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Program Development in Java: Abstraction, Specification, and Object-Oriented Design

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Program Development in Java: Abstraction, Specification, and Object-Oriented Design

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  • Copyright 2001
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 464
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-7686-8469-2
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-7686-8469-8

Written by a world-renowned expert on programming methodology, and the winner of the 2008 Turing Award, this book shows how to build production-quality programs--programs that are reliable, easy to maintain, and quick to modify. Its emphasis is on modular program construction: how to get the modules right and how to organize a program as a collection of modules. The book presents a methodology effective for either an individual programmer, who may be writing a small program or a single module in a larger one; or a software engineer, who may be part of a team developing a complex program comprised of many modules. Both audiences will acquire a solid foundation for object-oriented program design and component-based software development from this methodology.

Because each module in a program corresponds to an abstraction, such as a collection of documents or a routine to search the collection for documents of interest, the book first explains the kinds of abstractions most useful to programmers: procedures; iteration abstractions; and, most critically, data abstractions. Indeed, the author treats data abstraction as the central paradigm in object-oriented program design and implementation. The author also shows, with numerous examples, how to develop informal specifications that define these abstractions--specifications that describe what the modules do--and then discusses how to implement the modules so that they do what they are supposed to do with acceptable performance.

Other topics discussed include:

  • Encapsulation and the need for an implementation to provide the behavior defined by the specification
  • Tradeoffs between simplicity and performance
  • Techniques to help readers of code understand and reason about it, focusing on such properties as rep invariants and abstraction functions
  • Type hierarchy and its use in defining families of related data abstractions
  • Debugging, testing, and requirements analysis
  • Program design as a top-down, iterative process, and design patterns

The Java programming language is used for the book's examples. However, the techniques presented are language independent, and an introduction to key Java concepts is included for programmers who may not be familiar with the language.

Sample Content

Table of Contents

1. Introduction.

Decomposition and Abstraction.


Abstraction by Parameterization.

Abstraction by Specification.

Kinds of Abstractions.

The Remainder of the Book.


2. Understanding Objects in Java.

Program Structure.


Objects and Variables.


Method Call Semantics.

Type Checking.

Type Hierarchy.

Conversions and Overloading.



Primitive Object Types.


Stream Input/Output.

Java Applications.


3. Procedural Abstraction.

The Benefits of Abstraction.


Specifications of Procedural Abstractions.

Implementing Procedures.

Designing Procedural Abstractions.



4. Exceptions.


The Java Exception Mechanism.

Exception Types.

Defining Exception Types.

Throwing Exceptions.

Handling Exceptions.

Coping with Unchecked Exceptions.

Programming with Exceptions.

Reflecting and Masking.

Design Issues.

When to Use Exceptions.

Checked versus Unchecked Exceptions.

Defensive Programming.



5. Data Abstraction.

Specifications for Data Abstractions.

Specification of IntSet.

The Poly Abstraction.

Using Data Abstractions.

Implementing Data Abstractions.

Implementing Data Abstractions in Java.

Implementation of IntSet.

Implementation of Poly.


Additional Methods.

Aids to Understanding Implementations.

The Abstraction Function.

The Representation Invariant.

Implementing the Abstraction Function and Rep Invariant.


Properties of Data Abstraction Implementations.

Benevolent Side Effects.

Exposing the Rep.

Reasoning about Data Abstractions.

Preserving the Rep Invariant.

Reasoning about Operations.

Reasoning at the Abstract Level.

Design Issues.


Operation Categories.


Locality and Modifiability.



6. Iteration Abstraction.

Iteration in Java.

Specifying Iterators.

Using Iterators.

Implementing Iterators.

Rep Invariants and Abstraction Functions for Generators.

Ordered Lists.

Design Issues.



7. Type Hierarchy.

Assignment and Dispatching.



Defining a Type Hierarchy.

Defining Hierarchies in Java.

A Simple Example.

Exception Types.

Abstract Classes.


Multiple Implementations.



The Meaning of Subtypes.

The Methods Rule.

The Properties Rule.


Discussion of Type Hierarchy.



8. Polymorphic Abstractions.

Polymorphic Data Abstractions.

Using Polymorphic Data Abstractions.

Equality Revisited.

Additional Methods.

More Flexibility.

Polymorphic Procedures.



9. Specifications.

Specifications and Specificand Sets.

Some Criteria for Specifications.




Why Specifications?



10. Testing and Debugging.


Black-Box Testing.

Glass-Box Testing.

Testing Procedures.

Testing Iterators.

Testing Data Abstractions.

Testing Polymorphic Abstractions.

Testing a Type Hierarchy.

Unit and Integration Testing.

Tools for Testing.


Defensive Programming.



11. Requirements Analysis.

The Software Life Cycle.

Requirements Analysis Overview.

The Stock Tracker.



12. Requirements Specifications.

Data Models.



Textual Information.

Requirements Specifications.

Requirements Specification for Stock Tracker.

The Data Model.

Stock Tracker Specification.

Requirements Specification for a Search Engine.



13. Design.

An Overview of the Design Process.

The Design Notebook.

The Introductory Section.

The Abstraction Sections.

The Structure of Interactive Programs.

Starting the Design.

Discussion of the Method.

Continuing the Design.

The Query Abstraction.

The WorldTable Abstraction.

Finishing Up.

Interaction between FP and UI.

Module Dependency Diagrams versus Data Models.

Review and Discussion.

Inventing Helpers.

Specifying Helpers.

Continuing the Design.

The Design Notebook.

Top-Down Design.



14. Between Design and Implementation.

Evaluating a Design.

Correctness and Performance.


Ordering the Program Development Process.



15. Design Patterns.

Hiding Object Creation.

Neat Hacks.



The State Pattern.

The Bridge Pattern.

Procedures Should Be Objects Too.


Traversing the Tree.

The Power of Indirection.


Abstracting Control.




Index. 0201657686T04062001


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