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SQL Performance Tuning

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Description

  • Copyright 2003
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 528
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-79169-2
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-79169-3

A poorly performing database application can cost each user time, and have an impact on other applications running on the same computer or the same network. This book will help DBA's and programmers improve the performance of their databases. It is not an introduction to SQL, nor is it a tuning manual for a particular SQL implementation. It is a guide for users and programmers who want to improve SQL performance no matter what brand of SQL they use. It will provide tuning tips for common situations, such as how to change a query so it will go faster and how to shift work from the server to the client. All the ideas have been tested against the eight leading DBMS applications. Almost all large organizations and companies today run more than one type of database. This is the only book to cover database tuning for them.

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SQL Performance Tuning: Simple "Searches"

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Table of Contents



Preface.

You Don't Know that Your DBMS Is Good….

You Know that Even Good Tools Work Better in Skilled Hands….



Acknowledgments.


1. Facilis Descensus Averni.

This Subject Is Important.

The Big Eight.

Installation Parameters.

Test Results.

Portability.

Terminology and Expectations.

Conventions.

Generalities.



2. Simple Searches.

General Tuning.

Code for Points.

Constant Propagation.

Dead Code Elimination.

Ensure You Use the Right DBMS.

Constant Folding.

Case-Insensitive Searches.

Sargability.

The Bottom Line: General Tuning.

Specific Tuning.

AND.

OR.

AND Plus OR.

NOT.

IN.

LIKE.

SIMILAR.

UNION.

EXCEPT.

INTERSECT.

CASE.

The Bottom Line: Specific Tuning.

Style Notes.

Parting Shots.



3. ORDER BY.

General Sort Considerations.

The ORDER BY Clause.

To Sort or Not to Sort.

The Bottom Line: General Sorts.

Character Sorts.

Character Sort Support.

Collations.

The Bottom Line: Character Sorts.

Other Options.

Sort Keys.

Encouraging Index Use.

Preordering.

The Bottom Line: Other Options.

Parting Shots.



4. GROUP BY.

Refresher.

Optimal GROUP BY Clauses.

HAVING.

Alternatives to GROUP BY.

The Bottom Line: Optimal GROUP BY Clauses.

Sorting.

Indexes.

The Bottom Line: Sorting.

Set Functions and Summary Aggregates.

COUNT.

SUM Trouble.

Multiple Aggregation Levels.

Expressions.

The Bottom Line: Aggregates.

Parting Shots.



5. Joins.

Join Plan Strategies.

Nested-Loop Joins.

Sort-Merge Joins.

Hash Joins.

Avoid the Join Strategies

Join Indexes.

Composite Tables.

The Bottom Line: Avoiding Joins.

Three-Way Joins and Beyond.

Old Style versus ANSI Style.

Outer Joins.

Parting Shots.



6. Subqueries.

Refresher.

Join versus Subquery.

Flattening.

The Bottom Line: Join versus Subquery.

Syntax Choices.

IN.

DISTINCT.

EXISTS.

IN or EXISTS?

Double INs.

TOP.

ALL.

Set Operations.

The Bottom Line: Syntax Choices.

Parting Shots.



7. Columns.

How Big Is the Size Factor?

Fixed or Variable?

The Bottom Line: The Size Factor.

Characters.

Length Specification.

Variant Character Sets.

The Bottom Line: Characters.

Temporals.

The Bottom Line: Temporals.

Numbers.

Integers.

Floats.

Decimals.

Serials.

The Bottom Line: Numbers.

Bits.

The Bottom Line: Bits.

Large Objects.

The Bottom Line: LOBs.

NULLs.

The Bottom Line: NULLs.

Column Order Within Rows.

The Bottom Line: Column Order.

Parting Shots.



8. Tables.

The Storage Hierarchy.

Pages.

Extents.

Files.

Partitions.

Tablespaces.

The Bottom Line: Storage Hierarchy.

Heaps.

ROWID.

Migration.

Fragmentation.

Free Page Space.

The Bottom Line: Heaps.

Clusters.

The Bottom Line: Clusters.

The Normal Forms.

Breaking Normalization Rules.

The Bottom Line: Normalization.

Views.

Bottom Line: Views.

Parting Shots.



9. Indexes.

Refresher.

B-trees.

Searching a B-tree.

Inserting into a B-tree.

Deleting from a B-tree.

Fragmentation.

Rebuilding a B-tree.

The Bottom Line: B-trees.

Types of Indexes.

Compound Indexes.

Covering Indexes.

Unique Indexes.

Clustered Indexes.

The Bottom Line: Types of Indexes.

Bitmap Indexes.

The Bottom Line: Bitmap Indexes.

Other Index Variations.

Index Key Values.

The Bottom Line: Index Key Values.

Parting Shots.



10. Constraints.

NOT NULL.

NULL Indicators.

The Bottom Line: NOT NULL Constraints.

CHECK.

The Bottom Line: CHECK Constraints.

FOREIGN KEY.

The Bottom Line: FOREIGN KEY Constraints.

PRIMARY KEY.

The Bottom Line: PRIMARY KEY Constraints.

UNIQUE.

The Bottom Line: UNIQUE Constraints.

Triggers.

The Bottom Line: Triggers.

Disabling Constraints.

Defer.

Disable.

Drop.

The Bottom Line: Disabling Constraints.

Client Validations.

The Bottom Line: Client Validations.

Redundant SELECT Clauses.

The Bottom Line: Redundant SELECTs.

Parting Shots.



11. Stored Procedures.

Refresher.

Determinism.

Advantages of Stored Procedures.

Less Traffic.

Semiprecompilation.

Parameters.

Other Tips.

The Bottom Line: Stored Procedures.

Parting Shots.



12. ODBC.

Refresher.

Tracing MS Query.

SQLPrepare.

The Bottom Line: SQLPrepare.

Fetch Loops.

The Bottom Line: Fetch Loops.

Data-Change Statements.

The Bottom Line: Data-Change Statements.

Catalog Functions.

The Bottom Line: Catalog Functions.

Parting Shots.



13. JDBC.

Connections.

Connection Pooling.

Connection Settings.

Connections and DBMS Info.

The Bottom Line: Connections.

Query Prepping.

Query Statement.

Query Syntax.

getBestRowIdentifier.

ResultSetMetaData.

Query Settings

The Bottom Line: Query Prepping.

Result Sets.

How Many Rows?

getXXX methods.

Close.

The Bottom Line: Result Sets.

Data Changes.

The Bottom Line: Data Changes.

Parting Shots.



14. Data Changes.

Logs.

The Bottom Line: Logs.

INSERT.

Bulk INSERT.

The Bottom Line: INSERT.

UPDATE.

Dependent UPDATE.

Batch UPDATE.

The Bottom Line: UPDATE.

DELETE.

The Bottom Line: DELETE.

Ugly Updates.

The Bottom Line: Ugly Updates.

FETCH and Data Changes.

The Bottom Line: FETCH and Data Changes.

COMMIT and ROLLBACK.

The Bottom Line: COMMIT and ROLLBACK.

Parting Shots.



15. Locks.

What Is a Lock?

Lock Modes.

Granularity.

Escalation.

Intent Locks.

The Bottom Line: Locks.

Isolation Levels.

Concurrency Problems and Isolation Levels.

READ UNCOMMITTED Transactions.

READ COMMITTED Transactions.

REPEATABLE READ Transactions.

SERIALIZABLE Transactions.

READ ONLY or FOR UPDATE.

Deadlocks.

The Bottom Line: Isolation Levels.

Index Locks.

The Bottom Line: Index Locks.

Hot Spots.

The Bottom Line: Hot Spots.

Optimistic Locking.

The Bottom Line: Optimistic Locking.

The Scan Trick.

Parting Shots.



16. Clients and Servers.

Middleware.

The Bottom Line: Middleware.

Server Processes and Threads.

System Processes/Threads.

Per-Client Processes/Threads.

Separateness and Parallelism.

The Bottom Line: Server Processes and Threads.

What Should the Client Do?

Client Model.

The Bottom Line: Client Tips.

Parting Shots.



17. Cost-Based Optimizers.

Cost.

Statistics and Histograms.

Analyzing Statistics.

EXPLAIN.

Hints.

Parting Shots.



Appendix A. Further Reading.


Appendix B. Glossary.


Index. 0201791692T08272002

Preface

A poorly performing database application can cost each user time, and have an impact on other applications running on the same computer or the same network.

The purpose of this book is to help you improve the performance of your SQL database. It is not an introduction to SQL syntax, not a tuning manual for a specific SQL implementation, and not a guide to design or data modelling. Instead, we've written it for users and programmers who want to improve SQL performance, no matter what brand of SQL they use. In this book, you'll find tuning tips for common situations. Topics that will give you the flavor include: "How to change a query so it will go faster", "What an index does", and "Shifting work from the server to the client."

Rather than exploiting the unique features of a single DBMS, we're going to give you ideas that are good for all of the major SQL DBMSs. Client/server programmers and consultants need to appreciate what can happen when the DBMS changes, or--the most challenging situation--the DBMS is unknown. So we tested all the ideas in this book on eight well-known DBMSs.

A good DBMS already contains a good optimizer. Yet you have picked up a book that promises to help you do your own tuning. That means that either you don't know something ... or you do know something:

  • You don't know that your DBMS is good.
  • You know that even good tools work better in skilled hands.
  • You don't know that your DBMS is good ...

    That would be true if you're a student, or new on the job. That would especially be true if you're writing queries or programs that should work on more than one DBMS. You're most likely to encounter one of the DBMSs with the largest market shares (based on figures for the year 2000):

    • Oracle 33.8%
    • IBM 30.1% (prior to acquisition of Informix)
    • Microsoft 14.9%
    • Sybase 3.2%
    • Informix 3.0%

    Data from: Gartner Dataquest (May 2001)

    You might also run into DBMSs that are popular for web work (like MySQL), for work with Borland products (like InterBase), for desktops (like Access), for mobile and Java interfacing (like Cloudscape), for embedded systems (like Solid), or a host of small fry (like mSQL and gadfly). This book tries to be useful for the common denominator in all products. To use automotive analogies, it's not a "mechanic's guide to tuning the 1999 Cadillac" book, it's a "driver's guide to optimizing performance of modern cars" book—even if you have a manual transmission.

    You know that even good tools work better in skilled hands ...

    Everybody has heard of sluggish SQL queries, or even whole systems, that some hero(ine) improved with small effort. Usually the improvement is small too, so we will avoid extravagant promises. But we will make you the following guarantees:

  • You will be able to follow our arguments without deep thinking or hard work. All we assume is that you have basic knowledge of programming and standard SQL syntax. In fact, you can read this book on a plane or at the beach.
  • All of our observations have been confirmed by tests on real DBMSs within the last several months.
  • We know that "optimizing" is very different from "over-clocking" and will only discuss safe, rational, relational techniques.
  • One accusation that could be levelled, and to which we plead guilty, is that some of our material is ad-hoc instead of general principles. Of course! There are only a few general principles in DBMS optimization:

  • First, do no harm. (Actually that's from Hippocrates' ancient manual on medical treatments. It applies to anybody fixing what ain't really broke.)
  • Get more memory, add indexes, re-cable the network. (If you can influence the environment like that, then do so.)
  • Design right in the first place.
  • Understand the query.
  • Instead of general principals, we will be looking at what can be done with what's likely to be at hand. If we descend sometimes to mere tips and warnings about traps, that's because we've seen over the years that examples of real situations can help people realize what the general rules are. As has often been observed, tips should be based on principles.

    The DBMSs that we looked at while preparing this book include IBM DB2, Informix, Ingres II, InterBase, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL, Oracle, and Sybase (MS-WindowsNT versions). Each was installed and tested using the default switches recommended in the vendors' instructions. To avoid favoring any vendor's idiosyncrasies, all SQL examples in this book are written in ANSI/ISO Standard SQL:1999. Host-language examples are written in C plus ODBC, or Java plus JDBC.

    Your DBMS is your pal. We won't counsel you to subvert it, be paranoid about it, or insult it by assuming it's stupid. Rather, as you would with a pal, you should try to get to know it better, and help it to help you.



    0201791692P05132002

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