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Unified Modeling Language User Guide, The, 2nd Edition

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Unified Modeling Language User Guide, The, 2nd Edition


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  • Copyright 2005
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 496
  • Edition: 2nd
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-321-26797-4
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-321-26797-9

For nearly ten years, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has been the industry standard for visualizing, specifying, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of a software-intensive system. As the de facto standard modeling language, the UML facilitates communication and reduces confusion among project stakeholders. The recent standardization of UML 2.0 has further extended the language's scope and viability. Its inherent expressiveness allows users to model everything from enterprise information systems and distributed Web-based applications to real-time embedded systems.

In this eagerly anticipated revision of the best-selling and definitive guide to the use of the UML, the creators of the language provide a tutorial to its core aspects in a two-color format designed to facilitate learning. Starting with an overview of the UML, the book explains the language gradually by introducing a few concepts and notations in each chapter. It also illustrates the application of the UML to complex modeling problems across a variety of application domains. The in-depth coverage and example-driven approach that made the first edition of The Unified Modeling Language User Guide an indispensable resource remain unchanged. However, content has been thoroughly updated to reflect changes to notation and usage required by UML 2.0.

Highlights include:

  • A new chapter on components and internal structure, including significant new capabilities for building encapsulated designs
  • New details and updated coverage of provided and required interfaces, collaborations, and UML profiles
  • Additions and changes to discussions of sequence diagrams, activity diagrams, and more
  • Coverage of many other changes introduced by the UML 2.0 specification

With this essential guide, you will quickly get up to speed on the latest features of the industry standard modeling language and be able to apply them to your next software project.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Part 1: Getting Started 1

Chapter 1: Why We Model 3

The Importance of Modeling 4

Principles of Modeling 8

Object-Oriented Modeling 10

Chapter 2: Introducing the UML 13

An Overview of the UML 14

A Conceptual Model of the UML 17

Architecture 31

Software Development Life Cycle 33

Chapter 3: Hello, World! 37

Key Abstractions 38

Mechanisms 41

Artifacts 43

Part 2: Basic Structural Modeling 45

Chapter 4: Classes 47

Getting Started 47

Terms and Concepts 49

Common Modeling Techniques 54

Hints and Tips 59

Chapter 5: Relationships 61

Getting Started 62

Terms and Concepts 63

Common Modeling Techniques 69

Hints and Tips 74

Chapter 6: Common Mechanisms 75

Getting Started 76

Terms and Concepts 77

Common Modeling Techniques 84

Hints and Tips 88

Chapter 7: Diagrams 89

Getting Started 90

Terms and Concepts 91

Common Modeling Techniques 96

Hints and Tips 101

Chapter 8: Class Diagrams 103

Getting Started 103

Terms and Concepts 105

Common Modeling Techniques 106

Hints and Tips 113

Part 3: Advanced Structural Modeling 115

Chapter 9: Advanced Classes 117

Getting Started 117

Terms and Concepts 118

Common Modeling Techniques 130

Hints and Tips 131

Chapter 10: Advanced Relationships 133

Getting Started 134

Terms and Concepts 135

Common Modeling Techniques 148

Hints and Tips 149

Chapter 11: Interfaces, Types, and Roles 151

Getting Started 151

Terms and Concepts 153

Common Modeling Techniques 157

Hints and Tips 161

Chapter 12: Packages 163

Getting Started 164

Terms and Concepts 165

Common Modeling Techniques 170

Hints and Tips 174

Chapter 13: Instances 175

Getting Started 175

Terms and Concepts 176

Common Modeling Techniques 182

Hints and Tips 183

Chapter 14: Object Diagrams 185

Getting Started 185

Terms and Concepts 187

Common Modeling Techniques 188

Hints and Tips 191

Chapter 15: Components 193

Getting Started 193

Terms and Concepts 194

Common Modeling Techniques 203

Hints and Tips 205

Part 4: Basic Behavioral Modeling 207

Chapter 16: Interactions 209

Getting Started 210

Terms and Concepts 211

Common Modeling Techniques 221

Hints and Tips 222

Chapter 17: Use Cases 225

Getting Started 225

Terms and Concepts 228

Common Modeling Techniques 236

Hints and Tips 237

Chapter 18: Use Case Diagrams 239

Getting Started 239

Terms and Concepts 241

Common Modeling Techniques 242

Hints and Tips 248

Chapter 19: Interaction Diagrams 249

Getting Started 250

Terms and Concepts 251

Common Modeling Techniques 260

Hints and Tips 264

Chapter 20: Activity Diagrams 267

Getting Started 268

Terms and Concepts 269

Common Modeling Techniques 280

Hints and Tips 284

Part 5: Advanced Behavioral Modeling 285

Chapter 21: Events and Signals 287

Getting Started 287

Terms and Concepts 288

Common Modeling Techniques 293

Hints and Tips 296

Chapter 22: State Machines 297

Getting Started 298

Terms and Concepts 300

Common Modeling Techniques 315

Hints and Tips 318

Chapter 23: Processes and Threads 319

Getting Started 320

Terms and Concepts 321

Common Modeling Techniques 326

Hints and Tips 330

Chapter 24: Time and Space 331

Getting Started 331

Terms and Concepts 332

Common Modeling Techniques 335

Hints and Tips 338

Chapter 25: State Diagrams 339

Getting Started 340

Terms and Concepts 341

Common Modeling Techniques 343

Hints and Tips 347

Part 6: Architectural Modeling 349

Chapter 26: Artifacts 351

Getting Started 351

Terms and Concepts 352

Common Modeling Techniques 355

Hints and Tips 360

Chapter 27: Deployment 361

Getting Started 361

Terms and Concepts 362

Common Modeling Techniques 366

Hints and Tips 368

Chapter 28: Collaborations 369

Getting Started 369

Terms and Concepts 371

Common Modeling Techniques 376

Hints and Tips 382

Chapter 29: Patterns and Frameworks 383

Getting Started 383

Terms and Concepts 385

Common Modeling Techniques 389

Hints and Tips 394

Chapter 30: Artifact Diagrams 395

Getting Started 395

Terms and Concepts 396

Common Modeling Techniques 398

Hints and Tips 407

Chapter 31: Deployment Diagrams 409

Getting Started 409

Terms and Concepts 411

Common Modeling Techniques 413

Hints and Tips 419

Chapter 32: Systems and Models 421

Getting Started 421

Terms and Concepts 423

Common Modeling Techniques 426

Hints and Tips 428

Part 7: Wrapping Up 431

Chapter 33: Applying the UML 433

Transitioning to the UML 433

Where to Go Next 435

Appendix A: UML Notation 437

Appendix B: Rational Unified Process 443

Glossary 451

Index 463


Untitled Document

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a graphical language for visualizing, specifying, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of a software-intensive system. The UML gives you a standard way to write a system's blueprints, covering conceptual things such as business processes and system functions, as well as concrete things such as classes written in a specific programming language, database schemas, and reusable software components.

This book teaches you how to use the UML effectively.

This book covers UML version 2.0.


In this book, you will

  • Learn what the UML is, what it is not, and why the UML is relevant to the process of developing software-intensive systems.
  • Master the vocabulary, rules, and idioms of the UML and, in general, learn how to "speak" the language effectively.

Understand how to apply the UML to solve a number of common modeling problems.

The user guide provides a reference to the use of specific UML features. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive reference manual for the UML; that is the focus of another book, The Unified Modeling Language Reference Manual, Second Edition (Rumbaugh, Jacobson, Booch, Addison-Wesley, 2005).The user guide describes a development process for use with the UML. However, it is not intended to provide a complete reference to that process; that is the focus of yet another book, The Unified Software Development Process (Jacobson, Booch, Rumbaugh, Addison-Wesley, 1999).

Finally, this book provides hints and tips for using the UML to solve a number of common modeling problems, but it does not teach you how to model. This is similar to a user guide for a programming language that teaches you how to use the language but does not teach you how to program.


The UML is applicable to anyone involved in the production, deployment, and maintenance of software. The user guide is primarily directed to members of the development team who create UML models. However, it is also suitable to those who read them, working together to understand, build, test, and release a software-intensive system. Although this encompasses almost every role in a software development organization, the user guide is especially relevant to analysts and end users (who specify the required structure and behavior of a system), architects (who design systems that satisfy those requirements), developers (who turn those architectures into executable code), quality assurance personnel (who verify and validate the system's structure and behavior), librarians (who create and catalogue components), and project and program managers (who generally wrestle with chaos, provide leadership and direction, and orchestrate the resources necessary to deliver a successful system).

The user guide assumes a basic knowledge of object-oriented concepts. Experience in an object-oriented programming language or method is helpful but not required.

How to Use This Book

For the developer approaching the UML for the first time, the user guide is best read linearly. You should pay particular attention to Chapter 2, which presents a conceptual model of the UML. All chapters are structured so that each builds upon the content of the previous one, thus forming a linear progression.For the experienced developer seeking answers to common modeling problems using the UML, this book can be read in any order. You should pay particular attention to the common modeling problems presented in each chapter.

Organization and Special Features

The user guide is organized into seven parts:

  • Part 1Getting Started
  • Part 2Basic Structural Modeling
  • Part 3Advanced Structural Modeling
  • Part 4Basic Behavioral Modeling
  • Part 5Advanced Behavioral Modeling
  • Part 6Architectural Modeling
  • Part 7Wrapping Up

The user guide contains two appendices: a summary of the UML notation and a summary of the Rational Unified Process. A glossary of common terms is also provided. An index follows.

Each chapter addresses the use of a specific UML feature, and most are organized into the following four sections:

  1. Getting Started
  2. Terms and Concepts
  3. Common Modeling Techniques
  4. Hints and Tips

The third section introduces and then solves a set of common modeling problems. To make it easy for you to browse the guide in search of these use cases for the UML, each problem is identified by a distinct heading, as in the following example.

Modeling Architectural Patterns

Each chapter begins with a summary of the features it covers, as in the following example.

In this chapter

  • Active objects, processes, and threads
  • Modeling multiple flows of control
  • Modeling interprocess communication
  • Building thread-safe abstractions

Similarly, parenthetical comments and general guidance are set apart as notes, as in the following example.

Abstract operations map to what C++ calls pure virtual operations; leaf operations in the UML map to C++ nonvirtual operations.

The UML is semantically rich. Therefore, a presentation about one feature may naturally involve another. In such cases, cross references are provided in the left margin, as on this page.

Blue highlights are used in figures to indicate explanations about a model, as opposed to the model itself, which is always shown in black. Code is distinguished by displaying it in a monospace font, as in this example.

Acknowledgement. The authors wish to thank Bruce Douglass, Per Krol, and Joaquin Miller for their assistance in reviewing the manuscript of the second edition.

A Brief History of the UML

The first object-oriented language is generally acknowledged to be Simula-67, developed by Dahl and Nygaard in Norway in 1967. This language never had a large following, but its concepts were a major inspiration for later languages. Smalltalk became widely available in the early 1980s, followed by other object-oriented languages such as Objective C, C++, and Eiffel in the late 1980s. Object-oriented modeling languages appeared in the 1980s as methodologists, faced with a new genre of object-oriented programming languages and increasingly complex applications, began to experiment with alternative approaches to analysis and design. The number of object-oriented methods increased from fewer than 10 to more than 50 during the period between 1989 and 1994. Many users of these methods had trouble finding a modeling language that met their needs completely, thus fueling the so-called method wars. A few methods gained prominence, including Booch's method, Jacobson's OOSE (Object-Oriented Software Engineering), and Rumbaugh's OMT (Object Modeling Technique). Other important methods included Fusion, Shlaer-Mellor, and Coad-Yourdon. Each of these was a complete method, although each was recognized as having strengths and weaknesses. In simple terms, the Booch method was particularly expressive during the design and construction phases of projects; OOSE provided excellent support for use cases as a way to drive requirements capture, analysis, and high-level design; and OMT was most useful for analysis and data-intensive information systems.

A critical mass of ideas started to form by the mid 1990s when Grady Booch (Rational Software Corporation), James Rumbaugh (General Electric), Ivar Jacobson (Objectory), and others began to adopt ideas from each other's methods, which collectively were becoming recognized as the leading object-oriented methods worldwide. As the primary authors of the Booch, OMT, and OOSE methods, we were motivated to create a unified modeling language for three reasons. First, our methods were already evolving toward each other independently. It made sense to continue that evolution together rather than apart, eliminating the potential for any unnecessary and gratuitous differences that would further confuse users. Second, by unifying our methods, we could bring some stability to the object-oriented marketplace, allowing projects to settle on one mature modeling language and letting tool builders focus on delivering more useful features. Third, we expected that our collaboration would yield improvements for all three earlier methods, helping us to capture lessons learned and to address problems that none of our methods previously handled well.

As we began our unification, we established three goals for our work:

  1. To model systems, from concept to executable artifact, using object-
  2. oriented techniques
  3. To address the issues of scale inherent in complex, mission-critical systems
  4. To create a modeling language usable by both humans and machines

Devising a language for use in object-oriented analysis and design is not unlike designing a programming language. First, we had to constrain the problem: Should the language encompass requirements specification? Should the language be sufficient to permit visual programming? Second, we had to strike a balance between expressiveness and simplicity. Too simple a language would limit the breadth of problems that could be solved; too complex a language would overwhelm the mortal developer. In the case of unifying existing methods, we also had to be sensitive to the installed base. Make too many changes and we would confuse existing users; resist advancing the language and we would miss the opportunity to engage a much broader set of users and to make the language simpler. The UML definition strives to make the best trade-offs in each of these areas.

The UML effort started officially in October 1994 when Rumbaugh joined Booch at Rational. Our project's initial focus was the unification of the Booch and OMT methods. The version 0.8 draft of the Unified Method (as it was then called) was released in October 1995. Around the same time, Jacobson joined Rational and the scope of the UML project was expanded to incorporate OOSE. Our efforts resulted in the release of the UML version 0.9 documents in June 1996. Throughout 1996, we invited and received feedback from the general software engineering community. During this time, it also became clear that many software organizations saw the UML as strategic to their business. We established a UML consortium, with several organizations willing to dedicate resources to work toward a strong and complete UML definition. Those partners contributing to the UML 1.0 definition included Digital Equipment Corporation, Hewlett-Packard, I-Logix, Intellicorp, IBM, ICON Computing, MCI Systemhouse, Microsoft, Oracle, Rational, Texas Instruments, and Unisys. This collaboration resulted in the UML 1.0, a modeling language that was well-defined, expressive, powerful, and applicable to a wide spectrum of problem domains. Mary Loomis was instrumental in convincing the Object Management Group (OMG) to issue a request for proposals (RFP) for a standard modeling language. UML 1.0 was offered for standardization to the OMG in January 1997 in response to their RFP.

Between January 1997 and July 1997, the original group of partners was expanded to include virtually all of the other submitters and contributors of the original OMG response, including Andersen Consulting, Ericsson, ObjecTime Limited, Platinum Technology, PTech, Reich Technologies, Softeam, Sterling Software, and Taskon. A semantics task force was formed, led by Cris Kobryn of MCI Systemhouse and administered by Ed Eykholt of Rational, to formalize the UML specification and to integrate the UML with other standardization efforts. A revised version of the UML (version 1.1) was offered to the OMG for standardization in July 1997. In September 1997, this version was accepted by the OMG Analysis and Design Task Force (ADTF) and the OMG Architecture Board and then put up for vote by the entire OMG membership. UML 1.1 was adopted by the OMG on November 14, 1997.

For several years, UML was maintained by an OMG Revision Task Force, which produced versions 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5. From 2000 to 2003, a new and expanded set of partners produced an updated specification of UML, version 2.0. This version was reviewed for a year by a Finalization Task Force (FTF) headed by Bran Selic of IBM, and the official version of UML 2.0 was adopted by the OMG in early 2005. UML 2.0 is a major revision of UML 1 and includes a large number of additional features. In addition, many changes were made to previous constructs based on experience with the previous version. The actual UML specification documents are found on the OMG Website at www.omg.org.

UML is the work of a large number of individuals, and the ideas in it come from a wide range of previous works. It would be a major historical research project to reconstruct a complete list of sources, and even more difficult to identify the many predecessors who have influenced UML in manners large and small. As with all scientific research and engineering practice, UML is a small hill atop a large mountain of previous experience.


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