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Software Project Management in Practice

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Software Project Management in Practice


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  • Copyright 2002
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 280
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-73721-3
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-73721-9

Delivering high-quality software on time and on budget: it can be done. Pankaj Jalote introduces a set of practices and principles that have been used to successfully execute hundreds of projects -- of all types and sizes. Software Project Management in Practice presents the complete set of processes employed -- and proven effective -- at one of the world's most successful software organizations, Infosys Technologies. These processes, grounded in common sense and supported by simple metrics, can systematically improve the planning and execution of any software project. Since these processes satisfy the requirements of CMM Level 5 -- the industry's most challenging software process standard -- this book's examples illuminate project management as performed by a highly mature development organization. For all project managers and software professionals who may be called upon to manage projects.

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Table of Contents


1. Managing Software Projects.

Processes and Project Management.

Project Management and the CMM.

Overview of the CMM.

KPAs for Project Management.

Project Management at Infosys.

Background: Infosys.

SEPG Support to Projects.

Senior Management Involvement in Projects.

Training for Project Managers.

The Project Management Process.

Overview of the ACIC Case Study.




2. The Project Planning Infrastructure.

The Process Database.

Contents of the PDB.

A Sample Entry.

The Process Capability Baseline.

Process Assets and the Body of Knowledge System.



3. Process Planning.

The Infosys Development Process.

The Standard Process.

Process Tailoring.

Example: Tailoring for Short-Duration Projects.

Requirement Change Management.

The Change Management Process.


Process Planning for the ACIC Project.



4. Effort Estimation and Scheduling.

Estimation and Scheduling Concepts.

Effort Estimation Models.

Estimating Schedule.

Effort Estimation.

The Bottom-up Estimation Approach.

The Top-Down Estimation Approach.

The Use Case Points Approach.

Effectiveness of the Overall Approach.

Effort Estimate of the ACIC Project.


Overall Scheduling.

The Effectiveness of the Approach.

Detailed Scheduling.

The Schedule of the ACIC Project.



5. Quality Planning.

Quality Concepts.

Procedural Approach to Quality Management.

Quantitative Approaches to Quality Management.

Quantitative Quality Management Planning.

Setting the Quality Goal.

Estimating Defects for Other Stages.

Quality Process Planning.

Defect Prevention Planning.

The Quality Plan of the ACIC Project.



6. Risk Management.

Concepts of Risks and Risk Management.

Risk Assessment.

Risk Identification.

Risk Prioritization.

Risk Control.

Risk Management Planning.

Risk Monitoring and Tracking.


The ACIC Project.

The XYZ Project.



7. Measurement and Tracking Planning.

Concepts in Measurement.

Metrics and Measurements.

Process Monitoring through Statistical Process Control.


Collecting Effort Data.

Logging and Tracking Defects.

Measuring Schedule.

Measuring Size.

Project Tracking.

The ACIC Measurement and Tracking Plan.



8. The Project Management Plan.

Team Management.

Team Structure.


Team Development.

Customer Communication and Issue Resolution.

The Structure of the Project Management Plan.

The ACIC Project Plan.


9. Configuration Management.

Concepts in Configuration Management.

The Configuration Management Process.

Planning and Setting Up Configuration Management.

Perform Configuration Control.

Status Monitoring and Audits.

The ACIC Configuration Management Plan.




10. Reviews.

The Review Process.


Overview and Preparation.

Group Review Meeting.

Rework and Follow-up.

One-Person Review.

Guidelines for Reviews in Projects.

Data Collection.

Self-Preparation Log.

Group Review Meeting Log.

Group Review Summary Report.

Monitoring and Control.

The Review Capability Baseline.

Analysis and Control Guidelines.

An Example.

Introduction of Reviews and the NAH Syndrome.

The Infosys Experiment.

Data from the Experiment.



11. Project Monitoring and Control.

Project Tracking.

Activities Tracking.

Defect Tracking.

Issues Tracking.

Status Reports.

Milestone Analysis.

Actual Versus Estimated Analysis of Effort and Schedule.

Monitoring Quality.

Risk-Related Monitoring.

Milestone Analysis for the ACIC Project.

Activity-Level Analysis Using SPC.

Defect Analysis and Prevention.

Performing Pareto Analysis.

Performing Causal Analysis.

Developing and Implementing Solutions.

DP in the ACIC Project.

Process Monitoring and Audit.

Conducting the Audit.

Follow-up Actions.



12. Project Closure.

Project Closure Analysis.

The Role of Closure Analysis.

Performing Closure Analysis.

Closure Analysis Report.

The ACIC Closure Analysis Report.



Index. 0201737213T01182002


The genesis of this book dates back to 1996. For my sabbatical, I joined Infosys as the head of quality, with the charter of improving the processes for project execution. Seeing the problems faced by project managers, I felt that software project management must be the toughest job on the planet. And I thought that delivering high-quality software within budget and on schedule must be an oxymoron.

The situation, I now realize, is not quite that hopeless. By using sound project management processes, project managers in some organizations are successfully executing projects.

Infosys, one such global organization, has successfully executed more than 500 projects last year alone. It has about 10,000 employees spread across 25 cities in more than a dozen countries around the globe, and it has been assessed at the highest maturity level (level 5) of the CMM™. Its revenues and profits have grown at about 75% per year for the past five years. The level of customer satisfaction can be judged by the fact that despite the company’s huge growth about 85% of its revenue comes from repeat orders from existing customers.

I have used my experience and knowledge of Infosys processes to cull out and describe in this book the key project management practices that have been used to successfully execute project after project. The beauty of these practices is that despite being highly effective, they are not complex; rather, they are grounded in common sense and are supported by simple measurements and analyses.

In describing project management processes at Infosys, the book offers a unique combination of two value propositions. First, it provides the complete set of processes employed for project management in a highly successful organization. The use of these processes is illustrated with real examples and a running case study. Second, because the processes satisfy the requirements of the Capability Maturity Model (CMM), this book demystifies the way projects are managed in a high-maturity organization, and it provides the benefits that the CMM offers to project management without the need of a detailed understanding of the CMM.

The book is written primarily for project managers and for professionals who plan to become project managers. By using the methods described in this book they can systematically improve the planning and execution of their projects. It can also be very useful for an organization that wants to reach a high maturity level. If project managers start using the methods described here, they will lay the foundations for high maturity in the organization.

Because most chapters begin with an overview before describing the details of the Infosys method, this book can also be used as a text in a software project management course. In a general software engineering course, it can serve as a supplementary text, providing a view of how a software project is managed in a business environment.

Chapter 1 contains a brief introduction to Infosys and the relationship of the CMM and project management. The remainder of the book is divided into two parts. Part I, consisting of Chapters 2 through 9, focuses on project planning and covers topics such as planning infrastructure, process planning, effort and schedule estimation, quality planning, risk management, measurement planning, and configuration management. Part II, consisting of Chapters 10 through 12, focuses on project execution and completion and covers reviews, project monitoring and control, and project closure.

To the extent possible, each chapter has been kept independent and stand-alone and has been organized as follows. The relevant concepts and background material are given in the first section, followed by a discussion of methods used by Infosys. Next come examples of the use of these methods in real projects and in the case study. Each chapter ends with a summary that lists the key takeaways from the chapter and describes which aspects of CMM are satisfied by the methods discussed in the chapter.

Although this book draws on my earlier book CMM in Practice (Addison-Wesley, 2000), it has a different focus and substantially different contents. Whereas CMM in Practice considers the entire software process and focuses on implementation of the CMM in an organization, this book focuses exclusively on project management.

Many people helped to make this book a reality. Because the book has its origins in CMM in Practice, my thanks to all the people who helped in that project. In addition, I would like to again express my gratitude to Infosys and its directors, whose cooperation and help made this book possible. My sincere thanks to members of the quality department at Infosys for providing information whenever needed, and to the many people who shared with me their experiences, which find their way into mini-cases throughout the book (although with the names changed). My special thanks to Naresh Agarwal for his help with the main case study, and to Sanjay Joshi for his help in bringing a sharper focus to the chapters. And finally, my thanks to my wife, Shikha, and my daughters, Sumedha and Sunanda, for bearing with me and my odd hours once again.

Any comments about the book, or any inaccuracies that might be present (which are entirely my responsibility), can be sent to me at jalote@iitk.ac.in. For information regarding Infosys, visit www.infy.com or send mail to public-relations@infy.com.




ACIC project

closure analysis report, 240-249

configuration management, audits, 163

configuration management, plan, 164-171

DP (defect prevention), 222-227

effort estimation, 61-65

measurements, 123

milestone analysis, 212-215

overview, 15-16

PMP (Project Management Plan), overview, 131-133

PMP, planning section, 136-145

PMP, summary section, 133-136

PMP, team section, 149-151

PMP, tracking section, 146-148

process planning, 46-48

project tracking, defects, 203-205

project tracking, issues log, 206

project tracking, status reports, 207

quality planning, 87-90

requirements change management, 44-45

risk management, 103-105

scheduling, 70-73

tracking planning, 123

Activities tracking, 120-121, 201

Activity codes, effort data, 114-115, 116-117

Activity-based analysis, SPC, 215-217

Activity-based estimation, 55


basics, 227-228

checklists, 228-229

configuration management, 163

follow-up actions, 229-232

noncompliance reports, 229-232


Body of knowledge. See BOK

BOK (body of knowledge), 32

Bottom-up model, effort estimation, 53, 55-56

Build effort, 55

ACIC project, 63

Business unit structure, Infosys customer service, 11-12


Capability Maturity Model. See CMM

Carnegie Mellon University’s Software Engineering Institute, CMM origin, 4

Case study. See ACIC project

Casual analysis

defect analysis and prevention, 218-221

defect analysis and prevention, ACE project, 221

project closure, 240

Cause-effect diagrams

defect analysis and prevention, 218-221

defect analysis and prevention, ACE project, 221

Change management

basics, 42-43

change logs, 46

process, 43-44

templates for output, 44-46

Closure analysis. See Project closure analysis

CM (configuration management)

ACIC project, audits, 163

ACIC project, plan, 164-171

audits, 163

configuration items, 158

controls, 160-162

functions, 155-156

functions, mechanisms for completion, 156-157

KPA goals, CMM repeatable level (2), 6, 8

objectives, 154-155

process, 157-158

project scenarios, 153-154

status monitoring, 162-163

CMM (Capability Maturity Model)

Infosys level 5 rating, 2

KPA goals, CMM defined level (3), 7-9

KPA goals, CMM managed level (4), 9-10

KPA goals, CMM optimized level (5), 9-10

KPA goals, CMM repeatable level (2), 7-8

maturity levels, 5-7

origin, 4-5

process capability, 5

process performance, 5

COCOMO model, effort estimation, 52-53, 57

Configuration management. See CM

Control charts, 112, 187, 216

Cost of quality, PCB, 27, 29

Cost of quality, ACIC project, 246


Data collection for reviews

group reviews, meeting logs, 184-185

group reviews, summary reports, 186

self-preparation logs, 184

DCS (defect control system), logging and tracking defects, 117-119


actual versus estimate, 121-123

delivered defect density, 78

density, reviews, 189, 190

detection distribution, 27, 29

detection distribution, reviews, 195

injection rates, 26, 29

life cycle, 117

logging, 115, 117-118

prediction, 81, 83-84

prevention (See DP)

project closure analysis, 239-240

quality monitoring, 210-211

quality planning, 80-81

removal efficiency (See DRE)

review data collection, 194

tracking, 120, 121, 201-202

tracking, ACIC project, 203-205

types and severity, 118-119

Defined level (3), CMM, 6-7

KPA goals, 7-9

Delivered quality, PCB, 26, 28

DP (defect prevention), 85-87

ACIC project, 90, 222-227

casual analysis, 218-221

cause-effect diagrams, 218-220

cause-effect diagrams, ACE project, 221

developing and implementing solutions, 221-222

Pareto analysis, 217-218

Pareto analysis, ACE project, 219

planning, 85

review analysis guidelines, 189-190

DRE (defect removal efficiency), 26, 29

project closure analysis, 239-240


Effort distribution, ACIC project, 65

Effort estimation, 51-52

ACIC project, 61-65

actual versus estimated, 121-123, 208-210

effectiveness, 60-61

models, bottom-up, 53, 55-56

models, COCOMO, 52-53, 57

models, top-down, 52-53, 57

models, using function points, 52

PCB, 26, 28

project closure analysis, 239

review data collection, 194

use case points approach, 58-60

use case points approach, ACIC project, 61-65

EFs (environment factors), 59-60

ACIC project, 64

Estimation approaches, effort, 51-52

actual versus estimation, 121-123, 208-210

effectiveness, 60-61

models, bottom-up, 53, 55-56

models, COCOMO, 52-53, 57

models, top-down, 52-53, 57

models, using function points, 52

project closure analysis, 239

review data collection, 194

use case points, 58-60

use case points, ACIC project, 61-65

Estimation approaches, scheduling, 51-52

ACIC project, 70-73

actual versus estimate, 121-123, 208-210

basics, 53-54

detailed scheduling, 68-70

effectiveness, 68

overall scheduling, 65-68

PCB, 26, 28


Fish-bone diagrams. See Cause-effect diagrams

Function points

conversion to LOC, 23, 25

effort estimation models, 52, 57

G - H

Group reviews

data collection, meeting logs, 184-185

data collection, summary reports, 186, 191-192

follow-up, 181

meetings, 180-181

planning phase, 179

preparation phase, 179-180

process, 178

work products to review, 182-183


IC (Intergroup Coordination), KPA goals, CMM defined level (3), 6, 9

Induction training programs, 13

Infosys project management

background, 10-11

processes, 13-15

senior management involvement, 12

SEPG support, 11-12

training, 12-13

Initial level (1), CMM, 6

Inspections. See Group reviews

Integrated project management. See IPM

Integrated Software Management. See ISM

Intergroup Coordination. See IC

IPM (integrated project management), KPA goals, CMM defined level (3), 12

ISM (Integrated Software Management), KPA goals, CMM defined level (3), 6, 9

Issues, tracking, 120, 121, 202

ACIC project, 206


Key process areas. See KPAs

KPAs (key process areas)

goals, CMM defined level (3), 7-9

goals, CMM managed level (4), 9-10

goals, CMM optimized level (5), 9-10

goals, CMM repeatable level (2), 7-8


LCL (lower control limits), SPC, 112

Lightweight processes, 4

Lines of code. See LOC

LOC (lines of code)

effort estimation models, 52, 57

PDB, 23, 25, 26

Lower control limits (LCL), SPC, 112


Managed level (4), CMM, 6-7

KPA goals, 9-10

Maturity levels, CMM

defined level (3), 6-7

defined level (3), KPA goals, 7-9

definition, 5

initial level (1), 6

managed level (


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