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Secure Architectures with OpenBSD

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Secure Architectures with OpenBSD


  • Sorry, this book is no longer in print.
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  • Copyright 2004
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 544
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-321-19366-0
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-321-19366-7

"This book works in tandem with the OpenBSD's manual pages. As a result, it will help many users grow and get the most from the system."—Theo de Raadt, OpenBSD project leader.

"The OpenBSD system intimidates many administrators who would benefit from using it. This book lets people start much higher up on the curve. Secure Architectures with OpenBSD not only presents the hows, but also shows some of the whys that only insiders know."Mike Frantzen, NFR Security

"Secure Architectures with OpenBSD explains all of the tasks an administrator has to know about to successfully maintain an OpenBSD server. It helps the reader save time by condensing the vast amount of information available in man pages into a compact form, reducing unneeded information, and explaining other things in much more detail and prose than a man page can afford."Daniel Hartmeier, the OpenBSD Project

"This book will become the de facto text for OpenBSD administration. Unix and BSD books abound, but none cover OpenBSD with the clarity and expertise of Palmer and Nazario. They explain the optimal way to configure and administer your OpenBSD machines, with a keen eye to security at all stages."Brian Hatch, coauthor of Hacking Exposed Linux and Building Linux Virtual Private Networks

Descended from BSD, OpenBSD is a popular choice for those who demand stability and security from their operating system. No code goes into OpenBSD without first undergoing a rigorous security check, making it a terrific choice for Web servers, VPNs, and firewalls.

Secure Architectures with OpenBSD is the insider's guide to building secure systems using OpenBSD. Written by Brandon Palmer and Jose Nazario, this book is a how-to for system and network administrators who need to move to a more secure operating system and a reference for seasoned OpenBSD users who want to fully exploit every feature of the system.

After getting readers started with OpenBSD, the authors explain system configuration and administration, then explore more exotic hardware and advanced topics. Every chapter of the book addresses the issue of security because security is integrated into almost every facet of OpenBSD. Examples appear throughout the book, and the authors provide source code and system details unavailable anywhere else. This goes well beyond the basics and gives readers information they will need long after they have installed the system.

Key topic coverage includes:
  • Installation and upgrade details
  • Basic system usage in OpenBSD versus other Unix systems
  • Third-party software via packages and the ports tree
  • SMTP services in OpenBSD
  • Web services with Apache
  • Using OpenBSD as a firewall
  • OpenBSD as a Kerberos V client and server
  • Use of Ipsec
  • Configuration and use of IPv6
  • Network intrusion detection

Secure Architectures with OpenBSD takes you inside OpenBSD, giving you the insights and expertise no system manual can provide. The companion Web site tracks advances and changes made to the operating system, and it contains updates to the book and working code samples.

Sample Content

Online Sample Chapters

Overview of OpenBSD

systrace in OpenBSD

Downloadable Sample Chapter

Download the Sample Chapter related to this title.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction.

WhatWill This Book Cover?

Whom Is This Book For?

Book Syntax.

About the Authors.

Brandon Palmer.

Jose Nazario.

Contributing Authors.



2. Overview of OpenBSD.

A Brief History of OpenBSD.

OpenBSD Security.

The OpenBSD Security Model.

The Audit.


Proactive Security.

Which Applications Are and Are Not Secure?


The Feel of OpenBSD.

Filesystem Layout.


User Friendliness.

Packages and Ports.

Where Is OpenBSD Used?

3. Installation.

Supported Hardware.

System Preparation.

Getting the Files for Installation.

Selecting Boot Media.


The Boot Configuration.

Creating a Serial Console.

Platform-Specific Information.

Boot Example.

Filesystem Partitioning.

A Private System.

A Multiuser System with Untrusted Users.

Server Partitioning.


Swap Space Allocation.

Partitioning Example.

Network Configuration.

Network Setup Example.

Base Software Set Installation.

Types of Installations.

Descriptions of the Installation Sets.

Installation Example.


Time Zone Information and Example.

After Reboot.

Customizing the Installation Process.

Creating Site-Specific Files.

Jumpstarting Installations.

Customized Installation Floppies.

Upgrading an Installation.

4. Basic Use.

General Filesystem Layout.

/bin and /sbin.

/usr/bin and /usr/sbin.








Start-up and Shutdown.

Logging In.

RC Scripts.

Default Processes.

Random PID Values.

Ports and Packages.

Networking in Brief.

APM: Automatic Power Management.

Mouse Control with wsmoused.

5. Basic Default Services.

inetd: The Super-Server.

The Use of TCPWrappers.

syslog: The Logging Service.

Electronic Mail with sendmail.

The Secure Shell Server sshd.

6. Online Help Resources.

Manual Pages.

Which Manual Page?

The Layout of the Manual.

Notable Manual Pages.

Added Sections.

Writing Your Own Manual Pages.

GNU Info Pages.

Converting Info to Manual Pages.

perldoc and Pod.

Package-Specific Documentation.

Other Sources.

7. X Window System.


Quick Setup.

Troubleshooting Configuration.


Window Managers.

Basic X Applications.

Remote Display.

X and Security.


8. User Administration.

User Creation and Deletion.

Altering the Default New User Options.

vipw and Group Management.

Self Account Administration for Users.

User Limits with ulimit.

Process Accounting.

Privileged Users with sudo.

The sudoers File.

Logging with sudo.

Security of sudo.

Restricted Shells.

Restricting Users with systrace.

9. Networking.

Device Support.

Virtual Interface Drivers.

Kernel Messages.

Basic Setup.

Interface Media Options.

DNS Client Configuration.


Alias Addresses.

ARP: Address Resolution Protocol.

Diagnostic Information.




User Dial-up with PPP.

Listening Ports and Processes.


10. inetd.










Internal Services.

Kerberos Services.

RPC Services.

11. Other Installed Services.



The Remote Shell.

Time Services.

Mouse Services.


dhcpd: The DHCP Server.



Starting dhcpd.

DHCP Leases.

Considerations to Note.

BOOTP Support.

12. Precompiled Third-Party Software: Packages.

An Overview of Packages.

Installation of Packages.

Local Installation Sources.

Network Installation Sources.

Options for Package Installation.

Uninstalling Packages.

Options for Uninstallation.

Upgrading Packages.

Information About Installed Packages.

Third-Party Software and Security.

13. The Ports Tree: Third-Party Software from Source.


Getting the Ports Tree.

The Structure of the Ports Tree.

The Life Cycle of a Ports Build.

Building a Package from Ports.

Making Many Ports at Once.

Updating Specific Ports.


14. Disks and Filesystems.

Disk Devices.

The Concatenated Disk Driver and RAIDFrame.


New Filesystems.

Other Common Filesystems: ext2, msdos, iso9660.

Disk Quotas.

Soft Updates.

Other Tricks to Speed Up Access.


Mounting Filesystems.

Pseudo-Disks with vnconfig.

Caring for Filesystems.

The Last Resort for Mistakes: scan ffs.

Listing Open Files and Devices.

15. Backup Utilities.




Backup Strategies.

Data-Specific Options.


Available Tools.



dump and restore.


Additional Tools from Ports and Packages.


GNU tar for Backups.

Backup Using rsync.

16. Housekeeping.

What Is Housekeeping?

Regular System Scripts.

Daily Checks.

Weekly Checks.

Monthly Checks.

Logfile Rotation.

Scheduling Facilities.

The cron System.


Controlling Execution of at Jobs.

17. Mail Server Operations.

Introduction to Electronic Mail.

Overview of Electronic Mail in OpenBSD.


Virtual Hosting.

Security with STARTTLS.


POP Server Administration.

IMAP Server Administration.

Mailing List Software.

E-mail Security.

MTA Security.

POP Security.

Message Security.

18. The Domain Name Services.

Introduction to DNS.

Configuring the Resolver.

The DNS Server named.

A Simple Caching-Only Nameserver.

DNS Security Issues.

Firewall Rules for DNS.

Upgrading named.

BIND8 and BIND9.


DNS Tools.







19. Web Servers with Apache.


Quick Overview.



Using Dynamic Content in the chroot Environment.

Modules for Apache.

OtherWeb Servers.

Apache 2.0.x 19.4.2 thttpd.

MiscellaneousWeb Server Tools.


mod load.



20. OpenSSH.

Command-Line Use.




ssh-agent and ssh-add.



Client Options.

Server Configuration Options.

Use in Other Packages.

Command Line.

Privilege Separation.



21. The OpenBSD Development Environment.



Compilers and Languages.

Base Language Support.

Default Security Options.

Additional Languages from Ports.


Additional Debugging Tools from Ports.

Tracing System Calls.

Additional Source Code Development Tools.



Imake and xmkmf.


Shared Library and Object Tools.


22. Packet Filtering and NAT.

Introduction to Firewalls.

Introduction to PF.

The PF Configuration File.

Firewalls with PF.

Introduction to Network Address Translation.

NAT with PF.


Advanced PF Usage.



Packet Scrubbing.

Rate Limiting.

Transparent Filtering.

Load Balancing.

Selective Filtering Based on the Operating System.

Logging with pflogd.

Examining the State Table with pfsync.

Determining Firewall Rules.

Opening Ports.

Authenticated Firewall Rules.

Firewall Performance Tuning.

23. NFS: The Network Filesystem.

Introduction to NFS.

NFS Client Configuration.

NFS Server Configuration.

Kernel Configuration.

Configuration of the Server.

NFS Security.

24. NIS and YP Services.

Introduction to NIS.

Client Setup.

Server Setup.



25. Kerberos.

What Is Kerberos?

Why Use Kerberos?

Key Concepts in Kerberos.

Overall System Setup.

Clock Synchronization.

Build Support for Kerberos.

Client Setup.

Client Configuration.

Obtaining Tickets.

Kerberos Server Setup.

KDC Configuration.

keytab Creation.

Initialization Realm.

Controlling Access to the Administrative Server.

Starting the Kerberos Server.

Activating Kerberos V Services at Start-up.

Kerberizing Services.

Secure Shell.


Windows 2000 and Kerberos V.

Security of the Kerberos Scheme.



26. Authentication Methods.

Authentication Overview.



S/Key Setup.

Getting Passphrases.

sshd Setup and Usage with S/Key.

Additional Login Classes.



Token-Based Authentication Methods.


radius Method.

reject Method.

27. IPsec: Security at the IP Layer.


IPsec Basics.

Creating x509 Keys.

Setting Up IPsec.

Kernel Requirements.

Endpoint Setup.

Manual Configuration.

Automatic Configuration.

Testing/Debugging the Configuration.


ipsecadm monitor.




netstat -nr.

Example VPN Configurations.

Transport: OpenBSDÐOpenBSD + Tunnel: NetÐNet.

Transport: None + Tunnel: NetÐNet.

Transport: OpenBSDÐOpenBSD + Tunnel: None.

Wireless Laptop to a Secure Gateway.

OpenBSDÐOpenBSD Through an OpenBSD PF NAT Firewall.

28. IPv6: IP Version 6.

How IPv6Works.

Special Addresses.

Tunnelling IPv4 and IPv6.

Kernel Setup.

Userland Setup.

Normal Use.

Manual Configuration.

Configuring a Router for IPv6.

Configuring a Host for IPv6 Automatically.

Getting on the IPv6 Network.


IPv4 and IPv6 Proxying.

Some IPv6-Ready Applications.

Service Support for IPv6.


Secure Shell Daemon.



Routing Daemons.

DHCP Daemons.

IPsec with ISAKMP.

Kerberos V 400

Programming with IPv6.

IPv6 and Security.

Firewalling IPv6 with pf.



29. systrace.


Example Use.

Creating Policies.

Editing Policies.

The Benefit of a Local Caching Name Server.

Privilege Elevation with systrace.

Where to Use systrace.

System Coverage with systrace.

Additional Uses for systrace.

Software Testing.

IDS Logging.

Limitations of systrace.


30. Network Intrusion Detection.





Loading New Rules.

Snort Add-Ons.

Integration with PF.

Other IDS Solutions.

Important Notes.


31. Upgrading.

Upgrading an Installation.

CVS and Branches.

System Preparation.

Upgrading from Binary Sets.

Upgrading from Source.

Upgrading Configuration Files.

Using mergemaster.

Manual Merging.

Binary Format Changes and Upgrades.

32. Kernel Compilation.

Why Recompile a Kernel?

Why Not Reconfigure and Rebuild Your Kernel?

Where to Get the Source and How to Compile.

Information to Be Set in the Configuration Files.

Tweaking a Built Kernel.

Kernel-Userland Synchronization.

33. Bug Reports with OpenBSD.


Diagnosing a Problem.

Check with Others.

Develop a Solution.

The OpenBSD Bug Tracking System.

Reporting Bugs with sendbug.


A. CVS Basics.

How to Set Yourself Up for CVS.

CVS and the pserver.

Using CVS.

CVS and Tags.

Speeding Up CVS.

Choosing a Mirror.


Ignoring Parts of the Tree.


B. Applying Source Code Patches.

What Are Patches?

The Structure of a Patch.

Using the patch Tool.

Obtaining Patches for OpenBSD.

C. Tuning the Kernel with sysctl.

What Are Tunable Parameters?

Using sysctl.

Reading Variables.

Writing to Variables.

The Variable Hierarchy.

Filesystem Improvements.

D. Admesg Walkthrough.

What Does dmesg Give Us?

What Do the Messages Mean?

The Boot Messages.

E. Core File Evaluation.

Applications That Crashed.

Kernel Crash Dump Analysis.

Using ddb.

Post-Reboot Analysis.

Examining the Process Table.

F. Other OpenBSD Tools and Resources.

Web Pages.

Software Mirrors.

BSD-Specific Software.

Generic Software Sites.

Mailing Lists.

User Groups.


RFC Availability.

G. IPsec m4.


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