“The best magic is that which involves absolutely no sleight-of-hand, only the unexpected yet natural workings of nature. Physics, Fun, and Beyond is chock full of just this kind of magic–simple yet fascinating experiments, easy to follow and colorful drawings, and fun facts. Simply wonderful!”
–Roald Hoffmann, 1981 Nobel Prize Laureate in Chemistry
Pure Fun, Pure Excitement: You’;ve Never Learned Physics Like This Before!
Physics is pure excitement: nothing’;s more fun than discovering how the world works and exploring its many possibilities! With Physics, Fun, and Beyond, you’;ll grab the universe in your own two hands as you build more than 110 projects that uncover the physics beneath everyday life!
Most of these projects are amazingly easy to build: all you’;ll need are your everyday household tools and cheap (sometimes even free) materials. From wind tunnels to flying saucers, you’;ll learn exactly how to safely build these experiments, why they work, and what they mean. Learn about all this, and more:
Step on eggs without breaking them...and understand the principles of material strength
Build the “Magic Can” that teaches you about the different kinds of energy
Discover why the Earth isn’;t exactly round
Learn more about gravity, with the “Astronaut in the Elevator” experiment
Use pendulums to visualize radio/TV frequencies and broadcasting
Feel pressure by sitting on a bed of nails
Build hydraulic robots to discover how you can transmit and amplify forces
Construct wings and wind tunnels that show why airplanes fly
Learn about optics by making bottles invisible
Recreate the sun and sky to realize why the sky is blue
Demonstrate the “greenhouse effect” with a homemade solar heater
Get water to climb walls–as you understand cohesion and adhesion
Build “wireless phones” that capture sound and make acoustics fun
Create simple motors that display the basics of electromagnetism
Physics, Fun, and Beyond is for kids, teenagers, teachers, parents, homeschoolers...everyone from 10 to 100 with curiosity and a passion for discovery and new challenges!
© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved
About the Author.
How to Get Going.
FUN WITH MECHANICS.
1. The Magic Can.
2. How the Weak Become Strong (Structuring Materials).
3. Stepping on Eggs.
4. Thin and Fat Balloons.
5. Pierce Balloons without Popping Them.
6. Stretching Carrousel.
7. A Paper Saw?
8. Globe of Death.
9. Flattening the Earth at the Poles.
10. Wild Paints.
11. Astronaut in the Elevator.
12. Washing Machine: Water Extractor.
13. The Square Wheel and Others.
14. Balloon Rockets.
15. Rockets with Chemical and Air Propulsion.
16. Water Rockets.
17. Bouncing Balls.
18. Temperamental Pendulums.
19. Hypersensitive Rings.
20. Bed of Nails.
21. Bed of Rulers.
22. The Submarine.
23. Water Amplifier (Water Transistor).
24. Hydraulic Elevator.
25. Hydraulic Robots.
27. Circumventing Obstacles: How Air and Water Streams Find Their Way.
28. Juggling Balloons.
29. Air Streams on Top of Cars, Roofs, and Mountains.
30. Make Your Own Sprayer.
31. Wind Tunnel.
32. Unwanted Ball.
33. Outsmarting Friction (Flying Saucer).
34. Wheel That Rolls Uphill.
35. The Ballerina's Trick.
36. The Bicycle's Trick.
38. Raw or Hard-Boiled Egg.
39. Hand-Operated Water Pump (Archimedes' Screw).
40. Water Fountain.
41. How to Get on Top (Brazil Nut Effect).
PLAYING WITH LIGHT: OPTICS.
1. Invisible Glass.
2. Decomposing Light into a Rainbow: 21st-Century Version of Newton's Classical Experiments.
3. Challenge Your Perception.
4. Moiré Patterns.
5. Lenses Made of Air and Water.
6. The Light at the End of the Tunnel.
7. The Ghost Behind the Mirror.
8. Levitation and Cubism with a Flat Mirror.
9. Magical Theater.
10. The Miracle of the Fishes: Parallel Mirrors.
11. Kaleidoscopes Festival.
12. Dark Chamber.
13. New Discoveries with Polarizers.
14. Why Is the Sky Blue?
15. Exploring the Laser Ray.
16. Tubes of Light: Fiber Optics.
17. Slow-Motion Camera.
18. Fractal Christmas.
THE WORLD OF ATOMS AND OUR WORLD: COLD, HEAT, AND GIANT BUBBLES.
1. Jiggling Atoms.
2. Crushing Cans and Plastic Bottles.
3. Bending Laser Beams with Hot Air.
4. Steam Machine.
5. The Little Steamboat.
6. Burn Balloons Without Popping Them.
7. Air and Water Thermometers.
8. Full Balloon with End Open.
9. Invisible Hand.
10. Pneumatic Tire Valves.
11. Car in the Sun: Greenhouse Effect and Solar Heater.
12. Can Competition: Which Heats Up and Cools Down Faster?
13. Fog-Proof Mirrors.
14. Tying a Knot in a Stream of Water.
15. Soap Saddles? You Are Joking!
16. Racquets and Tennis Balls Made of Soap.
17. Flexible s.
18. Two-Dimensional Vortex.
19. Pass Through a Soap Film Without Popping It.
20. Non-Cutting Scissors.
21. Gigantic Soap Bubbles and Films.
22. Speeding Up Water Droplets.
23. Liquid Climbers.
24. Whirlpools (3D Vortices).
25. Outlets Clogged with Water.
26. Forcing an Egg Out of the Shell.
PLAYING WITH SOUNDS: ACOUSTICS.
1. Telephone with a Wire.
2. Scratching Made Louder.
3. When Is a Pipe a Bell?
4. Tick-Tock of the Clock.
5. Wireless Telephone: Parabolic Acoustic Mirrors.
6. Focusing Sound.
7. Home-Made Variable-Pitch Whistle.
8. Sounds of Paper.
9. Secrets of the Guitar.
10. Singing Hose.
11. From Lungs to Mouth.
12. Pictures of Sounds.
ELECTRIFYING EXPERIMENTS: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM.
1. Sticking Balloons on Walls: Static Electricity.
2. Making Water Detour.
3. Wireless Lamp.
4. Salt Water Turns into Gas: Electrolysis.
5. Electric Gates: Thermal Relays.
6. Electric Hoist: Electromagnets.
7. Chaotic Pendulum.
8. Painting Pictures with an Electric Hoist.
9. Electric Motor.
10. Crazy Toboggan: Electromagnetic Braking.
11. Magnetic Levitation.
12. Silent Radio.
13. Car Control Versus TV Control.
Patterns for Fun with Mechanics, Experiment 13: The Square Wheel and Others.
Patterns for Playing with Light: Optics, Experiment 3: Challenge Your Perception.
Physics, Fun, and Beyond is an attempt to link science education with discovery and innovation. Its basic idea is to provide a framework for further development, starting with mostly simple and inexpensive do-it-yourself projects. The suggested experiments and prototypes are a guide into "worlds within worlds," using recycled and low-cost materials, which you can find in drugstores, hardware stores, and other familiar locations. By becoming familiar with household toolsand taking appropriate safety measuresyou can perform wonders. You can greatly improve your perception of the world all around you, discover firsthand that many of Nature's laws are just around the corner, and explore how they are interrelated. You will be challenged to think about all the possible applications of what you learn and to build more sophisticated prototypes on your own. Yes, you should explore all the possibilities within your reach. The basic requirements are the desire to enjoy yourself and a good dose of creativitysomething everyone has plenty of. There are experiments for all tastes and ages. The proposed projects are only a few of the possible ways to discover, explore, and demonstrate how science and Nature work together. As you build on the concepts presented in this book, you will soon realize that you are surrounded by opportunities for discovery and innovation.
Another major goal of this book is to foster teamwork. Feel free to invite your classmates and friends to take part in the adventure of discovering Nature. Experience the fun of sharing your discoveries. You will learn that more ideas flow and results are attained much faster when you work as a team. The point is to find simple and inexpensive solutions. The world is looking for new discoveries. Why not display your experiments in parks, shopping malls, youth centers, children's parties, or at schools? That is the big challenge. Science is contagious. Just give it a try!
Physics, Fun, and Beyond is divided into five major blocks of experiments under the headings Fun With Mechanics; Playing With Light: Optics; The World of Atoms and Our World: Cold, Heat, and Giant Bubbles; Playing With Sounds: Acoustics; and Electrifying Experiments: Electricity and Magnetism. This does not mean that the experiments are isolated from each other. Quite the contrarythere are multiple crosslinks connecting the various experiments and prototypes.
The traditional divisions of physics into separate areas is totally artificial. More and more, the boundaries within physics and within science in general are being pushed further or are simply vanishing. In the twenty-first century, perhaps we will learn to see science without boundaries. Hopefully, we will learn to see the world in the same waywithout boundariesso that all of humankind can enjoy living in it and appreciate its beauty.
This book is addressed to a wide readership. Teachers and students are not the only people who get interested in and involved with science and technology. My experience has shown that curious people of all ages become thrilled with the unique way of approaching the world that science enables. This book uses an accessible language and means to describe Nature, in "as simple a way as possible, though not simpler," as once stated by Albert Einstein.
Parents with much younger children who are interested in scienceor even just in "tricks"will find here many opportunities to enjoy themselves, with child supervision and assistance, of course! There is magic in science that we can all enjoyespecially when we share it!
Most of the projects suggested are simple enough for middle school children (ages 10 to 14) or home schooling at the same level or even younger children. My experience has shown that an instructor (teacher or parent) is necessary in these cases to supervise the kids and provide assistance whenever necessary. The handling of tools, like an electric drill or a jigsaw, should in most cases be done by an adult or with teacher supervision.
Ideally, the instructor should provide the children with some parts of the experiments that require more time to prepare or are more demanding. For example, youngsters will love to make rockets with air propulsion. The instructor should make the platform so the children can concentrate on making different models of rockets using just paper, scissors, and white glue.
The most important point is to create a favorable atmosphere for children to explore new possibilities and to come up with new ideas. Children are very creative, and the instructor is sure to be impressed with their progress and to benefit from many of their suggestions. The success of this strategy relies very much on selecting which activities the kids can do on their own and which ones they need assistance with.
Some projects offer several degrees of sophistication. An example is the wind tunnel, which starts with simply blowing a piece of paper. Another example is the flying saucer ("Outsmarting Friction"), the simplest version of which is a CD model that is easy to make. The next stages of both projects are increasingly more demanding in terms of skills, although they can still be used in demonstrations in connection with the simpler versions. The underlying principles are the same, so both children and adults will marvel at the same experiments. Other projects, although simple to make, are conceptually more sophisticated and are prone to inspire college freshmen. The sequence of experiments of "The Astronaut in the Elevator," "Bouncing Balls," and "New Discoveries with Polarizers may belong to this class. The experiments which are more demanding are highlighted with a star (intermediate level) and two stars (more advanced level).
One important point to keep in mind is that every age group has different needs and skills. Teenagers 14 to 17 years old will definitely want to do whole projects on their own and put into practice lots of new ideas for science fair projects. They should become familiar with basic tools and safety measures before moving on to implement their projects. This will help prevent accidents. (This holds true for all age groups, for even a simple piece of paper can cut someone's hand if not properly handledsee "A Paper Saw?")
Teachers with no science background but who want to expose their students to the "wonder" of science can greatly benefit from first doing some of the proposed experiments on their own before assigning simple projects to their students. To understand the importance of challenges in the educational process, teachers should first feel for themselves the thrill of discovery. Once they catch the spirit, they will be able not only to enthuse their students but also to explore the results of the experiments and enrich their classes. Parents who home school their children or who want to enrich their children's public school education should also do some of the experiments on their own first, and then do them along with their children. The cooperative effort provides a unique opportunity for parents and children to benefit from their mutual progress as they advance in exploring new possibilities. Students should be encouraged to share their inventions with their classmates and friends so that they can learn from each other as well as with each other.
College and High-School instructors and lecturers who have a laboratory as part of introductory courses should take advantage of the many simple demonstrations proposed here. They should also consider challenging their students to develop innovative projects on their own, using inexpensive materials. The first step toward this goal could be improving projects like the ones proposed in this book, so that students become more motivated, gain confidence, and develop the required skills to tackle more sophisticated projects. I started this approach some years ago and have so far collected a number of success stories. Some of my freshman students were the first ever at my university to apply for a patent.
Since innovation, discovery, perception, and pro-activity are so greatly emphasized in this book, it may also be of interest to non-science students looking for new approaches to the science of everyday life and also for all people involved in fostering creativity in companies, factories, and workplaces in general. After all, we need to move quickly in a world that is technologically reinventing itself every day. Apparently, educational systems around the world are far behind this ever-growing wave of innovative technologies that are shaping a new era for humankind.
A general introduction to the tools and safety measures needed to implement the projects is presented in "How to Get Going." The material required for each experiment and prototype is described in detail in "Supplies." Suggestions on how to do the projects are presented in "Step By Step." Further suggestions are found in "A Step Further" and "A Step Even Further" sections. Hints about the science underlying the experiments and prototypes, provided in the "Fun Facts" sections, help you find new insights and stimulate further thoughts about the science behind each project. You will be challenged to find out what comes next, to find alternatives when you don't have the materials required, and to invent things you probably never dreamed of. The whole idea is to foster curiosity and fresh explorations. Innovation and discovery are often a product of lack of means, of lucky opportunities that turn up when you are after new possibilities, and of looking at things from different perspectives.
You can also rely on the many sites now found on the World Wide Web. So many of them are dedicated to science and technology that it is impossible to name all. Search engines like Google can lead you to sites full of fascinating information. In my view, though, we should be a bit cautious about the excess of information now available. We live in a world that offers plenty of means but scarcely ever provides us with opportunities to shape our own goals, to fulfill our dearest dreams. If we discover what we really want, what gives us pleasure, what suits our deepest needs, then we can use the incredible resources we have at our disposal in a way that will make us feel proud of achieving something unique and that allows us to give shape to our humanity.
We live in a wonderful world, full of challenges and mysteries, most of them still unnoticed. Physics, like chemistry and biology, represents a human attempt to understand what is behind everything surrounding us, including ourselves. Despite the many advances in science and technology, which are so present in our everyday life, it seems to most of us that only very few people are able to contribute to these advances. As our knowledge increases at a fantastic pace, it seems almost impossible for young people to experience the thrill of innovation and discovery.
The primary aim of Physics, Fun, and Beyond is to point out some of the infinite possibilities within our reach to perceive the world from a brand new perspective, using just imagination and the many resources available to us in our homes. Billions of plastic bottles and packaging are produced every year worldwide. Why not use them to invent new gadgets and discover more about the world and ourselves? Do we really need sophisticated equipment to feel the joy of scientific endeavor?
When I was a young student of physics, I came across Richard Feynman's Lectures on Physics. Feynman inspired me to take on a big challenge: how to share with everybody the spirit of adventure that makes science and technology advance. This book is a response to a deep-rooted need to bridge the gapsthe many gapsbetween advanced researchers and laypeople. Several experiments and prototypes proposed here are linked, one way and another, to current cutting-edge technology and basic research.
The twenty-first century trend is for physics, chemistry, and biology to become more and more intertwined. Physics, Fun, and Beyond highlights this trend through experiments and models that display a complementary approach. However, there is more than science and technology in this book. Its most fundamental message is the belief that science and technology are tools to promote people, to help you, me, and other people to discover our talents and improve the overall living standards of our societies. Teamwork, innovation, and challenges are the basic elements that came together to make this book possible.
Many people and circumstances have helped me to transform vague ideas into models and prototypes, or to discard projects that became untenable. It has been a long journey. I started with an attempt to make my physics courses more attractive by challenging the students to create their own projects, and thus become more pro-active. Then I organized interactive exhibitions in shopping malls, parks, squares, and schools, which attracted the interest of people from all walks of life. Workshops with emphasis on creativity and team work then followed. Joining efforts with Alfredo Luis Mateus, who is a chemist and loves art, was a major step toward the creation of the Youth Science Foundation Brazil. It is nice to see that simple ideas and achievable goals can be very powerful in enthusing and inspiring people of all ages to see beauty in science and to apply it to unique creations. This remains my continuing inspiration.
I am very deeply indebted to too many people to name them all, people who have taught me how to transform problems and obstacles into opportunities and to persist in my goals. I would like to mention a few representative names: Alfredo Luis Mateus, Esdras Garcia Alves, Andreza Fortini da Silva, Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Saraiva, Alexsandro Jesus Ferreira de Oliveira, Lister Fleury de Oliveira Laranjo, Sílvio Fernando Vargas Bento, Tiago Novais Faria, Alisson Duarte da Silva, Frederico do Carmo de Moro, Pedro Santiago Carneiro Quadros, Bruna Aparecida de Oliveira, Devair Vieira de Oliveira, Mats Selen, Carlinho, Christian Lanyi and Klaus Weltner. I would also like to express my gratitude to all my colleagues at the Physics Department of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, especially Maurílio Nunes Vieira, Pedro Licinio de Miranda Barbosa, Luiz Orlando Ladeira, Wagner Nunes Rodrigues, Ado Jório, Alaor Chaves, Marcos Pimenta, Oscar Nassif, Luiz Alberto Cury, Ricardo Schwartz Schor, and Beatriz Alvarenga. In addition, Clóvis de Oliveira Mello Júnior, João Batista Reis Silva, and Gilberto dos Santos have been most supportive with their technical advice and prompt assistance. My collaboration with Professors Laurence Eaves and Fred Sheard at Nottingham University in the United Kingdom was also a key element in my search for seeing science from a different perspective.
This book would never have become a reality without the total commitment of Cláudio Roberto, who is responsible for the wonderful figures that are essential to convey the ideas behind all experiments proposed. Heather Jean Blakemore, Michael Hugh Knowles, and Carol J. Lallier also did their best to improve my English. Michael, with his continuous flow of ideas and suggestions, was instrumental in making this book accessible to a wider readership. Bernard Goodwin from Prentice Hall made me believe that Physics, Fun, and Beyond was possible. Bernard and Michelle Vincenti did their best to provide me with ideal conditions to write the book. Last but not least, I thank my wife Friederike and our children. Without their understanding, continuous support, and love, I would never have been able to make an old dream come true.
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