the third edition in a row, Scott has included a DVD--playable on both standalone DVD players and on DVD-ROMs--containing more than two hours of ALL NEW video shot, using an all new professional set design, lighting and a three-camera crew--including an overhead cam. The DVD also contains a searchable hard drive and vendor information, plus thousands of pages of legacy PC hardware coverage that can longer be included in the printed book, but that are invaluable to PC techs servicing older computers!


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Sample Content

Online Sample Chapters

PC Components, Features, and System Design

The Basics of PC Components, Features, and System Design

Table of Contents


    New in the 16th Edition.

    Book Objectives.

    Is This Book for You?

    Chapter-by-Chapter Breakdown.

    The 16th Edition DVD-ROM.


      Searchable Databases.

      Technical Reference.

      Upgrading and Repairing PCs Bookshelf.

    Scott’s Web Site—upgradingandrepairingpcs.com.

    A Personal Note.

1. Development of the PC.

    Computer History—Before Personal Computers.


      Mechanical Calculators.

      The First Mechanical Computer.

      Electronic Computers.

    Modern Computers.

      From Tubes to Transistors.

      Integrated Circuits.

      The First Microprocessor.

    History of the PC.

      Birth of the Personal Computer.

      The IBM Personal Computer.

      The PC Industry More Than 20 Years Later.

2. PC Components, Features, and System Design.

    What Is a PC?

      Who Controls PC Software?

      Who Controls PC Hardware?

      PC Design Guides.

    System Types.

    System Components.

3. Microprocessor Types and Specifications.

    Pre-PC Microprocessor History.

    Microprocessors from 1971 to the Present.

    Processor Specifications.

      Data I/O Bus.

      Address Bus.

      Internal Registers (Internal Data Bus).

      Processor Modes.

      Processor Speed Ratings.

      Processor Speeds and Markings Versus Motherboard Speed.

      Cyrix Processor Speeds.

      AMD Processor Speeds.


      Cache Memory.

      How Cache Works.

      Level 2 Cache.

    Processor Features.

      SMM (Power Management).

      Superscalar Execution.

      MMX Technology.

      SSE, SSE2, and SSE3.

      3DNow!, Enhanced 3DNow!, and Professional 3DNow!

      Dynamic Execution.

      Dual Independent Bus Architecture.

      Hyper-Threading Technology.

    Processor Manufacturing.

      Processor Re-marking.

      PGA Chip Packaging.

      Single Edge Contact and Single Edge Processor Packaging.

    Processor Socket and Slot Types.

      Zero Insertion Force.

      Socket 1.

      Socket 2.

      Socket 3.

      Socket 4.

      Socket 5.

      Socket 6.

      Socket 7 (and Super7).

      Socket 8.

      Socket 370 (PGA-370).

      Socket 423.

      Socket 478.

      Socket A (Socket 462).

      Socket 603.

      Socket 754.

      Socket 939 and 940.

      Socket T.

      Processor Slots.

    CPU Operating Voltages.

    Heat and Cooling Problems.

    Math Coprocessors (Floating-Point Units).

    Processor Bugs.

    Processor Update Feature.

    Processor Codenames.

    Intel-Compatible Processors (AMD and Cyrix).

      AMD Processors.


    P1 (086) First-Generation Processors.

      8088 and 8086 Processors.

      80186 and 80188 Processors.

      8087 Coprocessor.

    P2 (286) Second-Generation Processors.

      286 Processors.

      80287 Coprocessor.

    P3 (386) Third-Generation Processors.

      386 Processors.

      386DX Processors.

      386SX Processors.

      386SL Processors.

      80387 Coprocessor.

    P4 (486) Fourth-Generation Processors.

      486 Processors.

      486DX Processors.




      DX2/OverDrive and DX4 Processors.

      Pentium OverDrive for 486SX2 and DX2 Systems.

      AMD 486 (5x86).

      Cyrix/TI 486.

    P5 (586) Fifth-Generation Processors.

      Pentium Processors.

      First-Generation Pentium Processor.

      Second-Generation Pentium Processor.

      Pentium-MMX Processors.

      Pentium Defects.

      Testing for the FPU Bug.

      Power Management Bugs.

      Pentium Processor Models and Steppings.


    Intel P6 (686) Sixth-Generation Processors.

      Dynamic Execution.

      Dual Independent Bus.

      Other Sixth-Generation Improvements.

      Pentium Pro Processors.

      Pentium II Processors.


      Pentium III.

      Pentium II/III Xeon.

    Other Sixth-Generation Processors.

      NexGen Nx586.

      AMD-K6 Series.

      AMD Athlon, Duron, and Athlon XP.

      AMD Duron.

      AMD Athlon XP.

      Athlon MP.

      Cyrix/IBM 6x86 (M1) and 6x86MX (MII).

      VIA C3.

    Intel Pentium 4 (Seventh-Generation) Processors.

      Pentium 4 Extreme Edition.

      Memory Requirements.

      Power Supply Issues.

      Intel Processor Model Numbers.

      Beyond the Pentium 4.

    Eighth-Generation (64-Bit Register) Processors.

      Intel Itanium and Itanium 2.

      AMD Athlon 64 and 64 FX.

      AMD Opteron.

    Processor Upgrades.

      OverDrive Processors.

      Processor Benchmarks.

    Processor Troubleshooting Techniques.

4. Motherboards and Buses.

    Motherboard Form Factors.

      PC and XT.

      Full-Size AT.






      ITX and Mini-ITX.




      Proprietary Designs.

      Backplane Systems.

    Motherboard Components.

    Processor Sockets/Slots.


      Chipset Evolution.

      Intel Chipsets.

      AMD Athlon/Duron Chipsets.

      Traditional North/South Bridge Architecture.

      Hub Architecture.

      High-Speed North-South Bridge Connections.

      Intel’s Early 386/486 Chipsets.

    Fifth-Generation (P5 Pentium Class) Chipsets.

      Intel 430LX (Mercury).

      Intel 430NX (Neptune).

      Intel 430FX (Triton).

      Intel 430HX (Triton II).

      Intel 430VX (Triton III).

      Intel 430TX.

      Third-Party (Non-Intel) P5 Pentium Class Chipsets.

    Sixth-Generation (P6 Pentium Pro/II/III Class) Chipsets.

      Intel 450KX/GX (Orion Workstation/Server).

      Intel 440FX (Natoma).

      Intel 440LX.

      Intel 440EX.

      Intel 440BX.

      Intel 440ZX and 440ZX-66.

      Intel 440GX.

      Intel 450NX.

      Intel 810, 810E, and 810E2.

      Intel 815 Family.

      Intel 820 and 820E.

      Intel 840.

      Third-Party (Non-Intel) P6-Class Chipsets.

    Seventh-Generation (Pentium 4) Chipsets.

      Intel 850 Family.

      Intel 845 Family.

      Intel 865 Family.

      Intel 875P.

      Intel 915 Chipset Family.

      Intel 925X Chipset.

    Third-Party Pentium 4 Chipsets.

      SiS Chipsets for Pentium 4.

      ALi Corporation Chipsets for Pentium 4.

      ATI Chipsets for Pentium 4.

      VIA Chipsets for Pentium 4.

    Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP Chipsets.

      AMD Chipsets for Athlon/Duron Processors.

      VIA Chipsets for Athlon, Duron, and Athlon XP.

      ProSavage KM133.

      Silicon Integrated Systems Chipsets for AMD Athlon/Duron Processors.

      ALiMagik1 for AMD Athlon/Duron Systems.

      NVIDIA nForce Chipsets for Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP.

      ATI Radeon IGP Chipsets for Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP.

    Intel Workstation Chipsets for Pentium 4 and Xeon.

      Intel 860.

      Intel E7205.

      Intel E7505.

    Chipsets for Athlon 64.

      AMD 8000 (8151) Chipset.

      ALi Chipsets for Athlon 64.

      VIA Technologies Chipsets for Athlon 64.




    Super I/O Chips.

      Motherboard CMOS RAM Addresses.

    Motherboard Connectors.

    System Bus Types, Functions, and Features.

      The Processor Bus (Front-Side Bus).

      The Memory Bus.

      The Need for Expansion Slots.

    Types of I/O Buses.

      The ISA Bus.

      The Micro Channel Bus.

      The EISA Bus.

      Local Buses.

      VESA Local Bus.

      The PCI Bus.


      Accelerated Graphics Port.

    System Resources.


      DMA Channels.

      I/O Port Addresses.

    Resolving Resource Conflicts.

      Resolving Conflicts Manually.

      Using a System-Configuration Template.

      Heading Off Problems: Special Boards.

      Plug-and-Play Systems.

    Motherboard Selection Criteria (Knowing What to Look For).


      Using Correct Speed-Rated Parts.

5. BIOS.

    BIOS Basics.

    BIOS Hardware/Software.

    Motherboard BIOS.

      ROM Hardware 

      ROM Shadowing.

      ROM Chip Types.

      ROM BIOS Manufacturers.

    Upgrading the BIOS.

      Where to Get Your BIOS Update.

      Determining Your BIOS Version.

      Checking the BIOS Date.

      Backing Up Your BIOS’s CMOS Settings.

      Motherboard CMOS RAM Addresses.

      Replacing a BIOS ROM.

      Year 2000 BIOS Issues.

    Preboot Environment.

    CMOS Setup Specifications.

      Running or Accessing the CMOS Setup Program.

      BIOS Setup Menus.

      Maintenance Menu.

      Main Menu.

      Advanced Menu.

      Security Menu.

      Power Menu.

      Boot Menu (Boot Sequence, Order).

      Exit Menu.

      Additional BIOS Setup Features.

    Plug and Play BIOS.

      PnP Device IDs.


      Initializing a PnP Device.

    BIOS Error Messages.

      General BIOS Boot Text Error Messages.

      ROM BIOS Messages Indicating Boot Failure (No Valid MBR Found) 

6. Memory.

    Memory Basics.



      Cache Memory: SRAM.

    RAM Types.

      Fast Page Mode DRAM.

      Extended Data Out RAM.


      DDR SDRAM.

      DDR2 SDRAM.


    Memory Modules.

      SIMMs, DIMMs, and RIMMs.

      SIMM Pinouts.

      DIMM Pinouts.

      DDR DIMM Pinouts.

      DDR2 DIMM Pinouts.

      RIMM Pinouts.

      Physical RAM Capacity and Organization.

      Memory Banks.

      Memory Module Speed.

      Gold Versus Tin.

      Parity and ECC.

    Installing RAM Upgrades.

      Upgrade Options and Strategies.

      Selecting and Installing Memory.

    Troubleshooting Memory.

      Memory Defect Isolation Procedures.

    The System Logical Memory Layout.

      Conventional (Base) Memory.

      Upper Memory Area.

      Extended Memory.

      Preventing ROM BIOS Memory Conflicts and Overlap.

      ROM Shadowing.

      Total Installed Memory Versus Total Usable Memory.

      Adapter Memory Configuration and Optimization.

7. The ATA/IDE Interface.

    An Overview of the IDE Interface.

      Precursors to IDE.

      IDE Origins.

      IDE Variations.

      Origins of ATA.

    ATA Standards.

      ATA-1 (AT Attachment Interface for Disk Drives).

      ATA-2 (AT Attachment Interface with Extensions-2).

      ATA-3 (AT Attachment Interface-3).

      ATA/ATAPI-4 (AT Attachment with Packet Interface Extension-4).

      ATA/ATAPI-5 (AT Attachment with Packet Interface-5).

      ATA/ATAPI-6 (AT Attachment with Packet Interface-6).

      ATA/ATAPI-7 (AT Attachment with Packet Interface-7).


    Parallel ATA.

      Parallel ATA I/O Connector.

      Parallel ATA I/O Cable.

      Longer or Rounded Cables.

      Parallel ATA Signals.

      Parallel ATA Dual-Drive Configurations.

      Parallel ATA PIO Transfer Modes.

      Parallel ATA DMA Transfer Modes.

    Serial ATA.

      Serial ATA Cables and Connectors.

      Serial ATA Configuration.

      Serial ATA II.

      Advanced Host Controller Interface.

      Serial ATA Transfer Modes.

    ATA Features.

      ATA Commands.

      ATA Security Mode    

      Host Protected Area.

      ATA Packet Interface.

    ATA Drive Capacity Limitations.

      Prefixes for Decimal and Binary Multiples.

      BIOS Limitations.

      CHS Versus LBA.

      CHS/LBA and LBA/CHS Conversions.

      BIOS Commands Versus ATA Commands.

      CHS Limitations (the 528MB Barrier).

      CHS Translation (Breaking the 528MB Barrier).

      The 2.1GB Barrier.

      The 4.2GB Barrier.

      LBA-Assist Translation.

      The 8.4GB Barrier.

      The 137GB Barrier and Beyond.

      Operating System and Other Software Limitations.


8. The SCSI Interface.

    Small Computer System Interface.

      SCSI Versus ATA.

      SCSI Hard Disk Evolution and Construction.

    ANSI SCSI Standards.




      SPI or Ultra SCSI.

      SPI-2 or Ultra2 SCSI.

      SPI-3 or Ultra3 SCSI (Ultra160).

      SPI-4 or Ultra4 SCSI (Ultra320).

      SPI-5 or Ultra5 SCSI (Ultra640).

      Serial Attached SCSI.

      RAID Arrays.

      Fibre Channel SCSI.


    SCSI Cables and Connectors.

    Parallel SCSI Cable and Connector Pinouts.

      Single-Ended SCSI Cables and Connectors.

      High-Voltage Differential SCSI Signals.



    SCSI Drive Configuration.

      Start on Command (Delayed Start).

      SCSI Parity.

      Terminator Power.

      SCSI Synchronous Negotiation.

    Plug and Play SCSI.

    SCSI Configuration Troubleshooting.

    SCSI Versus ATA Performance: Advantages and Limitations.

    Recommended SCSI Host Adapters, Cables, and Terminators.

9. Magnetic Storage Principles.

    Magnetic Storage.

    History of Magnetic Storage.

    How Magnetic Fields Are Used to Store Data.

    Read/Write Head Designs.



      Thin Film.

      Magneto-Resistive Heads.

      Giant Magneto-Resistive Heads.


    Head Sliders.

    Data Encoding Schemes.

      FM Encoding.

      MFM Encoding.

      RLL Encoding.

    Encoding Scheme Comparisons.

    Partial-Response, Maximum-Likelihood Decoders.

    Capacity Measurements.

    Areal Density.

      Increasing Areal Density with Pixie Dust.

10. Hard Disk Storage.

    Definition of a Hard Disk.

    Hard Drive Advancements.

    Hard Disk Drive Operation.

      The Ultimate Hard Disk Drive Analogy.

      Tracks and Sectors.

      Disk Formatting.

    Basic Hard Disk Drive Components.

      Hard Disk Platters (Disks).

      Recording Media.

      Read/Write Heads.

      Head Actuator Mechanisms.

      Air Filters.

      Hard Disk Temperature Acclimation.

      Spindle Motors.

      Logic Boards.

      Cables and Connectors.

      Configuration Items.

      The Faceplate or Bezel.

    Hard Disk Features.





11. Floppy Disk Storage.

    Floppy Storage Basics.

    Floppy Drive Interfaces.

    Drive Components.

      Read/Write Heads.

      The Head Actuator.

      The Spindle Motor.

      Circuit Boards.

      The Controller.

      The Faceplate.


      The Floppy Disk Controller Cable.

    Disk Physical Specifications and Operation.

      How the Operating System Uses a Disk.


      Clusters or Allocation Units.

      Disk Change.

    Types of Floppy Disk Drives.

      1.44MB 3 1/2'' Drives.

      Other Floppy Drive Types.

    Analyzing 3 1/2'' Floppy Disk Construction.

      Floppy Disk Media Types and Specifications.

      Caring for and Handling Floppy Disks and Drives.

      Airport X-Ray Machines and Metal Detectors.

    Drive Installation Procedures.

    Troubleshooting Floppy Drives.

12. High-Capacity Removable Storage.

    The Role of Removable Media Drives.

      Extra Storage.

      Backing Up Your Data.

    Comparing Disk, Tape, and Flash Memory Technologies 

      Magnetic Disk Media.

      Magnetic Tape Media.

      Flash Memory Media.

    Interfaces for Removable Media Drives.

    Overview of Removable Magnetic Storage Devices.

      Iomega Zip.

      SuperDisk LS-120 and LS-240.

    Hard-Disk-Size Removable-Media Drives.

    ”Orphan” Removable-Media Drives.

    Magneto-Optical Drives.

      Magneto-Optical Technology.

      Comparing MO to “Pure” Magnetic Media.

      Key Factors in Selecting a Removable Drive.

    Flash Memory Devices.

      How Flash Memory Works.

      Types of Flash Memory Devices.

      Moving Data in Flash Memory Devices to Your Computer.

    Microdrive Technology.

    Tape Drives.

      Hard-Disk-Based Alternatives to Tape Backup.

      Disadvantages of Tape Backup Drives.

      Advantages to Tape Backup Drives.

      Common Tape Backup Standards.

      Comparing Tape Backup Technologies.

      Choosing a Tape Backup Drive.

      Tape Drive Installation.

      Tape Drive Backup Software.

      Tape Drive Troubleshooting.

      Tape Retensioning.

13. Optical Storage.

    Optical Technology.

    CD-Based Optical Technology.

      CDs: A Brief History.

      CD-ROM Construction and Technology.

      Caring for Optical Media.


      DVD History.

      DVD Construction and Technology.

      DVD Tracks and Sectors.

      Handling Errors.

      DVD Capacity (Sides and Layers).

      Data Encoding on the Disc.

    Blu-ray Disc.


    Optical Disc Formats.     

      Compact Disc and Drive Formats.

      CD-ROM File Systems.

      DVD Formats and Standards.

      DVD Copy Protection.

    CD/DVD Read-Only Drives and Specifications.

      Performance Specifications.


      Loading Mechanism.

      Other Drive Features.

    Writable CDs.



      MultiRead Specifications.

      How to Reliably Record CDs.

      Recording Software.

      Digital Audio Extraction.

      ”For Music Use Only” CD-R/RW discs.

      CD Copy Protection.

    Recordable DVD Standards.





      Multiformat Rewritable Drives.

    CD/DVD Drive and Software Installation and Support.

    Booting from a Floppy Disk with CD/DVD Drive Support.

      Bootable CDs and DVDs—El Torito.

      Creating a Rescue CD.

      Making a Bootable CD/DVD for Emergencies.

    Troubleshooting Optical Drives.

      Updating the Firmware in a CD-RW or Rewritable DVD Drive.

14. Physical Drive Installation and Configuration.

    Installing All Types of Drives.

    Hard Disk Installation Procedures.

      Drive Configuration.

      Host Adapter Configuration.

      Physical Installation.

      System Configuration.


      Low-Level Formatting.

      Drive Partitioning.

      High-Level (Operating System) Formatting.

       FDISK and FORMAT Limitations.

    Replacing an Existing Drive.

      Drive Migration for MS-DOS Users.

      Drive Migration for Windows 9x/Me Users.

    Hard Disk Drive Troubleshooting and Repair.

      Testing a Drive.

    Installing an Optical Drive.

      Avoiding Conflict: Get Your Cards in Order.

      Drive Configuration.

      External (SCSI) Drive Hookup.

      Internal Drive Installation.

      Ribbon Cable and Card Edge Connector.

      SCSI Chains: Internal, External, or Both.

    Floppy Drive Installation Procedures.

15. Video Hardware.

    Video Display Technologies.

      How CRT Display Technology Works.

      DVI—Digital Signals for CRT Monitors.

      LCD Panels.

      LCD and DLP Projectors.

      Plasma Displays.

      Video Adapter Types.

    Monitor Selection Criteria.

      The Right Size.


      Dot Pitch (CRTs).

      Image Brightness and Contrast (LCD Panels).

      Interlaced Versus Noninterlaced.

      Energy and Safety.



      Testing a Display.

    Maintaining Your Monitor.

    Video Display Adapters.

      Obsolete Display Adapters.

      Current Display Adapters.

      Super VGA.

      VESA SVGA Standards.

      Integrated Video/Motherboard Chipsets.

      Video Adapter Components.

      Identifying the Video and System Chipsets.

      Video RAM.

      The Digital-to-Analog Converter.

      The Bus.

      The Video Driver.

      Multiple Monitors.

    3D Graphics Accelerators.

      How 3D Accelerators Work.

      Common 3D Techniques.

      Advanced 3D Techniques.

      Application Programming Interfaces.

      3D Chipsets.

    Upgrading or Replacing Your Video Card.

      TV Tuner and Video Capture Upgrades.

      Warranty and Support.

      Comparing Video Cards with the Same Chipset.

    Video Cards for Multimedia.

      Video Feature Connectors.

      Video Output Devices.

      Video Capture Devices.

      Desktop Video Boards.

    Adapter and Display Troubleshooting.

      Troubleshooting Monitors.

      Troubleshooting Video Cards and Drivers.

16. Audio Hardware.

    Early PC Audio Adapters.

      Limitations of Sound Blaster Pro Compatibility.

      DirectX and Audio Adapters.

    PC Multimedia History.

    Audio Adapter Features.

      Basic Connectors.

      Connectors for Advanced Features.

      Volume Control.

      MIDI Support Features.

      Data Compression.

      Multipurpose Digital Signal Processors.

      Sound Drivers.

    Choosing the Best Audio Adapter for Your Needs.


      DVD Movies on Your Desktop.

      Voice Dictation and Control.

      Sound Producers.

    Playing and Creating Digitized Sound Files.

    Audio Adapter Concepts and Terms.

      The Nature of Sound.

      Evaluating the Quality of Your Audio Adapter.


    Who’s Who in Audio.

      Chipset Makers Who Make Their Own Audio Adapters.

      Major Sound Chip Makers.

      Motherboard Chipsets with Integrated Audio.

      AOpen TubeSound.

    3D Audio.

      Positional Audio.

      3D Audio Processing.

      DirectX Support Issues.

      Installing the Sound Card.

      Connecting PC Speakers and Completing the Installation.

      Using Your Stereo Instead of Speakers.

     Troubleshooting Sound Card Problems.

       Hardware (Resource) Conflicts.

      Other Sound Card and Onboard Audio Problems.


       Theater and Surround Sound Considerations.


17. I/O Interfaces from Serial and Parallel to IEEE 1394 and USB.

    Introduction to Input/Output Ports.

     USB and IEEE 1394 (i.LINK or FireWire).

       Why Serial?

       Universal Serial Bus.

       IEEE 1394.

      Comparing IEEE 1394 and USB.

     Standard Serial and Parallel Ports.

     Serial Ports.

      Typical Locations for Serial Ports.


      High-Speed Serial Port Cards.

      Onboard Serial Ports.

       Serial Port Configuration.

       Testing Serial Ports.

     Parallel Ports.

       IEEE 1284 Parallel Port Standard.

       Upgrading to EPP/ECP Parallel Ports.

       Parallel Port Configuration.

       Linking Systems with Serial or Parallel Ports.

       Parallel-to-SCSI Converters.

       Testing Parallel Ports.

18. Input Devices.


      Enhanced 101-Key (or 102-Key) Keyboard.

      104-Key (Windows 9x/Me/2000/XP) Keyboard.

      USB Keyboards.

      Notebook Computer Keyboards.

      Num Lock.

    Keyboard Technology.

      Keyswitch Design.

      The Keyboard Interface.

      Typematic Functions.

       Keyboard Key Numbers and Scan Codes.

       International Keyboard Layouts.

       Keyboard/Mouse Interface Connectors.

       Keyboards with Special Features.

      Keyboard Troubleshooting and Repair.

       Keyboard Disassembly.

      Cleaning a Keyboard.

     Keyboard Recommendations.

     Pointing Devices.

        Ball-Type Mice.

        Optical Mice.

         Pointing Device Interface Types.

         Mouse Troubleshooting.

         Scroll Wheels.

        TrackPoint II/III/IV.

        Mouse and Pointing Stick Alternatives.


      3M’s Ergonomic Mouse.

     Input Devices for Gaming.

       Analog Joysticks and the Game Port.

       USB Ports for Gaming   

       Compatibility Concerns.

    Wireless Input Devices.

       How Wireless Input Devices Work.

       Wireless Pointing Device Issues.

      Troubleshooting Wireless Input Devices.

19. Internet Connectivity.

     Relating Internet and LAN Connectivity.

       Comparing Broadband and Dialup Modem Internet Access.

       Broadband Internet Access Types.

       High Speed = Less Freedom.

     Cable Modems and CATV Networks.

     Connecting to the Internet with a “Cable Modem”.

     The Cable Modem and the CATV Network.

       CATV Bandwidth.

       CATV Performance     

       CATV Internet Connection Security.

     Digital Subscriber Line.

      How DSL Works.

      Who Can Use DSL—and Who Can’t.

      Major Types of DSL.

      DSL Pricing.

      DSL Security Issues.

      Technical Problems with DSL.

    Fixed-Base Wireless Broadband.

    Internet Connectivity via Satellite with DirecWAY or StarBand.



        Real-world Satellite Performance.

    Integrated Services Digital Network.

      How Standard ISDN Works.

      Acquiring ISDN Service.

      ISDN Hardware.

    Comparing High-speed Internet Access.

      Having a Backup Plan in Case of Service Interruptions.

      Leased Lines.

      T-1 and T-3 Connections.

      Comparing Conventional High-speed Services.

    Securing Your Internet Connection.

    Asynchronous (Dialup) Modems.

    Modem Standards.

      Bits and Baud Rates.

      Modulation Standards.

      Error-Correction Protocols.

      Data-Compression Standards.

      Proprietary Standards.

      56Kbps Modems.

      56Kbps Limitations.

      Early 56Kbps Standards.

      Fax Modem Standards.

      Dialup Modem Recommendations.

    Sharing Your Internet Connection.

       Comparing Gateways, Proxy Servers, and Routers.

        Routers for Internet Sharing.

    Internet Troubleshooting.

      Diagnosing Problems with a Shared Internet Connection.

      Diagnosing Connection Problems with Signal Lights.

      Modem Fails to Dial.

      Computer Locks Up After Installing or Using Internal Modem, Terminal Adapter, or Network Card.

      Computer Can’t Detect External Modem.

      Using Your Modem Sound to Diagnose Your Modem.

20. Local Area Networking.

     Focus of This Chapter

     Defining a Network.

       Types of Networks.

       Requirements for a Network.

     Client/Server Versus Peer Networks.

       Client/Server Networks.

       Peer-to-Peer Network.

       Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks.

      Network Protocols Overview.


    Hardware Elements of Your Network.

      Network Interface Cards.

      Network Cables.

      Network Topologies.

      Hubs and Switches for Ethernet Networks.

    Network Cable Installations.

      Selecting the Proper Cable.

      Building Your Own Twisted-Pair Cables.

    Wireless Network Standards.

      Wi-Fi—A Standard Upon a Standard.

      802.11 Network Hardware.


      Wireless Network Logical Topologies.

    Network Protocols.

      IP and TCP/IP.



    Other Home Networking Solutions.


      Powerline Networking.

      Home Networking Compared to Ethernet UTP Solutions.

    Putting Your Network Together.

       Network Adapter.

       Cables and Connections Between Computers.

       Hub/Switch/Access Point.

       Gateways for Non-Ethernet Networks.

       Recording Information About Your Network.

       Installing Networking Software.

    Tips and Tricks.


      Sharing Resources.

      Setting Up Security.

      Sharing Internet Connections.

    Direct Cable Connections.

    Troubleshooting a Network.

       Network Software Setup.

       Networks in Use.


21. Power Supply and Chassis/Case.

     Considering the Importance of the Power Supply.

     Primary Function and Operation.

      Positive DC Voltages.

      Negative DC Voltages.

      The Power_Good Signal.

     Power Supply Form Factors.

      PC/XT Style.

      AT/Desk Style.

      AT/Tower Style.

      Baby-AT Style.

      LPX Style.

      ATX Style.

      NLX Style.

      SFX Style.

    Motherboard Power Connectors.

      AT Power Supply Connectors.

      ATX Main Power Connector.

      ATX Auxiliary Power Connector.

      ATX12V Connector.

      Dell Proprietary (Nonstandard) ATX Design.

      Power Switch Connectors.

     Peripheral Power Connectors.

      Peripheral and Floppy Drive Power Connectors.

      Physical Connector Part Numbers.

    Power Supply Specifications.

      Power Supply Loading.

      Power Supply Ratings.

      Other Power Supply Specifications.

      Power Factor Correction.

      Power Supply Safety Certifications.

    Power-Use Calculations.

    Power Cycling.

    Power Management.

       Energy Star Systems.

       Advanced Power Management.

       Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.

    Power Supply Troubleshooting 

      Overloaded Power Supplies.

      Inadequate Cooling.

      Using Digital Multimeters.

      Specialized Test Equipment.

    Repairing the Power Supply.

    Obtaining Replacement Units.

      Deciding on a Power Supply.

      Sources for Replacement Power Supplies.


      Custom Cases.

     Power-Protection Systems.

       Surge Suppressors (Protectors).

       Phone Line Surge Protectors.

       Line Conditioners.

       Backup Power.

    RTC/NVRAM (CMOS RAM) Batteries.

22.Building or Upgrading Systems.

    System Components.

       Case and Power Supply 



       Floppy Disk and Removable Drives.

       Hard Disk Drives.

       Optical Drives.

       Input Devices.

       Video Card and Display.

       Audio Hardware.


    Hardware and Software Resources.

    System Assembly and Disassembly.

       Assembly Preparation.

    Motherboard Installation.

       Installing the CPU and Heatsink.

       Installing Memory Modules.

       Mounting the New Motherboard in the Case.

       Connecting the Power Supply.

       Connecting I/O and Other Cables to the Motherboard.

       Installing the Drives.

       Removing the Existing Video Card (If Present).

       Installing the New Video Card and Driver Software.

       Installing Additional Expansion Cards.

       Replacing the Cover and Connecting External Cables.

       Running the Motherboard BIOS Setup Program (CMOS Setup).

    Troubleshooting New Installations.

    Installing the Operating System.

       Partitioning the Drive with DOS and Windows 9x and Me.

       Formatting the Drive with DOS and Windows 9x and Me.

       Preparing the Hard Drive with Windows 2000/XP.

       Loading the CD-ROM Driver.

       Installing Important Drivers.

     Disassembly/Upgrading Preparation.

23. Extreme Modifications: Overclocking, Cooling, and Chassis Upgrades.


       Quartz Crystals.

       Overclocking History.

       Modern PC Clocks.

       Overclocking Tips.

       Bus Speeds and Multipliers.



       Liquid Cooling.

       Thermally Advantaged Chassis.

     Front Panel I/O and Accessories.

       The FrontX System.

        Alternative Drive Bay Front-Panel Devices.

24. PC Diagnostics, Testing, and Maintenance.

      PC Diagnostics.

      Diagnostics Software.

       The Power On Self Test.

       Peripheral Diagnostics.

       General-Purpose Diagnostics Programs.

       Operating System Diagnostics.

      The Hardware Boot Process.

       The Boot Process: Operating System Independent.

       The DOS Boot Process.

       The Windows 9x/Me Boot Process.

       Windows NT/2000/XP Startup.

    PC Maintenance Tools.

       Hand Tools.


       A Word About Hardware.

       Test Equipment.

       Special Tools for the Enthusiast.

     Preventive Maintenance.

       Active Preventive Maintenance Procedures.

       Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures.

     Troubleshooting Tips and Techniques.

       Modern PCs—More Complicated and More Reliable.

       Industry-Standard Replaceable Components.

       Reinstall or Replace?

       Troubleshooting by Replacing Parts.

       Troubleshooting by the Bootstrap Approach.

       Problems During the POST.

       Hardware Problems After Booting.

       Problems Running Software.

       Problems with Adapter Cards.

       Top Troubleshooting Problems.

25. File Systems and Data Recovery.

     Boot Sectors.

       Master Boot Record.

       Primary and Extended Partitions.

       Volume Boot Records.

       The Data Area.

       Diagnostic Read-and-Write Cylinder.

    File Systems.

       Clusters (Allocation Units).

     File Allocation Table Types.



       VFAT and Long Filenames.


       File Allocation Table Tutorial.


       FAT File System Errors.


       NTFS Architecture.

       NTFS Compatibility.

       Creating NTFS Drives.

       NTFS Tools.

    High Performance File System.

    File System Utilities.

       The RECOVER Command.


       Disk Defragmentation.

       Third-Party Programs.

     Data Recovery.

       The Windows Recycle Bin and File Deletion.

       Recovering Files That Are Not in the Recycle Bin.

       Retrieving Data from Partitioned and Formatted Drives.

       Using the Norton Disk Editor.

       Data Recovery from Flash Memory Devices.

    Common Drive Error Messages and Solutions.

       Missing Operating System.


       Boot Error Press F1 to Retry.

       Invalid Drive Specification.

       Invalid Media Type.

       Hard Disk Controller Failure.

     General File System Troubleshooting for MS-DOS, Windows 9x, and Windows Me.

     General File System Troubleshooting for Windows 2000/XP.

Appendix A: Glossary.

Appendix B: Key Vendor Contact Information.

Appendix C: Troubleshooting Index.

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations.



Submit Errata

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