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Object-Oriented Thought Process, The, 5th Edition

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  • Copyright 2019
  • Pages: 360
  • Edition: 5th
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-518215-8
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-518215-4

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is the foundation of modern programming languages, including C++, Java, C#, Visual Basic .NET, Ruby, Objective-C, and Swift. Objects also form the basis for many web technologies such as JavaScript, Python, and PHP.

It is of vital importance to learn the fundamental concepts of object orientation before starting to use object-oriented development environments. OOP promotes good design practices, code portability, and reuse–but it requires a shift in thinking to be fully understood. Programmers new to OOP should resist the temptation to jump directly into a particular programming language or a modeling language, and instead first take the time to learn what author Matt Weisfeld calls “the object-oriented thought process.”

Written by a developer for developers who want to improve their understanding of object-oriented technologies, The Object-Oriented Thought Process provides a solutions-oriented approach to object-oriented programming. Readers will learn to understand the proper uses of inheritance and composition, the difference between aggregation and association, and the important distinction between interfaces and implementations.

While programming technologies have been changing and evolving over the years, object-oriented concepts remain a constant–no matter what the platform. This revised edition focuses on the OOP technologies that have survived the past 20 years and remain at its core, with new and expanded coverage of design patterns, avoiding dependencies, and the SOLID principles to help make software designs understandable, flexible, and maintainable.

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Table of Contents

Introduction 1

Chapter 1 Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts 5

The Fundamental Concepts 5

Objects and Legacy Systems 6

Procedural Versus OO Programming 7

Moving from Procedural to Object-Oriented Development 11

    Procedural Programming 11

    OO Programming 11

What Exactly Is an Object? 12

    Object Data 12

    Object Behaviors 13

What Exactly Is a Class? 16

    Creating Objects 17

    Attributes 18

    Methods 19

    Messages 19

Using Class Diagrams as a Visual Tool 19

Encapsulation and Data Hiding 20

    Interfaces 20

    Implementations 21

    A Real-World Example of the Interface/Implementation Paradigm 21

    A Model of the Interface/Implementation Paradigm 22

Inheritance 23

    Superclasses and Subclasses 24

    Abstraction 25

    Is-a Relationships 26

Polymorphism 27

Composition 30

    Abstraction 30

    Has-a Relationships 31

Conclusion 31

Chapter 2 How to Think in Terms of Objects 33

Knowing the Difference Between the Interface and the

Implementation 34

    The Interface 36

    The Implementation 36

    An Interface/Implementation Example 36

Using Abstract Thinking When Designing Interfaces 41

Providing the Absolute Minimal User Interface Possible 42

    Determining the Users 43

    Object Behavior 44

    Environmental Constraints 44

    Identifying the Public Interfaces 44

    Identifying the Implementation 45

Conclusion 46

References 46

Chapter 3 More Object-Oriented Concepts 47

Constructors 47

    When Is a Constructor Called? 48

    What’s Inside a Constructor? 48

    The Default Constructor 48

    Using Multiple Constructors 49

    The Design of Constructors 53

Error Handling 54

    Ignoring the Problem 54

    Checking for Problems and Aborting the Application 54

    Checking for Problems and Attempting to Recover 54

    Throwing an Exception 55

The Importance of Scope 57

    Local Attributes 58

    Object Attributes 59

    Class Attributes 61

Operator Overloading 62

Multiple Inheritance 63

Object Operations 63

Conclusion 65

References 65

Chapter 4 The Anatomy of a Class 67

The Name of the Class 67

Comments 69

Attributes 69

Constructors 71

Accessors 73

Public Interface Methods 75

Private Implementation Methods 76

Conclusion 76

References 76

Chapter 5 Class Design Guidelines 77

Modeling Real-World Systems 77

Identifying the Public Interfaces 78

    The Minimum Public Interface 78

    Hiding the Implementation 79

Designing Robust Constructors (and Perhaps Destructors) 80

Designing Error Handling into a Class 81

    Documenting a Class and Using Comments 81

    Building Objects with the Intent to Cooperate 82

Designing with Reuse in Mind 82

Designing with Extensibility in Mind 83

    Making Names Descriptive 83

    Abstracting Out Nonportable Code 84

    Providing a Way to Copy and Compare Objects 84

    Keeping the Scope as Small as Possible 84

Designing with Maintainability in Mind 86

    Using Iteration in the Development Process 86

    Testing the Interface 86

Using Object Persistence 88

    Serializing and Marshaling Objects 89

Conclusion 90

References 90

Chapter 6 Designing with Objects 91

Design Guidelines 91

    Performing the Proper Analysis 95

    Developing a Statement of Work 95

    Gathering the Requirements 95

    Developing a System Prototype 96

    Identifying the Classes 96

    Determining the Responsibilities of Each Class 96

    Determining How the Classes Collaborate with Each Other 96

    Creating a Class Model to Describe the System 96

    Prototyping the User Interface in Code 97

Object Wrappers 97

    Structured Code 98

    Wrapping Structured Code 99

    Wrapping Nonportable Code 101

    Wrapping Existing Classes 101

Conclusion 102

References 103

Chapter 7 Mastering Inheritance and Composition 105

Reusing Objects 105

Inheritance 106

    Generalization and Specialization 109

    Design Decisions 110

Composition 112

    Representing Composition with UML 113

Why Encapsulation Is Fundamental to OO 115

    How Inheritance Weakens Encapsulation 115

    A Detailed Example of Polymorphism 117

    Object Responsibility 118

    Abstract Classes, Virtual Methods, and Protocols 121

Conclusion 123

References 123

Chapter 8 Frameworks and Reuse: Designing with Interfaces and Abstract Classes 125

Code: To Reuse or Not to Reuse? 125

What Is a Framework? 126

What Is a Contract? 128

    Abstract Classes 128

    Interfaces 131

    Tying It All Together 133

    The Compiler Proof 135

    Making a Contract 136

    System Plug-in Points 138

An E-Business Example 139

    An E-Business Problem 139

    The Non-Reuse Approach 139

    An E-Business Solution 141

    The UML Object Model 142

Conclusion 146

References 146

Chapter 9 Building Objects and Object-Oriented Design 147

Composition Relationships 148

Building in Phases 149

Types of Composition 151

    Aggregations 151

    Associations 152

    Using Associations and Aggregations Together 153

Avoiding Dependencies 154

Cardinality 155

    Multiple Object Associations 157

    Optional Associations 158

Tying It All Together: An Example 159

Conclusion 160

References 160

Chapter 10 Design Patterns 161

Why Design Patterns? 162

Smalltalk’s Model/View/Controller 163

Types of Design Patterns 164

    Creational Patterns 165

    Structural Patterns 169

    Behavioral Patterns 171

Antipatterns 173

Conclusion 174

References 174

Chapter 11 Avoiding Dependencies and Highly Coupled Classes 175

Composition versus Inheritance and Dependency Injection 177

    1) Inheritance 177

    2) Composition 179

    Dependency Injection 182

Conclusion 185

References 185

Chapter 12 The SOLID Principles of Object-Oriented Design 187

The SOLID Principles of Object-Oriented Design 188

    1) SRP: Single Responsibility Principle 188

    2) OCP: Open/Close Principle 192

    3) LSP: Liskov Substitution Principle 194

    4) IPS: Interface Segregation Principle 197

    5) DIP: Dependency Inversion Principle 198

Conclusion 204

References 204

9780135181966   TOC   3/12/2019



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