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Practical Software Estimation: Function Point Methods for Insourced and Outsourced Projects

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Practical Software Estimation: Function Point Methods for Insourced and Outsourced Projects


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  • Copyright 2007
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 432
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-321-43910-4
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-321-43910-9

"A clearly written book that is a useful primer for a very complicated set of topics."

--Capers Jones, Chief Scientist Emeritus, Software Productivity Research LLC

Practical Software Estimation brings together today's most valuable tips, techniques, and best practices for accurately estimating software project efforts, costs, and schedules. Written by a leading expert in the field, it addresses the full spectrum of real-world challenges faced by those who must develop reliable estimates.

M. A. Parthasarathy draws on the immense experience of Infosys, one of the world's largest and most respected providers of IT-enabled business solutions, to bring you the only book with detailed guidance on estimating insourced and outsourced software projects, as well as projects that blend both approaches. He demonstrates how to successfully utilize Function Point (FP) methods, the industry's leading estimation model. Then, using real case studies, he systematically identifies pitfalls that can lead to inaccurate estimates--and offers proven solutions.

Coverage includes

  • How to estimate all types of software projects, including "fresh" development, reengineering, and maintenance
  • How to incorporate the impact of core project elements on estimates: scope, environment, experience, and tools
  • FP analysis from start to finish: data and transaction functions, general system characteristics, and more
  • FP methods for any platform or business function
  • Innovative re-estimation methods to track progress
  • How to quote RFPs and prepare contracts: fixed price, time/material, and project execution lifecycle models
  • Alternatives to FP: Delphi, COCOMO II, and COSMIC-FFP
  • How to choose the right estimation tools

Practical Software Estimation is the definitive reference for anyone who must estimate software projects accurately: project and IT managers, individual developers, system designers, architects, executives, consultants, and outsourcers alike.

List of Figures
List of Tables 




Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Role of Estimation in Software Projects
Chapter 3: A Study of Function Point Analysis
Chapter 4: Data Functions
Chapter 5: Transactional Functions
Chapter 6: General System Characteristics
Chapter 7: Size, Effort, and Scheduling of Projects
Chapter 8: Estimation Flavors
Chapter 9: A Sense of Where You Are
Chapter 10: Tips, Tricks, and Traps
Chapter 11: Insourcing versus Outsourcing
Chapter 12: Key Factors in Software Contracts
Chapter 13: Project Estimation and Costing
Chapter 14: Other Estimation Methods
Chapter 15: Estimation Tools
Chapter 16: Estimation Case Study
Appendix A: Reference Tables: Transaction Function Counts
Appendix B: Reference Tables: Data Function Points

Sample Content

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Practical Software Estimation: Size, Effort, and Scheduling of Projects

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Table of Contents

List of Figures xvii

List of Tables xix

Foreword xxv

Preface xxvii

Acknowledgments xxxiii

Chapter 1: Introduction 1

What Is Software Estimation? 1

Ingredients of a Good Estimation 6

Software Project Estimation 8

Continuous Improvement Cycle 12

Why Software Estimation? 15

Estimation--Who and How 19

Conclusion 21

References 22

Other Interesting Reading Material 23

Chapter 2: Role of Estimation in Software Projects 25

Software Projects and Estimation 25

Estimation and Measurement 31

Large Application Systems 40

Conclusion 42

References 43

Other Interesting Reading Material 43

Chapter 3: A Study of Function Point Analysis 45

Why Estimation? 45

Function Points 47

Function Point Analysis 51

Conclusion 70

References 72

Chapter 4: Data Functions 73

Introduction 73

Definition of Files 74

Data Functions Defined by IFPUG 75

Conclusion 95

References 96

Other Interesting Reading Material 96

Chapter 5: Transactional Functions 97

Introduction 97

Definition of Transactions 98

Albrecht's Definition of Transactions 100

Transactional Functions Defined by IFPUG 102

EI, EO, and EQ 104

Complexity and FP Count Contributions 111

Invoice System--FP Counting Process 116

Conclusion 118

References 119

Other Interesting Reading Material 119

Chapter 6: General System Characteristics 121

Introduction 121

Functional and Non-Functional Requirements 122

Introduction to General System Characteristics 123

Guidelines for General System Characteristics 125

GSC and NFR 137

Conclusion 146

References 147

Other Interesting Reading Material 147

Chapter 7: Size, Effort, and Scheduling of Projects 149

Importance of Size 149

Inputs to Sizing 155

Impact of Delivery Rate 159

Effort and Schedule 163

Conclusion 167

References 168

Other Interesting Reading Material 169

Chapter 8: Estimation Flavors 171

Change Forever 171

Development Projects 173

Reengineering Projects 177

Migration Projects 182

Maintenance Projects 183

Conclusion 192

References 192

Chapter 9: A Sense of Where You Are 193

On the Right Track, On Time 193

Pervasive Estimations 196

Agile Software Projects 199

Estimation Maturity 208

Conclusion 211

References 212

Other Interesting Reading Material 213

Chapter 10: Tips, Tricks, and Traps 215

Introduction 215

Tricks 221

Traps 225

Conclusion 230

References 231

Other Interesting Reading Material 231

Chapter 11: Insourcing versus Outsourcing 233

Introduction 233

Environment--The Differentiator 234

Estimation Approach 239

Insourcing versus Outsourcing: Pros and Cons 242

Conclusion 247

References 247

Chapter 12: Key Factors in Software Contracts 249

Introduction 249

Types of Contracts 250

Project Execution Methods 257

Conclusion 263

References 263

Chapter 13: Project Estimation and Costing 265

Introduction 265

Project Lifecycle Phases and Cost 266

Estimation and TCO 272

Conclusion 274

Other Interesting Reading Material 275

Chapter 14: Other Estimation Methods 277

Introduction 277

Estimation Methods 277

Heuristic Approach 279

Parametric Approach 285

Estimation Models Pros and Cons 291

Conclusion 294

References 294

Other Interesting Reading Material 295

Chapter 15: Estimation Tools 297

Why Use Tools? 297

List of Tools 302

Conclusion 305

References 306

Other Interesting Reading Material 306

Chapter 16: Estimation Case Study 307

Introduction 307

Case Study: 1--Invoicing System 312

Case Study 2: Enhanced Invoicing System 350

Conclusion 359

References 359

Other Interesting Reading Material 359

Appendix A: Reference Tables: Transaction Function Counts 361

Reference Table to Calculate ILF/EIF FP Count 361

Reference Table to Calculate EI/EO/EQ FP Count 362

Reference Table to Calculate Total FP Count 362

Reference Table to Calculate VAF from GSC--Total Degree of Influence 363

Appendix B: Reference Tables: Data Function Points 365

Internal Logical Files and External Interface Files 365

External Inputs/External Outputs/External Inquiries 366

Bibliography 369

Index 373


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