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SOA with REST Principles, Patterns & Constraints for Building Enterprise Solutions with REST (paperback)

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SOA with REST Principles, Patterns & Constraints for Building Enterprise Solutions with REST (paperback)


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  • Copyright 2013
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 624
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-476744-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-476744-4

“This book illuminates the connection of the two domains--SOA and REST--in a manner that is concrete and practical, providing concise application to everyday architectural challenges. Fantastic!”

--Ryan Frazier, Technology Strategist, Microsoft

“...a tour de force that elegantly applies REST principles to the industry-standard SOA framework described in prior titles in this series.... This book is a must-read for anyone developing REST services.”

--Dave Slotnick, Enterprise Architect, Rackspace Hosting

“This book undoubtedly will help SOA to reap the benefits from the main value propositions of Web architecture....”

--Dr. Erik Wilde, Architect, EMC Corporation

“REST is so much more than just another type of interface implementation--SOA with REST shows how the ecosystem of service compositions changes as new opportunities arise for service composition architecture designs. A comprehensive guide and a must-read for any serious IT architect considering REST-style services for application architectures.”

--Roger Stoffers, Solution Architect, Hewlett Packard

“Service-orientation and REST both are architectural styles that are cornerstones of modern applications and cloud computing. Both aim to deliver scalable, interoperable solutions, but their different roots don’t always make them a natural fit. SOA with REST explains how the two styles can work together in enterprise environments. It discusses a design process for a services portfolio that meets the goals of SOA and at the same time designs services that comply with the established REST constraints. It also shows pragmatic approaches to meet enterprise-grade requirements with the REST programming style but relaxes constraints where necessary.”

--Christoph Schittko, Director of Cloud Strategy, Microsoft

“An excellent repertoire of service-oriented patterns that will prove handy when solving problems in the real world. The REST perspectives and principles will provide complete coverage of modern-day Web 2.0 style approaches. Highly recommended.”

--Sid Sanyal, IT Architect, Zurich Financial Services

“An inspirational book that provides deep insight into the design and development of next-generation service-oriented systems based on the use of REST. This book clarifies the convergence of SOA and REST with no-nonsense content that addresses common questions and issues head-on. An essential ‘instrument of modern service implementation’ and a powerful body of knowledge for software designers, architects, and consultants.”

--Pethuru Raj, Ph.D., Enterprise Architecture (EA) Consultant, Wipro Consulting Services

“REST and SOA are two of the most misunderstood terms in the software industry over the past decade. Yet the REST architectural style coupled with modern RESTful framework implementations provides a scalable and reliable approach to SOA. This book covers all you need to know about how to take the principles of REST and apply them in small and large SOA developments. If you are familiar with REST and thinking about SOA, then you need this book. If you have not considered REST in your SOA work, then this book is for you, too. Covering concepts of both REST and SOA, as well as design patterns and when to use them, the book is a wonderful companion and a good tool for architects and engineers.”

--Dr. Mark Little, CTO JBoss, Red Hat

“Unlike many other texts on the subject, SOA with REST is a well-rounded, easy-to-read narrative, including real-world case studies that appeal to both developers and analysts. This makes it an indispensable source for any SOA practitioner or any professional who is planning to initiate an SOA project.”

--Theodore T. Morrison, Certified SOA Analyst, CSM, Geocent, LLC

“SOA and REST are two very important architectural styles for distributed computing. SOA is successfully adopted by most enterprises, and the REST style is getting more attention from both researcher and industry users. The book SOA with REST introduces a new architectural style that is ingeniously combining both SOA and REST styles and clearly reveals how SOA and REST can work together to generate successful enterprise SOA strategies with REST, along with guidance for making architecture design decisions. This book is a bible of best practices for designing and implementing SOA architecture with REST. It is a must-have reference book for both IT practitioners and researchers.”

--Longji Tang, FedEx IT Senior Technical Advisor, Ph.D. in CSSE

The Definitive Guide to Building Web-Centric SOA with REST

The World Wide Web is based on the most successful technology architecture in history. It has changed how we view, access, and exchange information and, with the advent of REST, it has also provided us with compelling ways to build and improve automation solutions. REST provides a great deal of guidance to ensure that an architecture and its automation logic are technically sound, though it is still your responsibility to build services that actually add value to your business.

SOA with REST is the first comprehensive tutorial and reference for designing and building RESTful services as part of service-oriented solutions and in conjunction with service-oriented architecture (SOA). This book demonstrates that REST is not only a suitable medium for building truly service-oriented solutions, but also that the service-oriented architectural model is a necessary foundation for REST technology architectures to realize their full business potential.

The authors provide thorough mapping of REST constraints and architectural goals with service-orientation principles and SOA characteristics. Using real-world examples, they show how to leverage REST’s simplicity, flexibility, and low overhead without compromising the power or manageability of service-oriented solutions and architectures.

This book will be valuable to IT architects, developers, and any practitioner seeking to use SOA and REST together.

Topic Areas

  • Distributed solution design with HTTP and REST
  • REST-based service composition architectures
  • REST service modeling and a service-oriented analysis process for REST service candidates
  • Technical service contract notation for REST services based on a uniform contract
  • Designing REST service contracts with service-orientation
  • Understanding REST constraints in relation to service-orientation principles
  • Using hypermedia and dynamic binding within SOA and service compositions
  • Creating complex HTTP-based methods for enterprise solutions
  • Advanced design techniques, including composition deepening, runtime logic deferral, and dynamic binding with common properties
  • Cross-service transactions and event-driven messaging with REST
  • Addressing enterprise solution concerns in relation to REST-based state management
  • Applying SOA design patterns to REST-based solutions
  • Distinguishing REST and SOA service concepts and terminology
  • Designing REST architectures with SOA
  • Versioning REST services and uniform contracts
  • Fundamental REST, SOA, and service-orientation concepts and terminology
  • REST constraints, REST architectural goals, and properties
  • Seven new REST-inspired design patterns
  • Defining common goals of REST and SOA

Sample Content

Table of Contents

Foreword by Stefan Tilkov xxix

Acknowledgments xxxiii

Chapter 1: Introduction 1

1.1 About this Book 2

Who this Book is For 2

What this Book Does Not Cover 3

1.2 Recommended Reading 3

1.3 How this Book is Organized 4

1.4 Conventions 8

Use of the Color Red 8

Design Constraints, Principles, and Patterns: Page References and Capitalization 8

Design Goals: Capitalization 9

Symbol Legend 9

1.5 Additional Information 10

Updates, Errata, and Resources (www.servicetechbooks.com) 10

Master Glossary (www.soaglossary.com) 10

Service-Orientation (www.serviceorientation.com) 10

What Is REST? (www.whatisrest.com) 10

Referenced Specifications (www.servicetechspecs.com) 10

The Service Technology Magazine (www.servicetechmag.com) 10

SOASchool.com SOA Certified Professional (SOACP) 11

CloudSchool.com Cloud Certified (CCP) Professional 11

Notification Service 11

Chapter 2: Case Study Background 13

2.1 How Case Studies Are Used 14

2.2 Case Study Background #1: Midwest University Association (MUA) 14

History 14

IT Environment 14

Business Goals and Obstacles 16

1. Build Reusable Business Services 18

2. Consolidate Systems and Information 18

3. Improve Channel Experience 18

4. Build Services Infrastructure 18

2.3 Case Study Background #2: KioskEtc Co. 18

History 19

IT Environment 19

Business Goals and Obstacles 19

Part I: Fundamentals

Chapter 3: Introduction to Services 23

3.1 Service Terminology 24

Service 24

Service Contract 24

Service Capability 26

Service Consumer 26

Service Agent 27

Service Composition 27

3.2 Service Terminology Context 29

Services and REST 29

Services and SOA 29

REST Services and SOA 29

Chapter 4: SOA Terminology and Concepts 31

4.1 Basic Terminology and Concepts 32

Service-Oriented Computing 33

Service-Orientation 34

Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) 37

SOA Manifesto 38

Services 39

Cloud Computing 40

IT Resources 41

Service Models 41

Agnostic Logic and Non-Agnostic Logic 42

Service Inventory 42

Service Portfolio 43

Service Candidate 44

Service Contract 44

Service-Related Granularity 45

Service Profiles 46

SOA Design Patterns 46

4.2 Further Reading 49

4.3 Case Study Example 50

Chapter 5: REST Constraints and Goals 51

5.1 REST Constraints 52

Client-Server 53

Stateless 54

Cache 55

Interface/Uniform Contract 55

Layered System 56

Code-On-Demand 57

5.2 Goals of the REST Architectural Style 58

Performance 58

Scalability 59

Simplicity 60

Modifiability 61

Visibility 61

Portability 62

Reliability 62

Case Study Example 63

Part II: RESTful Service-Orientation

Chapter 6: Service Contracts with REST 67

6.1 Uniform Contract Elements 68

Resource Identifier Syntax (and Resources) 69

URIs (and URLs and URNs) 69

Resource Identifiers and REST Services 71

Methods 71

Media Types 73

6.2 REST Service Capabilities and REST Service Contracts 75

6.3 REST Service Contracts vs. Non-REST Service Contracts 77

Non-REST Service with Custom Service Contract 77

REST Service with Uniform Contract 79

HTTP Messaging vs. SOAP Messaging 81

REST Service Contracts with WSDL? 82

6.4 The Role of Hypermedia 83

URI Templates and Resource Queries 86

6.5 REST Service Contracts and Late Binding 87

Case Study Example 90

Chapter 7: Service-Orientation with REST 93

7.1 SOA vs. REST or SOA + REST? 95

7.2 Design Goals 97

Increased Intrinsic Interoperability 97

Increased Federation 98

Increased Vendor Diversity Options 99

Increased Business and Technology Alignment 100

Increased ROI 100

Increased Organizational Agility 102

Reduced IT Burden 102

Common Goals 103

7.3 Design Principles and Constraints 104

Standardized Service Contract 104

Service Loose Coupling 105

Service Abstraction 107

Service Reusability 109

Service Autonomy 110

Service Statelessness 111

Service Discoverability 113

Service Composability 114

Common Conflicts 114

Stateful Interactions 115

Service-Specific Contract Details 115

Case Study Example 116

Part III: Service-Oriented Analysis and Design with REST

Chapter 8: Mainstream SOA Methodology and REST 127

8.1 Service Inventory Analysis 131

8.2 Service-Oriented Analysis (Service Modeling) 133

8.3 Service-Oriented Design (Service Contract) 135

8.4 Service Logic Design 137

8.5 Service Discovery 137

8.6 Service Versioning and Retirement 138

Chapter 9: Analysis and Service Modeling with REST 139

9.1 Uniform Contract Modeling and REST Service Inventory Modeling 141

REST Constraints and Uniform Contract Modeling 144

REST Service Centralization and Normalization 146

9.2 REST Service Modeling 147

REST Service Capability Granularity 148

Resources vs. Entities 149

REST Service Modeling Process 150

Case Study Example 152

Step 1: Decompose Business Process (into Granular Actions) 152

Case Study Example 152

Step 2: Filter Out Unsuitable Actions 154

Case Study Example 154

Step 3: Identify Agnostic Service Candidates 155

Case Study Example 157

Event Service Candidate (Entity) 157

Award Service Candidate (Entity) 158

Student Service Candidate (Entity) 158

Notification Service Candidate (Utility) 159

Document Service Candidate (Utility) 159

Step 4: Identify Process-Specific Logic 160

Case Study Example 160

Confer Student Award Service Candidate (Task) 161

Step 5: Identify Resources 161

Case Study Example 162

Step 6: Associate Service Capabilities with Resources and Methods 163

Case Study Example 164

Confer Student Award Service Candidate (Task) 164

Event Service Candidate (Entity) 164

Award Service Candidate (Entity) 165

Student Service Candidate (Entity) 165

Notification Service Candidate (Utility) 166

Document Service Candidate (Utility) 166

Step 7: Apply Service-Orientation 167

Case Study Example 167

Step 8: Identify Candidate Service Compositions 167

Case Study Example 168

Step 9: Analyze Processing Requirements 169

Step 10: Define Utility Service Candidates 170

Step 11: Associate Utility-Centric Service Capabilities with Resources and Methods 171

Step 12: Apply Service-Orientation 171

Step 13: Revise Candidate Service Compositions 171

Step 14: Revise Resource Definitions 171

Step 15: Revise Capability Candidate Grouping 172

Additional Considerations 172

Chapter 10: Service-Oriented Design with REST 173

10.1 Uniform Contract Design Considerations 175

Designing and Standardizing Methods 175

Designing and Standardizing HTTP Headers 177

Designing and Standardizing HTTP Response Codes 179

Customizing Response Codes 184

Designing Media Types 186

Designing Schemas for Media Types 188

Service-Specific XML Schemas 189

10.2 REST Service Contract Design 191

Designing Services Based on Service Models 191

Task Services 191

Entity Services 192

Utility Services 193

Designing and Standardizing Resource Identifiers 194

Service Names in Resource Identifiers 195

Other URI Components 196

Resource Identifier Overlap 197

Resource Identifier Design Guidelines 199

Designing with and Standardizing REST Constraints 201

Stateless 201

Cache 202

Uniform Contract 203

Layered System 204

Case Study Example 205

Confer Student Award Service Contract (Task) 205

Event Service Contract (Entity) 207

Award Service Contract (Entity) 207

Student Transcript Service Contract (Entity) 208

Notification and Document Service Contracts (Utility) 209

10.3 Complex Method Design 211

Stateless Complex Methods 214

Fetch Method 214

Store Method 215

Delta Method 217

Async Method 219

Stateful Complex Methods 221

Trans Method 221

PubSub Method 222

Case Study Example 224

OptLock Complex Method 224

PesLock Complex Method 226

Part IV: Service Composition with REST

Chapter 11: Fundamental Service Composition with REST 231

11.1 Service Composition Terminology 233

Compositions and Composition Instances 233

Composition Members and Controllers 234

Service Compositions Are Actually Service Capability Compositions 235

Designated Controllers 236

Collective Composability 236

Service Activities 238

Composition Initiators 239

Point-to-Point Data Exchanges and Compositions 240

11.2 Service Composition Design Influences 241

Service-Orientation Principles and Composition Design 241

Standardized Service Contract and the Uniform Contract 242

Service Loose Coupling and the Uniform Contract 243

Service Abstraction and Composition Information Hiding 244

Service Reusability for Repeatable Composition 245

Service Autonomy and Composition Autonomy Loss 245

Service Statelessness and Stateless 246

Service Composability and Service-Orientation 246

REST Constraints and Composition Design 247

Stateless and Stateful Compositions 247

Cache and Layered System 248

Code-on-Demand and Composition Logic Deferral 248

Uniform Contract and Composition Coupling 248

11.3 Composition Hierarchies and Layers 249

Task Services Composing Entity Services 250

Entity Services Composing Entity Services 251

11.4 REST Service Composition Design Considerations 253

Synchronous and Asynchronous Service Compositions 253

Idempotent Service Activities 254

Lingering Composition State 255

Binding Between Composition Participants 255

11.5 A Step-by-Step Service Activity 258

1. Request to Purchase a Ticket 258

2. Verify the Requested Flight Details 258

3. Confirm a Seat on the Flight 259

4. Generate an Invoice 259

5. Create the Ticket 260

Summary 260

Chapter 12: Advanced Service Composition with REST 261

12.1 Service Compositions and Stateless 263

Composition Design with Service Statelessness 264

Composition Design with Stateless 265

12.2 Cross-Service Transactions with REST 266

REST-Friendly Atomic Service Transactions 267

Phase 1: Initialize 267

Phase 2: Reserve 268

Phase 3A: Confirm 269

Phase 3B: Cancel 269

Phase 3C: Timeout 270

Compliance with Stateless 271

Additional Considerations 272

REST-Friendly Compensating Service Transactions 272

Phase 1: Begin 273

Phase 2: Do 273

Phase 3A: Complete 274

Phase 3B: Undo 274

Phase 3C: Timeout 275

Compliance with Stateless 276

Additional Considerations 276

Non-REST-Friendly Atomic Service Transactions 276

Phase 1: Initialize 277

Phase 2: Do 277

Phase 3: Prepare 278

Phase 4A: Commit 279

Phase 4B: Rollback 279

Phase 4C: Timeout 280

Compliance with Stateless 280

Additional Considerations 281

12.3 Event-Driven Interactions with REST 282

Event-Driven Messaging 282

Compliance with Stateless 283

Message Polling 285

Compliance with Stateless 287

12.4 Service Composition with Dynamic Binding and Logic Deferral 288

Denormalized Capabilities Across Normalized Services 289

Composition Deepening 292

Dynamically Binding with Common Properties 294

Runtime Logic Deferral 297

12.5 Service Composition Across Service Inventories 299

Inventory Endpoint with REST 299

Dynamic Binding Between Service Inventories with Baseline Standardization 302

Chapter 13: Service Composition with REST Case Study 305

13.1 Revisiting the Confer Student Award Process 306

13.2 Application Submission and Task Service Invocation 310

13.3 Confer Student Award Service Composition Instance (Pre-Review Service Activity View) 312

Step 1: Composition Initiator to Confer Student Award Task Service (A) 312

Step 2: Confer Student Award Task Service to Event Entity Service (B) 312

Step 3: Event Entity Service to Confer Student Award Task Service (B) 313

Step 4: Confer Student Award Task Service to Award Entity Service (E) 314

Step 5: Award Entity Service to Confer Student Award Task Service (E) 314

Step 6: Confer Student Award Task Service to Award Entity Service (E) 314

Step 7: Award Entity Service to Confer Student Award Task Service (E) 315

Step 8: Confer Student Award Task Service to Student Entity Service (F) 315

Step 9: Student Entity Service to Confer Student Award Task Service (F) 315

Step 10: Confer Student Award Task Service to Student Transcript Entity Service (F) 316

Step 11: Student Transcript Entity Service to Confer Student Award Task Service (F) 316

Step 12: Confer Student Award Task Service to Composition Initiator 316

13.4 Review of Pending Applications and Task Service Invocation 317

Confer Student Award Service Composition Instance (Post-Review Service Activity View) 318

Step 1: Composition Initiator to Confer Student Award Task Service (L) 320

Step 2: Confer Student Award Task Service to Notification Utility Service (N) 320

Step 3: Notification Utility Service to Student Entity Service (N) 320

Step 4: Student Entity Service to Notification Utility Service (N) 320

Step 5: Notification Utility Service to Confer Student Award Task Service (N) 321

Intermediate Step: Confer Student Award Task Service to Transaction Coordinator (P, Q) 321

Intermediate Step: Transaction Coordinator to Confer Student Award Task Service (P, Q) 321

Step 6: Confer Student Award Task Service to Conferral Entity Service (P) 322

Intermediate Step: Conferral Entity Service to Transaction Coordinator (P) 322

Intermediate Step: Transaction Coordinator to Conferral Entity Service 322

Step 7: Conferral Entity Service to Confer Student Award Task Service (Q) 322

Step 8: Confer Student Award Task Service to Student Manuscript Entity Service (Q) 323

Intermediate Step: Student Transcript Entity Service to Transaction Controller (Q) &nb


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