Home > Store

Microsoft Windows 2000 Security Handbook

Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon.

Microsoft Windows 2000 Security Handbook

Premium Website

  • Sorry, this book is no longer in print.
Not for Sale




  • Copyright 2000
  • Edition: 1st
  • Premium Website
  • ISBN-10: 0-7897-1999-1
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-1999-7

Windows 2000 Security Handbook covers NTFS fault tolerance, Kerberos authentication, Windows 2000 intruder detection and writing secure applications for Windows 2000.

Sample Content

Table of Contents


Network Administrators by Default. Religious Wars and FUD. Architecture of This Book. How to Use This Book. Providing Feedback. Enjoy!


1. Architecture.

A New Windows. The Windows 2000 Operating System Model.

Kernel Mode and User Mode. Hardware Abstraction Layer. Kernel. Executive. Kernel Mode Win32 Components. Device Drivers. User Mode Modules. System Support Processes. Services. Environment Subsystems. NTDLL.DLL.

Windows 2000 System Processes and Files. Memory.

Paging. Kernel Pool.

Kernel Objects.

Kernel Object Handle Tables. Sharing Kernel Objects. Object Reference Counting. Security.

Exceptions and Interrupts.

Exception Handling.

Global Flags. Summary.

2. Processes and Threads.

The Job Object.

Job Specifics. Accounting Information. Limits. User Interface Restrictions. Security.


Where RestrictRun Isn't Implemented. Calling CreateProcess(). Kernel Process Objects (the EPROCESS Block). User Mode Data Structures (the Process Environment Block).

Threads. Summary.

3. Security Model.

Securing Objects.

SIDs. Access Control Lists (ACLs). Assigning and Inheriting ACLs and ACEs. SD/ACL/ACE Summary. Tokens. Privileges and User Rights. SYSTEM Context. Impersonation. Restricted Tokens. Token Security. Moving On.

Components 67.

The Security Reference Monitor (SRM). The Local Security Authority (LSA). WINLOGON.EXE. Graphical Identification and Authentication (GINA). Network Logon Service. Security Packages. SSPI. SAM Database. Active Directory.

The Flow of a User Logon. Summary.

4. NTFS 5.0 77.

The Master File Table (MFT). Files . Streams.

Named and Unnamed Streams. Uses of Multiple Streams. Sparse Streams. Compressed Streams. Encrypted Streams.

Metadata. Hard Links. Reparse Points. Quotas. Summary.

5 - Services.

What Is a Service? Service Control Manager (SCM).

Remote Connections to the SCM. Service Logon. Recovery.

Service Object Security. Service Startup. Multiple Services in One Process.

Security Implications.

General Service Security Considerations.

Use of Discrete Accounts. What About Impersonation? Audit, Audit, and Audit! Don't Interact! One at a Time, Please.

Service Security Considerations for Programmers.

Accepting Messages. Not Accepting Stop Requests. Accepting Pause and Continue Messages. Odd Message Behavior.


6 - Drivers.

Windows 2000 I/O Model. Kinds of Drivers. The File System Stack of Drivers. Kernel Mode Memory.

Kernel Memory and Paging. Memory Available to Kernel Processes.

Coding Secure Drivers.

Checking Your Buffer Lengths. Not Returning Uninitialized Data to User Mode. Probing When Necessary. Using Try/Except Blocks. Being Aware of I/O Requests with Embedded Pointers. Being Able to Handle Zero Length Buffer. Direct I/O Double-Mapping Issues. Carefully Reading the DDK. Thinking Like the Enemy.

Driver Signing. Malicious Drivers.

What's Installed?



7. The NetBIOS, NetBEUI, SMB, and TCP/IP Protocols.

History of TCP/IP. The TCP/IP Suite. The TCP/IP Protocol Stack. Transport-Level Protocols.

Transmission Control Protocol. User Datagram Protocol. Internet Protocol. Internet Control Message Protocol. Internet Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP). Internet Group Management Protocol. Address Resolution Protocol.

Application-Level Protocols. NetBIOS Interface.

NetBIOS Name Management. NetBIOS Datagrams. NetBIOS Sessions. File Transfer Protocol. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Hypertext Transfer Protocol.

NetBEUI. Server Message Block (SMB). IP Addressing.

Multi-Homed Computers. Address Classes.

Name Resolution.

Host Name Resolution. Host Name Resolution Using a HOSTS File. Domain Names System.

TCP/IP Improvements.

Large Window Support. Selective Acknowledgements. Roundtrip Time Estimation (RTT). TCP Timestamps (RFC 1323). PMTU (Path Maximum Transmission Unit) Discovery. Dead Gateway Detection. TCP Retransmission Timers. TCP Keep-Alive Messages. Slow-Start Algorithm and Congestion Avoidance. Silly Window Syndrome (SWS). Nagle Algorithm. TCP Timed-Wait Delay. Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU).

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

User Class Support. Multicast Support. Rogue DHCP Server Detection. Fault Tolerance. DHCP Client Support.

Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation. Quality of Service.

RSVP QOS Service. Diff-Serve Class of Services.

TCP/IP Troubleshooting Tools and Strategies.

IPConfig. Ping. arp. Tracert. Route. Netstat. NBTStat. Nslookup. Microsoft Network Monitor.


8. Cryptography.

History of Cryptography.

Cryptography and the Government. Export Restrictions. The Clipper Chip. Key Escrow and Key Recovery.

Keys and Key Length. Types of Encryption.

Private Key Cryptography. Public Key Cryptography.

Common Encryption Algorithms.

The Data Encryption Standard (DES). Hash Algorithms. RSA. Diffie-Hellman. Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA).

Applications that Use Encryption.

Messaging. Web Servers. Virtual Private Networks. Mobile Phones . Windows 2000.

Future of Cryptography. Summary.

9. Introduction to IPSec.

What's a VPN and Why Would You Use One? Common Information Security Issues.

Network “Sniffing”. Data Integrity. Password (Dictionary) Attacks. Denial of Service (DoS) Attack. Man-in-the-Middle Attack. Spoofing.

IPSec: The Standards-based Solution to IP Security.

IPSec Protocol Types. Encapsulating Security Payload. Internet Security Key Association Key Management Protocol. (ISAKMP/Oakley).

The IPSec Model. Tunneling.

ESP Tunnel Mode. AH Tunnel Mode. L2TP and IPSec. IPSec: Protection Against Attacks. Public Key Cryptography.


10. PKI.

Certificate Authorities.

Certificate Authority Hierarchies.

Digital Certificates.

Generating a Key Pair. Issuing a Certificate. X.509 Certificates . Certificate Revocation Lists.

PGP “Web of Trust”. Digital Signatures. Windows 2000 and Public-Key Infrastructure.

Windows 2000 PKI Components. The Windows 2000 PKI Interoperability. Windows 2000 Certificate Services. Deploying an Enterprise CA Using Microsoft Certificate Services. Using Keys and Certificates.

Why Use PKI with Windows 2000?

Web Server Security. Secure Email. Encrypting File System. IP Security (IPSec).


11. Kerberos Protocol.

Concepts of Kerberos.

Shared Secrets. Multiple Authentication.

Kerberos Components in Windows 2000.

Key Distribution Center (KDC). Account Database. Kerberos Security Support Provider. DNS Name Resolution. Physical Security.

What Does Kerberos Do for Windows 2000?

NT LAN Manager Logon. Single Sign-On (SSO).

Windows 2000 Authentication Process.

Using Network Resources from a Different Domain. Transitive Trusts. Network Performance. Credential Cache. Shortcut Trusts. Network Security.

What Makes Kerberos Tick?

Expired Tickets. Ticket Lifetimes. Kerberos Ticket Fields. Kerberos Ticket Flags. Forwardable/Forwarded Tickets. Renewable Tickets. Delegation of Authentication. Proxy Tickets. Kerberos Protocol Extensions.

Administration of Kerberos.

Configurable Policies. Why Change Kerberos Default Policies? Kerberos Information on the Client.


12. X.500/LDAP.

Kery. eping Track of Information About the Network. What Is X.500?

The Directory Information Base and the Directory Information Tree. The Directory User Agent. The Directory System Agent. Open System Protocols for Directories.


LDAP, a Protocol. LDAP, an API.

Objects and Attributes.

Object Classes. What Is Inheritance? What Are Attributes?

The Directory Schema.

LDAP Operational Attributes. Naming Objects in the Directory.



13. Networking Model.

Networking Windows 2000: What's New. Windows DNA. Active Directory.

Active Directory Services. DNS and Active Directory.

Network Services.

Windows 2000 Core: Network Services. Protocol Stacks.

Communication Services and APIs.

Windows Sockets. Named Pipes. NetBIOS. WinInet. RPC. COM/DCOM. COM+.

Security in Windows 2000 Networks.

IP Security. Authentication. SSPI. CryptoAPI. Certificate Server. VPN. EFS.


14. Active Directory Services.

The Directory. Active Directory Components.

Objects. Domains.

Active Directory Open Design.

X.500 Overview. LDAP.

Concepts of Active Directory.

Schema. Global Catalog. Namespace.

Naming Conventions in Active Directory.

Distinguished Name. Relative Distinguished Name. User Principal Name.


Universal Groups. Global Groups. Domain Local Groups. Local Groups.

Active Directory Reliance.

Replication. Replication Protocols. Multimaster Replication. FSMO.


Server Roles.

Interoperability. Active Directory Engine Components.

Database Structure. Active Directory Database Files.

Tools from the Windows 2000 Resource Kit. Summary.

15. Authentication.

New Protocols. The Key Element of Authentication-the User! The Windows 2000 Security Subsystem.

Local Security Authority. Security Account Manager and Active Directory. Security Reference Monitor.

The Logon Process.

Logon Steps. The General Logon Sequence. Authentication Procedure.

Understanding NTLM.

The NTLM Versions in Use. LM Versus NTLM. Verify Which Version You Are Using. Setting LM Compatibility Values in the Registry.

The Risks of Using NTLM.

Using L0phtCrack. Using Network Packet Sniffers.

Understanding SSL/TLS.

Understanding the Public-Key Process .


16. SSPI.

Secure Networking Through the SSPI.

SSPI and Windows 2000 Security Model. SSPI and Security Packages.

Developing Secure Applications. Package Management API.

EnumerateSecurityPackages. QuerySecurityPackageInfo.

Credential Management API

AcquireCredentialsHandle. FreeCredentialsHandle. QueryCredentialsAttributes.

Context Management API.

InitializeSecurityContext. AcceptSecurityContext. CompleteAuthToken. DeleteSecurityContext. QueryContextAttributes. ApplyControlToken. ImpersonateSecurityContext. RevertSecurityContext. ExportSecurityContext and ImportSecurityContext.

Message Support API.

MakeSignature. VerifySignature. EncryptMessage. DecryptMessage.


17. CryptoAPI.

Secure Communication. Cryptography and CryptoAPI.

Signatures and Hashes. Certificates. Cryptographic Algorithms. Cryptographic Service Providers.

CryptoAPI Administration. Enabling Cryptography in Your Applications.

CryptoAPI Functional Areas. Encryption Example. Decryption Example. Encrypting Messages. Decrypting Messages.


18. Microsoft Certificate Services.

General Overview of Certificate Usage. Public-Key Cryptography.

How Public-Key Cryptography Works. Public-Key Cryptography Versus Symmetric-Key Cryptography. Possible Problems with Public-Key Crypto Systems.

Digital Certificates.

What Is a Certificate? X.509 Certificate Format. PKCS 7. PKCS 10.

Certificate Authorities and Public-Key Infrastructures.

Issuing Certificates. Renewing Certificates. Revoking Certificates and Publishing a Certificate Revocation List. PKIs.

The Certificate Services.

How It Works. Planning Deployment of Your PKI.

Installing Certificate Services. Administering a CA.

MMC Administration. Command-Line Administration.



RPC, COM, DCOM, COM+: What's the Difference?

Evolution of COM. Security in RPC. Security in COM/DCOM: the Legacy of RPC. Security in COM+: COM+ = COM + MTS.

Administering COM+ Security.

Configuring COM Security. Configuring COM+ Security.

Programmatic Implementation of COM+ Security Features.

Initialization of the Security. IClientSecurity. IServerSecurity. Helper Functions Provided by COM. Programmatic Role-Based Security. Delegation and Cloaking .

How to Write Secure N-Tier Applications. Summary.

20. VPNs.

Why Use a VPN?

Intranets and Extranets. Internet Security Issues. VPN Capabilities. Types of VPNs.

VPNs and Windows 2000.

VPN Protocols 456. Connecting Using a Windows 2000 VPN.

Configuring the VPN Client. Managing the VPN Server. Summary.

21. EFS.

EFS Concepts.

Data Encryption Standard Exclusive (DESX). EFS Platform Support.

EFS Architecture. How EFS Uses PKI. Certificate Services. Encryption Process. Decryption Process.

Recovery Process.

Using EFS.

Encrypting Files or Directories. Backing Up Encrypted Files and Folders. Command-Line Tools. How to Enable and Disable EFS. Saving Encrypted Files in the Network. Best Practices for Using EFS.



Domain Name System.

History of DNS. DNS. The DNS Heirarchy. Installing Windows 2000 Server's DNS Server. Configuring DNS.

Dynamic DNS.

Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). How DHCP Works. DHCP Security Issues. Using Dynamic DNS in a Windows 2000 Environment.

Security Issues with DNS.

A Secure DNS Implementation (Split DNS).

WINS (Windows Internet Name Service) and Windows 2000.

What Does WINS Provide? NetBIOS Node Types. Elements of a WINS Network. Security Issues with WINS.



23. Secure Computing Practices.

Social Engineering.

Awareness, Policy, and Training.

Trojan Programs.

Distribution. “Wait-and-See” Trojan Programs. Mitigating the Trojan Threat. The Principle of Least Privilege.

Switching Between Privileged and Non-Privileged Contexts.

su Is Hard to Do (in NT 4 at Least). Secondary Logon Service (SLS). Secondary Logon Issues. The Process Start Problem. Terminal Services. Secondary Logon Use.

Other Secure Practices. Summary.

24. Building and Administering a Secure Server.

Creating the Secure Server.

Using Different Servers for Different Services. Choosing Hardware Carefully and Keeping It Secured. Do You Need to Start with a Fresh Install? Using NTFS. What About the Encrypting File System (EFS)? Unnecessary Services or Components. Unnecessary Programs.

Managing Auditing and Creating Resource Access Permissions.

Setting Up the Auditing Policy. Enabling Auditing. Setting Up Events to Audit for Files and Folders. Setting Up Events to Audit for Printers. Viewing Auditing Events.

What About System Services? The Security Configuration Tools .

What Are Group Policies? Using the Group Policy Snap-In. Using Security Templates. Other Security Template Options. Using Security Templates to Analyze a System. Using Security Templates to Configure a System. What Is SECEDIT?


25. Security with High-Speed Full-Time Connections.

Dial-Up Connections. Enter Broadband. So, What to Do?

“Firewall-in-a-Can” Solutions. Host-Based Solutions.

Network Address Translation (NAT).

What NAT Does. Enabling Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) in Windows 2000 Server. Security Implications of NAT.

General Broadband Security Tips. Summary.

26. Detecting and Reacting to Intrusions.

Why You Need an Intrusion Response Team. Building an Intrusion Response Team.

IRT Charter. Keeping in Touch.

Detecting Intrusions.

Overt Evidence. Strange Network Behavior. Watch Your Logs.

Reacting to Intrusions.

Don't Panic. Assemble Your Team and Prepare for Action. Analyze the Situation. Gather Evidence. Neutralize the Threat. Forensic Analysis. Reporting Intrusions. Following Up an Intrusion.


27. Recent Issues Explored.

Why You Will Never Be Completely Secure.

A Recent Example-Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacks. Another Recent Example-Data Compromises. New Protocols and New Software-New Avenues of Attack.

Keeping Track of New Security Issues from Microsoft.

Keeping Current with Service Packs and Hot Fixes. Using Windows Update.

Reviewing Applications Regularly. Keeping Educated.

What Is NTBugTraq? Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams (FIRST). The Systems Administration, Networking Security (SANS) Institute. The Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT). Windows 2000 Magazine. The Firewalls Mailing List. Computer Operations, Audit and Security Technology (COAST). Federal Computer Incidence Response Capability.

Educating Your User Community. Checking Your Servers Regularly.

Windows Event Viewer and Application Log Files. Watching for SNMP and RMON Traps and Events.


28. Penetration Testing: Hack Your Own System.

Why Penetration Testing? Thinking As a Cracker. Realizing Threats.

Remote Versus Local Threats. External Versus Internal Threats.

Tiger Teams. External Consultants. Getting Prepared for a Penetration Test. Generating an Attack Plan.

Plan Layout. Permission Statement.

Scouting the Site.

Local. Remote.

Collating and Evaluating Findings

Generating a Map. Examining Open Ports and Services. Examining Exploits for Possible Holes. Vendor Security Sites. Gray Hat Sites.

Exploiting the Site.

Possible Severities. Actively Attacking. Common Types of Exploits.

Reporting and Regimen.

Defining Threat Levels. Generating an Executive Report. Avenues of Repair. Defining Problem Areas. Setting a Penetration Testing Regimen.

Available Tools.

Commercial Products. Security Community Products.


29. Writing Secure Code.

Secure Coding Practices.

Why Should I Write Secure Code? Where Do Security Problems Arise? What Can I Do About All of This?

Software Security Explained.

Giving Your Software Least Privileges. Checking All Return Codes. Avoiding Making Assumptions. Testing Your Code. Failing Closed. Being Paranoid.

Programming Problems Explained.

Lack of Security Awareness. Poor Code Design. Poor Code Testing. Not Anticipating Possibilities. Overly Complex Code. Overly Simple Code. Poor Input Checking. Poor Bounds Checking. Race Conditions.

Auditing Code.

The Audit Process.

Resolving Problems in Code.

When You Have the Code. When You Do Not Have the Code. Tools to Help You.

Buffer Overflows.

What Is a Buffer Overflow? Buffer Overflow Example. Exploiting the Buffer Overflow. Closing the Buffer Overflow Hole.

Language-Specific Implementations.

Visual C++. Visual Basic. Java Security. Perl.

Web Application Programming Security.

CGI/Perl. SSI and Other Web Page Parsing Embedded Languages. ASP.




Submit Errata

More Information

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020