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Metadata Solutions: Using Metamodels, Repositories, XML, and Enterprise Portals to Generate Information on Demand

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Metadata Solutions: Using Metamodels, Repositories, XML, and Enterprise Portals to Generate Information on Demand


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  • Copyright 2002
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 528
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-71976-2
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-71976-5

Metadata is increasingly central to enterprise IT architecture, and to applications ranging from data warehousing to CRM. Finally, there's a comprehensive, start-to-finish guide to implementing metadata solutions. Leading data management consultant Adrienne Tannenbaum covers the real issues associated with bringing together data from multiple sources, identifies the key challenges to building effective metadata systems, and presents practical solutions. Tannenbaum begins by focusing on data, its relationship to knowledge, why it is so hard to locate, and how metadata can help. She reviews the key elements of a metadata solution, including metamodels, metadata stores, and repositories, and presents a complete methodology for planning and implementing a metadata solution. She reviews non-technical factors such as readiness and scoping, as well as technical issues such as architecture, exchange, and presentation. Tannenbaum compares today's leading metadata approaches and solutions, including solutions that leave metadata in place, accessing it through a common portal or gateway, as well as solutions that centralize metadata. The book concludes with a thorough discussion of managing metadata solutions and maintaining metadata quality. Throughout, Tannenbaum presents extensive real-world examples and case studies garnered from her extensive consulting experience.

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Table of Contents



Intended Audience.

How This Book is Organized.

Reading Paths.

Model Legend

What is your Objective?


About the Author.


1. The Business Is Information.

Information Defined.

Evolution of Information.

The Role of Information.

Information Tunnels.

2. The Information in Today's Organization.

Information in Practice.

Information Sharing and Redundancy.

Supporting Intraorganization Information.

3. Information Outside the Organization.

That Famous Download.

The Data Vendors.

Information Exchange.

4. Integrating Our Data: Where the Repairs of the 1990s Broke Down.

Data Modeling: Does Anyone Remember What It Is?

The Data Management Organization.

Case Study: A Data Management Reintroduction—Ray McGlew, IMS Health.

Data Warehousing.

Introducing "Objects".

Is Our Information Integrated?

5. Identifying Today's Information: The Directories of the 1990s.

Off-the-Shelf Repositories.

Standalone Metadata Stores.

Internal Directories.

Case Study: Internal Directory Implementation in an Insurance Company—Christina Tom, Guardian Life Insurance.

Internal Web-Based Data Management.

Case Study: Using the Intranet to Provide Metadata Access at a Pharmaceutical Company—Cynthia Wiggins, Merck & Co., Inc.

6. A Disaster Crying for Solutions.

Anarchical Data Management.

The Data Warehouse Web.

Tools, Tools, and More Tools.

Metadata: The Silver Bullet.


7. Moving From Information to Metadata.

Comparing Information to Knowledge.

Defining Metadata.

Relating Information to Metadata.

Metadata Perspectives and Beneficiaries.

8. Identifying Metadata Requirements.

The Overall Metadata Requirements Process.

Identifying Metadata Beneficiaries.

Metadata by Beneficiary.

Metadata Sourcing.

9. Organizing Metadata Requirements.

Beginning the Architectural Planning Process.

Identifying the Metadata of Record.

Categorizing Metadata.

Looking Toward Metamodels.

10. Introducing Metamodels.

Moving from Metadata to Metamodels.

Defining the Metamodel.

Vendor versus Custom Metamodels.

Metamodel Extensibility.

11. Metamodels as a Piece of the Pie.

Defining the Metadata Solution.

Remembering the Objective.

Storing Metadata.

Accessing Metadata.

Metamodel and Metadata Relationships.

Sample Metamodels of Various Types.


12. Meta-Metadata: What Metadata Means to a Tool.

The Tool's View of Metadata.


Storing Meta-Metadata.

Processing Meta-Metadata.

13. The Meta-Metamodel.

Organizing Metamodels.

Inside Meta-Meta Land.


The Information Connection.

14. Introducing Repositories.

Repositories Defined.

The Generic Repository Architecture.

Essential Repository Characteristics.

Old versus New Repository Technology.

The Quasi-Repository.

Custom-Built Repositories.

Repository Examples.

15. Other Metadata-Based Technologies.

The Web.

File Management Systems.

Database Management Systems.

Object-Oriented Component Libraries.

Metadata Everywhere?

16. The Impact of Standards.

Internal Standards.

External Standards.

Is Anyone Really Following Them?


17. The Non-Metadata Factors—Group 1: The Nontechnical Environment.

Redefining the Metadata Solution.

Determining Readiness.

Scoping Your Metadata Solution.

The Solution's Impact on the Internal Environments.

Case Study: Non-Metadata Factors at a Chemical Company—Rachel Brownstein, CIBA Specialty Chemicals.

18. The Non-Metadata Factors—Group 2: The Technical Environment.

Revisiting the Multitool Architecture.

Determining Tool and Metadata Connections.

Presenting the Metadata.

Sharing the Metadata.

Reusing the Metadata.

Incorporating External Beneficiaries and Suppliers.

19. The Non-Metadata Factors—Group 3: Technical Support.


Organization Responsibilities.

Staffing Requirements.

Organization Charts.

20. Determining the Right Solution.

No Metadata Stores, One Metadata Store, or Many?

Standard or Customized Metamodels.

Including or Excluding the Internet.

Buy, Build, or Both?

Case Study: Choosing XML as the Solution—Daniel Hayes and Ho-Chun Ho, PointandQuote.com.


21. A Typical Metadata Disaster.

Tools, Tools, and More Tools—Case Study Begins.

Objectives, Objectives, and More Objectives.

Metadata, Metadata, and More Metadata.

22. Metadata Solution 1: The Centralized Metadata Repository.

The Interaction of Basic Repository Components.

Repository-Based Processes.

23. Metadata Solution 2: An Integrated Architecture.

Metadata Solution Scope.

The Common Metamodel.

The Metadata Solution Architecture.

Using the Metadata Solution.

Maintaining the Metadata Solution.

24. Metadata Solution 3: The Information Directory.

Information Directory versus Enterprise Protal.

The Directory Metamodel.

Populating the Directory.

Directory Access.

25. Metadata Solution 4: Metadata Interexchange.

A Common Metamodel.

Standardizing Metadata Values.

Scoping the Metadata and Tools Architecture.

Metadata Sources, Target Interfaces, and Translation.

26. Metadata Solution 5: A Standalone Metadata Store.

Defining the Limited Scope.

Designing the Metamodel.

Populating the Metamodel.

Preparing Metadata Accessibility.

Maintaining Metadata.

27. Metadata Solution 6: Building an Enterprise Portal.

Product Architecture.

The Portal Metamodel.

Applying a Portal to the Typical Metadata Disaster.


28. Metadata Responsibilities.

IT and End-User Responsibility Breakdown.

Suggested Organization Structures.

29. Ensuring Metadata's Livelihood.

Adding the Functionality and Contents of Additional Metadata Stores.

Keeping the Architecture in Place.

Phased Implementation.

Revising IT Processes.

30. Metadata Is No Longer a Runner Up.

Current Tasks to Ensure an Organization's Metadata Readiness.

Short-Term Metadata Objectives.

Long-Term Metadata-Based Goals.

Business Strategy and IT Collaboration.

If Not Now, When?

Appendix A: Glossary.
Appendix B: Additional Readings.
Index 0201719762T04172001


I remember when data became a specialty in its own right. No longer viewed as simply being supportive of the processes within an organization, data became an asset that led to solid decision making and improved processes. Data, which sometimes had been collected in haphazard ways, in fact, became so valuable that people were trying to logically connect sporadic and isolated data. As the attempts to unify data were taking place, we all realized that its locations, characteristics, definitions, sources, and access were becoming equally important. Hence, the "birth" of metadata.

Associating metadata solely with data does not do it justice. In fact, there are so many aspects to the world of information that metadata needs to embrace each and every one of them. Whether we realize it or not, metadata is already everywhere. All we are missing is an organized view of metadata, despite its origin. Today's world of information needs an associated metadata solution.

Many of us have already learned that metadata is everywhere, but despite this discovery, we have created more of it, in more places. It is time to make an honest assessment of the metadata efforts and begin to focus on metadata as the gateway to all information. To do that we must understand what metadata really is, where it actually comes from, and how to expand its role in the world of automated intelligence.

Few will debate the importance of metadata. It is time, then, for a book that tackles metadata in a way that will clearly lead the reader toward a metadata solution.

Intended Audience

If you have been given the task of managing your organization's information, this book is clearly for you. Likewise, if you are wondering why the data "dictionaries" or "repositories" that have been offered to you just don't seem to serve their intended roles, this book clearly explains what should have been accomplished. Because metadata is, potentially so broad, this book is meant to provide an excellent "backbone" for those who are charged with actually building a full metadata solution. The following are some of the individuals who will benefit the most from this approach.

  • Chief information and/or technology officers who are responsible for assessing the metadata situation within their organizations with the objective of beginning a full, practical, metadata solution implementation process
  • Business users who have experienced data inaccuracy, lack of available metadata, and a general inability to find the information they need
  • Information technology project managers who are responsible for overseeing the design and development of any data-intense application. Examples include a data warehouse, integrated database, decision support application, customer relationship management application, reengineered series of legacy databases, and/or any type of project that requires an assessment of "what is," with the objective of planning a "to be" improvement.
  • Data management professionals who are responsible for the administration, standardization, sharing, and organization of corporate data, especially those with previous experiences that resulted in unsuccessful repository or metadata solution implementations
  • Developers, especially those who are faced with integrating or analyzing existing corporate applications
  • Software vendors that are struggling with a need to supply standard metadata to product consumers while integrating their own software into a metadata accessible result
  • Consulting professionals, particularly those who have faced implementation issues at client companies due to the lack of readily available and accurate metadata

This book provides information and content that will enlighten all of these individual groups. The next section describes some aspects of the book that may appear to be quite technical.

How This Book Is Organized

Consider Metadata Solutions: Using Metamodels, Repositories, XML, and Enterprise Portals to Generate Information on Demand as the first book to address the metadata situation from the beginning through to a practical solution and then into its future maintenance and enhancement. As such, the book has been divided into six parts.

Part I, Today's Information, prepares readers for the book's subsequent discussion of metadata. By looking at information in a way that many may never have considered, this part provides an overview of information and its many existing perspectives. Then, the information problems that have surfaced are discussed. Finally, this part reviews information solutions that have been tried, and for the most part are still in existence, and explains where they fell short. At the conclusion of Part I, the reader should be ready to discuss metadata. Many experienced information practitioners can skip this part, but even with information integration experience, some eyes may still be opened.

Part II, Metadata as Part of the Solution, begins the discussion of metadata itself. First, a solid definition of today's buzzword focuses readers on how tunnel vision can even affect cross-application concepts such as metadata. The part begins the metadata requirements process. By stepping you through a methodology that first identifies metadata beneficiaries, determines metadata requirements, and then begins a categorization process, Part II gets the reader used to metamodels. Metadata stores--the physical storage locations for metadata--are also discussed, giving you various options as to how metamodels can be implemented. As a way of reminding the reader that metadata solutions are much more than the storage of metamodels, the metadata solution architecture is the last topic discussed in the part.

Part III, Entering Meta-Meta Land, takes us inside the metadata solution. To deal with the fact that metadata is everywhere, a true metadata solution needs to be cognizant of the location and access requirements of existing metadata. In addition, metadata solutions all process and display their metadata differently based on the type of metadata. Designers and developers of true metadata solutions must be able to treat metadata with a software perspective. Part III focuses on what metadata means to a tool and discusses the meta-metamodel. Once this basic understanding is covered, metadata-based technologies, such as repositories, the Web, XML, and file management systems, are all discussed. Some aspects of the part may be too technical for the casual reader, but the chapters do clearly explain the internals of metadata solution technology.

Part IV, Beginning the Metadata Solution Process, discusses implementation-specific aspects, other than the metadata and its associated metamodels. Nontechnical factors, such as readiness, scoping, and internal environment changes, are addressed at the beginning of this part. The discussion then moves to technical factors--multitool architecture, metadata update and exchange, metadata presentation. A chapter is dedicated to metadata solution technical support, specifically metadata and repository administration. Part IV ends with advice on determining the right solution.

Part V, Sample Metadata Solutions, begins with a case study--A Typical Metadata Disaster--that equates to a very common metadata situation within corporate America. Succeeding chapters illustrate actual metadata solution implementations that are all focused on solving the identified disaster. Illustrated solutions (often including actual program code, metamodels, and architectural diagrams) include a centralized repository, an integrated repository architecture, an information directory, metadata-interexchange using XML, a standalone metadata store, and an enterprise portal. Although some aspects of this part are quite technical, I strongly urge all readers to at least browse the various solutions.

Part VI, Maintaining the Metadata Solution, describes how the metadata solution stays alive. One way is by ensuring that it meets the requirements of its targeted beneficiaries. This final part discusses the organizational responsibilities that go along with such a task; it also focuses on how to ensure the livelihood of the metadata itself by discussing metadata quality. The book closes by pointing out where metadata meets the business strategy, now and into the future.

Reading Paths

Implementing a metadata solution involves a variety of skills, from business analysis all the way through to technical application and interface development. As such, the chapters in this book range in terms of primary audience and interest level. Those chapters that are geared purely to those responsible for hands-on metadata solution delivery because they contain sample code or metadata solution internals have been labeled Technical at the upper right corner of the first page in each chapter.

To accommodate the different backgrounds of this book's readers, I have set up the following reader categories and noted the chapters that will be of interest.

  • Information systems management people who need to be aware of the intricacies of metadata solutions, but have not planned to have any hands-on involvement:
    − Part 1 - all chapters
    − Part 2 - all chapters
    − Part 3 - Chapters 15 and 16
    − Part 4 - all chapters
    − Part 5 - Chapters 21, 24, and 25
    − Part 6 - all chapters
  • Business users who crave a well-implemented metadata solution
    − Part 1 - all chapters
    − Part 2 - Chapters 7, 8, and 9
    − Part 3 - Chapters 15 and 16
    − Part 4 - Chapters 17 and 20
    − Part 5 - Chapter 21
    − Part 6 - all chapters
  • Technical analysts, and developers who are familiar with database technology
    − Part 1 - Chapters 1, 2, and 6
    − Part 2 - all chapters
    − Part 3 - all chapters
    − Part 4 - all chapters
    − Part 5 - all chapters
    − Part 6 - all chapters
  • Data management professionals who are familiar with metadata and its current treatment
    − Part 1 - Chapters 1, 4, 5, and 6
    − Part 2 - all chapters
    − Part 3 - Chapter 12, 14, 15, and 16
    − Part 4 - all chapters
    − Part 5 - all chapters
    − Part 6 - all chapters

Model Legend

Throughout the book, various models are used to illustrate metadata relationships, metamodels, and metadata flows. Because, unfortunately, there really is no uniform way of depicting models these days, a figure that shows the various symbols you will see in this book will be printed on the inside cover.

Most of the illustrations in this book follow my default modeling characteristics, at the top of the figure. However, because other illustrations and models have been brought in from other sources, it is important to understand their notations, as depicted. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the standard followed by the Object Management Group (OMG).

What Is Your Objective?

As you read this book, you should be correlating the described metadata situations with those of your own. Actual case studies, submitted by large organizations that have lived through metadata-related situations, are used throughout the book. You should consider how a renewed metadata perspective, like the one discussed throughout this book, can revitalize the metadata that exists at your organization. Readers should expect to gain enough knowledge to move forward on a hands-on metadata solution implementation of any scope.




Abbreviations, 234
Access and accessibility
   architectural, 270-271
   in data administration, 314
   directory-based, 442
   distribution of, 287-288
   for file types, 230
   in information directories, 389
   in internal directories, 64-65
   to metadata, 166
      architecture in, 167-168
      object-oriented, 232
      in requirements process, 100
      scope of coverage in, 168-169
      tools in, 168
   metadata impact on, 274-279
   in standalone metadata stores, 409-411
Access databases, 60, 408-412
Access meta-metadata, 183
Accountability in data administration, 314
   of metadata, 262
   of repositories, 56-57
Active connections in internal directories, 65
Active in development state, 457
Active in production state, 457
Active roles in development environment, 268
Active Server Pages (ASPs), 420
AD/Cycle Information Model, 236, 241
ADE (Application Development Environment), 467
Administration, 311-312
   of data and metadata, 234, 312-315
   of metadata solutions and repositories, 316, 434-435
   organization charts for, 320-323
   See also Data administration; Data -management
Advertising metadata, 308
Aliases, 22
Also-ran metadata storage, 185-186
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 240, 457
   of data between applications, 35
   of metadata needs, 99-114, 117-134, 447
   responsibilities for, 429-431
Analysis Package, 245
Analysis paralysis, 120
Anarchical data management, 75-76
   proactive, 77-78
   reactive, 76-77
   standard, 76
Animation in repositories, 214
ANSI (American National Standards Institute), 240, 457
API-driven access for metadata, 166
APIs. See Application program interfaces
Application blinders, 457
Application design tool requirements, 356
Application Development Environment (ADE), 467
   impact of metadata solution on, 272-276
Application development tools
   in metadata disaster case study, 350
   in repositories, 214
   requirements for, 356
Application program interfaces (APIs)
   defined, 457
   in metadata exchange, 247
   for repositories, 210, 292, 378-380
   in architectural planning, 116
   component reuse in, 218
   configuration management for, 441
   data comparisons across, 35
   data model for, 43-44
   in file types, 229
   impact on, 272-273
   in information directory population, 386-387
   vs. metadata, 99
   in metadata disaster case study, 353
   metadata used by, 95
   metamodels for, 366
Architectural metadata, sharing, 302-307
   accessibility of, 270-271
   in accessing metadata, 167-168
   expanded tools in maintaining, 444-447
      metadata of record identification in, 124-127
      process flows in, 117-119
      preliminary, 100
   in repositories, 214
   responsibilities in, 427
   in scope determination, 270-271
Architecture, metadata solution, 284-285, 376
   in metamodels, 252-253
   multitool, 281-286
   planning process for, 116-117
   metadata flows in, 120-124
ASPs (Active Server Pages), 420
   data, 22-23
   in meta-metamodels, 202
   in application data model, 43
   defined, 457
   in meta-metamodels, 202
   in metamodels, 148
   responsibilities in, 428
   in standalone metadata stores, 406-407
Attributes submodel, 172
Automobile quotes case study, 343-346
   in centralized custom databases, 160
   in 5 Questions, 21
Awareness of data existence, 14


Baseline metadata, 312
Batch connectivity, 380
Batch export
   for accessing metadata, 166
   for repositories, 292
   standards for, 237-238
Batch processes, 457
Behavioral features in MOF, 249
   adding, 442-444
   in architectural planning, 116
   defined, 457
   external, 309-310
   in flow analysis. 122-125
   identifying, 95-97, 100-106
   metamodels based on, 153
   in moving to metamodels, 142-143
   requirements for, 106-108, 123-125
   types of, 95-96
Best of breed philosophy, 80
Bookmark systems for Web, 224
Boundaries for metadata exchange, 295
Browser tools
   for downloading, 31-32
   for searches, 221
Browserlike metadata-based searches, 454
Budget responsibilities, 429
Building vs. buying determination, 341-343
Business analysts, 429
Business Area Data Stewards, 35
Business functions, 428
Business metadata population, 385-387
Business metamodels, 367
Business process models, 427
Business processes, 428
Business rules, 87, 458
Business strategies, IT collaboration with, 454-455
Buying vs. building determination, 341-343


CASE (computer-aided software engineering), 458
CASE Data Interexchange Format (CDIF), 236-237
Case studies
   centralized metadata repository, 363-371
   data management organization, 47-48
   enterprise portal, 413-421
   information directory, 383-389
   integrated repository architecture, 373-381
   internal directory, 65-70
   internal Web-based data management, 73
   metadata disaster, 349-361
   metadata interexchange, 391-404
   non-metadata factors, 276-279
   standalone metadata store, 405-412
   XML, 343-346
CASE tools, 52
   in information directory population, 386-387
   in internal directories, 65
   metadata, 127
      common, 129-134
      in Global Data Dictionary, 417
      specific, 127-128
      unique, 128-129
   in metadata requirements, 100
   in moving to metamodels, 142-143
   searches by, 264
   on Web, 224-226
CDIF (CASE Data Interexchange Format), 236-237, 243
Central metadata stores, 289-290
Centralized custom databases, 160-162
Centralized metadata repository case study, 363-364
   component interaction in, 364-365
   metamodels in, 365-367
   processes in, 369-371
   templates in, 368-369
   utilities in, 367-368
Centralized repository tools, 165, 363
Change management, 367-368, 370-371
Characteristics in meta-metamodels, 202
Characters context in information, 89
Characters without context in information, 88-89
Chemical company case study, 276-279
Ciba Specialty Chemicals case study, 276-279
CIOs (Chief Information Officers), 454-455, 458
Class libraries, 52
Closed repositories, 210
Coexistent repositories, 218
COM (Common Object Model), 458
com domain, 223
Command languages for repositories, 292
Commitment to metadata, 265-266
Common constructs in meta-metamodels, 200-203
Common data access, 47
Common metadata
   categorizing, 129-134
   defined, 458
Common Metadata Access Process, 445
Common metadata stores
   as bridges, 288-289
   in long-term goals, 454
Common metamodels, 152-153
   for distributed metadata stores, 327-329
   in metadata interexchange case study, 392
Common Object Model (COM), 458
Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), 249, 252-253, 458
Common repository metamodels, 374-376
Common Warehouse Model (CWM)
   defined, 458
   metamodels, 198-203
   packages, 244-247
Compatibility of metadata, 262
Comply or be excluded philosophy, 64
Component libraries, 231-232
Components in repositories
   dependence of, 213
   interaction between, 364-365
   reuse of, 218
Computer-aided software engineering (CASE), 458
Configuration Management Package, 441
   in data management organization, 47
   with instances, 162
   from metadata sources, 110
   from redundancy, 27
Connectivity, batch, 380
Connector Development Kit, 420
Connectors for MetaMatrix, 415-416, 418-420
Consistency of metadata, 262-264
Contact points, 26
   adding, 439-444
   in centralized custom databases, 161
   in information exchange, 38-40
Content Integration platform, 414
Contexts in information, 89-90
Conversion mechanisms, 295
CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture), 249, 252-253, 458
Corporate Data Definitions, 76
Corporate names, 313
Corporate subject area, 42
Cost/benefits in metadata disaster case study, 359
Coverage in scope determination, 268-269
Creation dates, 313
Credibility of repositories, 57
Cross analysis of data, 35
CRUD (Create, Read, Update, and Delete) transactions
   in metadata presentation, 301
   in tool connections, 286-288
Current state of information in planning, 25
Custom-built repositories, 217
Custom-built standalone metadata stores, 60-61
Custom databases, 160-162
Custom metamodels, 153-156, 337-340
Customer data, 33-34
Customer identification numbers, 36
Customer searches, 376
CWM. See Common Warehouse Model


   analysis of. See Analysis; Analysis Package; Analysis paralysis
   availability of, 21
   awareness of existence of, 14
   defined, 458
   evolution of, 7-8
   intelligent, 223
   location of, 21-23
   meaning of, 21
   in meta-metadata, 180
   obtaining, 23-24
   preprocessed, 91
   relationship to knowledge and information, 4-5
   source of, 23
Data administration, 35
   benefits of, 46-47
   case study, 47-48
   defined, 458
   in knowledge evolution, 8
   responsibilities for, 434
   See also Administration
Data analyst responsibilities, 429
Data association, 22-23
Data-based decision support tools, 351
Data conflicts
   in data management organization, 47
   with instances, 162
   from metadata sources, 110
   from redundancy, 27
Data definition, metadata impact on, 274-279
Data dictionaries, 21
   currency of, 58
   defined, 459
   Global Data Dictionary, 416-417
   repositories from, 56
Data documentation, metadata stores for, 59-60
Data elements
   in internal directories, 64
   in metamodels, 169
Data inventories
   internal directories for, 63
   processes for, 369
Data management, 35
   benefits of, 46-47
   case study, 47-48
   defined, 458
   in knowledge evolution, 8
   responsibilities for, 434
Data marts, 12, 78-79, 459
Data/Metadata Stewards, 412
Data Mining Metamodel, 200
Data models, 41-42
   advantages and disadvantages of, 45-46
   application, 43-44
   defined, 459
   enterprise, 42-43
   penetration of, 44
   responsibilities in, 427
   tools for, 44-45, 351
   types of, 42
   See also Metamodels; Meta-metamodels
Data Propagator, 66
Data redundancy. See Redundancy
Data resource management, 76
Data Shopper, 364-365
Data staging areas, 397, 459
Data stewards, 412
   in reactive data management, 76
   responsibilities of, 435
Data types, standard, 64
Data vendors, 33-37
Data warehousing, 49, 78
   approaches to, 50
   benefits and shortcomings of, 50
   decision support for, 442
   definition, 49-50, 459
   in meta-metamodels, 198
   metamodel for, 367
   in reactive data management, 76-77
   reevaluation of, 78-79
Data webs, 23
Database administrators (DBAs)
   defined, 459
   requirements of, 355-356
   responsibilities of, 429, 435
   tools for, 80-81
Database Definition Language (DDL)
   defined, 459
   generation of, 230
   for repositories, 63, 186
Database management systems (DBMSs)
   defined, 459
   description, 230-231
   in knowledge evolution, 8
   custom centralized, 160-162
   private, 9
   relational designs of, 404
   as repositories, 405-412
   for repositories, 210, 214
   responsibilities in, 427
DBAs. See Database administrators
DBMS. See Database management systems
DBMS catalogs
   purpose of, 231
   requirements of, 357
DBMS tables in meta-metamodels, 195
DDL. See Database Definition Language
Decision support tools
   data-based, 351
   growth of, 81
   requirements for, 445
Definable security, 212
Definitions in data administration, 313
Delete access in CRUD, 286-287
Delimited files in interexchange, 397
Deliverables in object-oriented models, 52
Departmental objectives, 353
   for metamodels, 148
   in repositories, 213
Deployment, software, 245-247
Derivation of information, 11-12
Design phase responsibilities, 431-432
Designs in information directory population, 386-387
   as beneficiaries, 104
   requirements of, 109, 123-124, 355
Development approach to metadata, 265
Development Modeling, 376
Development phase responsibilities, 432
Development tools for Web, 33
Diagrammatic deliverables in object-oriented models, 52
Dictionaries, 21
   currency of, 58
   defined, 459
   Global Data Dictionary, 416-417
   repositories from, 56
Direct queries, 166
Directories. See Information directories
Display methods
   for metadata, 297-298
   in metadata requirements, 100
Distinctiveness in vendor tools, 80
Distributed metadata stores, 163-164, 327-331
Distributed repositories, 331-335
Distributed repository tools, 165-166
Document Type Definitions (DTDs), 225
   for metadata exchange, 294
   in tags, 225-226
Documentation, metadata stores for, 59-60
Domains, 223
Downloading data, 31-33
Dynamic HTML, 420


E-commerce, 459
Ease of identification, 264-265
Ease of implementation, 358
edu domain, 223
Electronic Industries Association (EIA), 237
   in Global Data Dictionary, 417
   in internal directories, 64
   in metamodels, 169
Embedded processes in metadata exchange, 247, 249
Encyclopedias, 459
End users
   in application world vs. metadata, 99
   as beneficiaries, 104
   categories of, requirements for, 354
   vs. Information Technology, 425-426
   metadata support by, 437-438
   profiles for, 297
   requirements for, 109, 123-124
   responsibilities of, 433
   support for, organization charts for, 319-320
Enterprise-level responsibilities, 426-428
Enterprise logical model metamodels, 374
Enterprise model, 42-43
   defined, 259
   for intranets, 71-73
   in reactive data management, 76
Enterprise portals
   case study, 413
      MetaMatrix in, 416-421
      product architecture in, 413-416
   defined, 459
   distributed metadata storage as, 164
   vs. information directories, 383-384
   XML-based, 227-228
Enterprise resource planning (ERP), 460
Enterprise submodels, 241
Enterprise vocabulary, 376
   in application data model, 43
   defined, 460
   in enterprise data model, 42
   in meta-metamodels, 202
   in metadata store metamodel, 406-407
   in metamodels, 148
   responsibilities in, 428
Entity-relationship modeling, 460
ERP (enterprise resource planning), 460
ERWin, CA tool, 47, 408
Essential characteristics of repositories, 211
   component dependence, 213
   integration of content, 211
   metamodel extensibility, 212
   security, 212
   template-driven accessibility, 212
   vendor independence, 211
   versioning, 212
ETL (extract, translation, and load) processes, 50
Evolution of information, 7-10
Excel spreadsheets, self-implemented, 60
Exchange of information
   content in, 38-40
   formats for, 38, 295
   in long-term goals, 454
   in meta-metamodels, 202
   processing in, 39-40
   repositories for, 218
   standards in, 37-40, 238
   on Web, 226-228, 294, 396
Exchange of metadata
   embedded processes for, 247, 249
   metadata-based, 247-249, 294-296
   standards-based, 166, 249-252
Existence of data, awareness of, 14
Expert systems, 87, 460
   for accessing metadata, 166
   for repositories, 292, 368
   standards for, 237-238
Extend Tool, 367
Extensibility of metamodels, 155-156, 212
Extensible Markup Language. See XML
Extensions, 460
External players, 309-310
External standards, 236
   history of, 236-240
   for metamodels, 241-247
Extract, translation, and load (ETL) processes, 50
Extracts, 460


FEs. See Front ends
File management systems, 228-229
   location in, 229-230
   process by file type in, 230
File system, 229
File types, Internet-specific, 32-33
Filters in Web searches, 223
First release in phased implementation, 447
5 Questions, The, 17-19
   in administration, 312
   answers to, 19-21
   availability of data, 21
   and internal standards, 234-235
   location of data, 21-23
   meaning of data, 21
   and metadata, 82, 92-95
   in metadata disaster case study, 353
   in metadata solutions, 158-159
   obtaining data, 23-24
   in short-term objectives, 453
   source of data, 23
   and Web searches, 223
   metadata, 120-124, 140
   in metadata disaster case study, 358-359
   process, 117-119
Foreign keys, 113
   choosing, 34-35
   for exchange, 38, 295
   for presentation, 297
Formatting capabilities in HTML, 222
Foundation Package, 245
Frames of mind, information as, 25
Frameworks in metamodels, 252-253
Front ends (FEs)
   for centralized custom databases, 160
   defined, 460
   for repositories, 217
Function-supporting metamodels, 171
Functions and functionality
   adding, 439-444
   in meta-metamodels, 202
   in metadata disaster case study, 359
   in planning metadata stores, 335-336
   in scope determination, 267-268


Gateways, for metadata, 288
   vs. common metadata stores, 289
   in MetaMatrix, 414
GDD (Global Data Dictionary), 416-417
Generated source code deliverables in object-oriented models, 52
Generators, metadata, 186
Generic meta-metadata, 183
Generic metamodels, 171
Generic repositories, 209-211, 335
Generic tools, repositories for, 291
Global Data Dictionary (GDD), 416-417
Glossary/standard name generation, 368
Go-get-it routines, 210
   in information directory population, 386-387
   long-term, 453-454
   in metadata disaster case study, 351-353
   in metadata solutions, 158-159
   short-term, 452-453
   gov domain, 223
Graphics in repositories, 214
   metadata, 417
   in presentations, 297
Guardian insurance company case study, 65-70
GUIs (graphical user interfaces), 460


Hardware, responsibilities in, 428
Headers, standard, 237
Help Desk function, 323
Hierarchies in class libraries, 52
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), 221-222
   for exchange, 294, 388
   with MetaMatrix, 421
Human resource areas, 75


IBM Data Propagator, 66
   of beneficiaries, 95-97, 100-106
   of metadata, 94, 264-265
   of metadata of record, 124-127
   in moving to metamodels, 143-144
   in readiness, 452
   standards for, 234
Identification numbers, vendor-supplied, 36
   for metamodels, 148
   in moving to metamodels, 141
   in rules, 11
IDL (Interface Definition Language), 253, 460
IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers), 240
Impact analyses, 460
   of common repository model, 374, 376
   ease of, 358
   phased, 447-448
   responsibilities in, 432
Import process for repositories, 292
IMS Health case study, 47-48
Industry in meta-metamodels, 202
Information, 1-4, 87-88
   defined, 4-7, 460
   dissemination functions for, 16-17
   evolution of, 7-10
   exchanging. See Exchange of information
   integrated, 53
   intraorganization, 28-30
   vs. knowledge, 88-90
   in practice, 15-17
   questions answered by, 17-24
   relating to metadata, 93-95
   relationship to data and knowledge, 4-5
   role of, 10-14
   tunnels, 14
Information connections in meta-metamodels, 203-206
Information directories, 55
   case study, 383
      access in, 389
      vs. enterprise portals, 383-384
      metamodels, 384
      populating, 384-388
   defined, 460
   internal, 63-73
   manually maintained, 388
   for metadata stores, 442
   off-the-shelf repositories, 55-59
   standalone metadata stores, 59-62
   Web-based, 71-73, 389
Information on demand, 460
Information overload, 120
Information Resource Dictionary Standard (IRDS), 461
Information Resource Management (IRM), 461
Information sharing
   architectural metadata, 302-307
   in long-term goals, 454
   redundancy in, 25-28
Information systems (IS), 8-9, 461
Information technology (IT)
   business strategies collaboration with, 454-455
   defined, 461
   vs. end users, 425-426
   in knowledge evolution, 9
   knowledge factor in, 87
   in meta-metamodels, 203
   metadata support by, 436-437
   processes in, revising, 448-449
Inheritance in object-oriented models, 52
Inputs, 91
Insert/Translation process, 398
Instance data
   in centralized custom databases, 160
   conflicts with, 162
   defined, 460
   vs. meta-metadata, 180-181
   in metadata exchange, 393
   redefining, 91-92
   searches by, 264
   values, 393
Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 240
Insurance company case study, 65-70
Integrated information, 53
Integrated multidimensional data stores, 78
Integrated repository architecture case study, 373
   common repository metamodels in, 374-376
   metadata solution architecture in, 376-380
   metadata solution maintenance in, 380-381
   metadata solution scope in, 373-374
   metadata for, 97
   in metamodel organization, 192-193
   of repository content, 208, 211
Integrity, metadata web reduction for, 306-307
Intelligent metadata, 223
Interexchange. See Exchange of information
Interface Definition Language (IDL), 253, 460
   tool/repository, 292-293
   on Web, 226-228
Intermediate tables, 380
Internal directories, 63-70
Internal environment, impact on, 271-272
   application development, 272-273
   data definition, access, and reuse, 274-279
Internal standards, 233-236
Internal tools, repositories for, 289-291
Internal Web-based data management, 71-73
International Standard Book Number (ISBN), 461
International Standards Organization (ISO), 240, 461
Internet. See Web
Internet-specific file types, 32-33
Interpretation of information
   in early IT, 4
   metadata for, 96
   benefits of, 340
   defined, 461
   enterprise data model for, 71-73
Intraorganization information, 28-29
   inside IT, 29-30
   outside IT, 30
   internal directories for, 63
   processes for, 369
IRDS (Information Resource Dictionary Standard), 461
IRM (Information Resource Management), 461
IS (information systems), 8-9, 461
ISBN (International Standard Book Number), 461
ISO (International Standards Organization), 240, 461
IT. See Information technology
IT project managers
   as beneficiaries, 104
   requirements of, 109, 123-124, 354-355


JAD (Joint Application Development), 102-103, 461
Java API, 420
JDBC connectors, 420


Keys for metadata groups, 417
   vs. information, 88-90
   relationship to data and information, 4-5
Knowledge factor in IT, 87


Languages, specialty contexts across, 89
Legacy applications, 461
   class, 52
   in meta-metadata analogy, 182
   metadata requirements of, 356-357
   for object-oriented components, 231-232
Limited perspective names, 313
Linking modeling and implementation, 376
Links for sources, 113
Locating information, metadata for, 96
   in data administration, 314
   in file management systems, 229-230
   in metadata population, 388
Logical data elements, 169-170
Logical data models, 44-45, 441, 461
Logical model metamodels, 366
Lookup tables, 404
Lookup tools, Web as replacement for, 340
Lotus Notes, 65


   of metadata solutions, 380-381, 412
   in storing metadata at source, 162
Management Package, 245
Manual input for repositories, 293
Many-to-many relationships, 169
   meta-meta perspective in, 189-190
   standards for, 236
Markup on Web, 221-222, 224-226
Master files for repositories, 56
Master subject areas, 42
Matches in Web searches, 221
   CRUD, 287, 301
   objective/function, 269
   weighted, 342
MDC (Meta Data Coalition), 240, 242-244
Merck and Company case study, 73
Meta-associations, 202
Meta-attributes, 202
Meta-characteristics, 202
Meta Data Coalition (MDC), 240, 242-244
   accessibility of distribution, 287-288
   accuracy of, 262
   administration of, 311-312
   advertising, 308
   beneficiaries, types of, 95-96
   categorization, 128
   common, 129-134, 468
   consistency of, 262-264
   constructs in, 462
   vs. data, 91-92
   definition of, 82, 90-91, 461
      clarifying, 92-93
   evaluation of, 261
      accuracy, 262
      consistency, 262-264
      ease of identification, 264-265
      modularity, 264
      represented perspectives, 264
   exchange. See Metadata exchange
   extract, load, and maintenance utilities for, 367
   identification of, 94, 264-265
   intelligent, 223
   management responsibilities for, 434-435, 438
   vs. meta-metadata, 184
   moving to metamodels
      metadata variations in, 140-141
      multiple metadata beneficiary categories in, 142-143
      multiple metadata sources in, 141
      sources in, 143-145
      unclassified metadata in, 135-139
   perspectives and beneficiaries in, 95-97, 264
   physical, 387-388
   presentation of, 296-297
      display methods for, 297-298
      needs reflected in, 298
      security in, 299-302
   rationalization, 368
   relationship of
      to information, 93-95
      to meta-metadata, 184
      to metamodels, 169-170
   requirements for. See Metadata requirements
   responsibilities, 425-426
   reusing, 308-310
   security, 299-302
   solutions. See Metadata solutions
   specific, 127-128, 465
   stores for. See Metadata stores
   tool view of, 177-178
   unique, 128-129, 465
   webs of, 82-83
Metadata architecture, 46
Metadata constructs, 462
Metadata disaster case study, 349
   metadata in, 353-361
   objectives in, 351-353
   tools in, 350-351
Metadata exchange, 247-249, 294-296
   case study, 391
      common metamodel in, 392
      metadata source/target interface and translation in, 397-403
      scoping in, 396-397
      standard values in, 393-396, 404
   embedded processes for, 247, 249
   standards-based, 166, 249-252
Metadata flows
   in architectural planning process, 120-124
   in moving to metamodels, 140
Metadata framework, 462
Metadata gateways, 288. See also Gateways
Metadata generators, 186
Metadata level in presentations, 301
Metadata of record
   in architectural planning process, 124-127
   defined, 462
   in moving to metamodels, 140
Metadata repositories. See Repositories
Metadata requirements
   accessibility, 100
   defined, 462
   display methods, 100
   identification, 99-100
      by beneficiaries, 106-108
      of beneficiaries, 101-106
      process, 100-101
      sources, 108-114
   for metamodels, 147
   organization, 115-116
      architectural planning process for, 116-127
      categorizing metadata, 127-134
Metadata solution administrators, 323
Metadata solution analysts, 319
Metadata solution planners, 319
Metadata solution project managers, 319-320
Metadata solution readiness, 261-265
Metadata solution support function, 323
Metadata solutions
   accessing metadata in, 166-169
   administration of, 316, 434-435
   architecture for, 376-380, 462
   buying vs. building, 341-343
   case studies. See Case studies
   choosing, 325-346
   defined, 462
   defining, 157-158, 259
   libraries as, 182
   maintenance of, 380-381
   in metamodel organization, 194-195
   objectives in, 158-159
   organization charts for, support of, 318-323
   in presentation security, 300-301
   redefining, 259-260
   scope of, 358
   storing metadata in, 159-166
   tools for, 186
Metadata stores. See also Repositories
   adding functionality and contents to, 440-444
   central, 289-290
   distributed, 327-331
   distributed repositories, 331-335
   generic vs. vendor-specific repositories, 335
   metadata used by, 95
   number of, 326-327
   planned functionality in, 335-336
   in PR/OEE, 364
   standalone. See Standalone metadata stores
   user boundaries in, 335
Metadata values, 462
Metadata webs
   defined, 462
   preventing, 305-307
   in repositories, 56-57
Meta-driven processes, embedded, 249
Meta-entities, 196, 202
MetaEntity, 180-181
Meta-functions, 202
MetaMatrix Enterprise Integration Server, 413-416
   connector deployment for, 418-420
   metamodel in, 416-417
   source modeling to, 417-418
   source queries by, 420-421
Meta-metadata, 177-189
   defined, 462
   description of, 179-180
   processing, 187-188
   purpose of, 180-182
   relationship to metadata, 184
   storing, 184-187
   types of, 183-184
Meta-metamodels, 178, 189-190, 196, 198
   common constructs in, 200-203
   defined, 462
   for distributed metadata store connections, 327
   functions of, 202
   information connections in, 203-206
   insides of, 195-196
   metamodel organization in, 190-195
   repositories, 185-186
   tools vs. repositories in, 197-200
   vendor release of, 339
Meta-Object Facility (MOF), 200-201, 249, 463
Meta-objects, 181, 202
Meta-operations, 202
Meta-processes, 202
Meta-relationships, 202
Meta-repositories, 186-187
Meta-tags, 224-225
   function of, 319
   in metadata requirements process, 103
Metamodels, 135, 157-170
   architectures and frameworks in, standard, 252-253
   components in, 463
   common, 152-153
   customization of, 367
   defined, 462-463
   defining, 145-153
   extensibility of, 155-156, 212
   external standards for, 241
      Common Warehouse Model, 198-199, 244-247
      Open Information Model, 241-244
   generic, 171
   in information directories, 384
   in meta-metamodels, 202
   and metadata exchange, 237, 247-252
   in metadata presentation, 300-301
   in metadata requirements, 100
   metadata solutions in, 194-195
MetaMatrix, 416-417
   moving from metadata to
      metadata variations in, 140-141
      multiple metadata beneficiary categories in, 142-143
      multiple metadata sources in, 141
      sources in, 143-145
      unclassified metadata in, 135-139
   object-oriented, 154-155
   OMG, 171-173, 200
   organization of, 190-192
      metadata repositories in, 193-194
      metadata solutions in, 194-195
      vendor integration strategies in, 192-193
   relationship to metadata, 169-170
   for repositories, 210, 215, 364
      centralized, 365-367
      integrated, 374
   specific, 153
   for standalone metadata stores, 406-408
   standard vs. customized, 253, 337-340
   super vendor, 240, 253
   templates for, 368
   tool-specific, 170
   types of, 170-173
   vendor vs. custom, 153-156
Methodology-specific metamodels, 170
Microsoft Access, 60, 408-412
Microsoft Explorer, 188
Microsoft repository engine object model, 195
mil domain, 223
Minimum and maximum functionality, 359
Model Elements, 249
Model Packaging submodel, 172-173
Modeler application, 414, 417
ModelMart API, 378-380
Models, 145
   data. See Data models
   in information directory population, 386-387
   in meta-metamodels, 202
   in metadata exchange standards, 237
   object-oriented, 51-53
   See also Metamodels; Meta-metamodels
Modularity of metadata, 264
MOF (Meta-Object Facility), 200-201, 249, 251, 463
Moving from metadata to metamodels
   metadata variations in, 140-141
   multiple metadata beneficiary categories in, 142-143
   multiple metadata sources in, 141
   sources in, 143-145
   unclassified metadata in, 135-139
MS Access, 60, 408-412
Multiple metadata beneficiary categories, 142-143
Multiple metadata sources, 141
Multitool architectures, 281-286
Music in repositories, 214


   for data, 22-23
   in data administration, 313
   generation of, 368
   in metamodels, 148
   searches by, 264
   standard, 22
   standards for, 234
   variations in, 140
National Drug Code (NDC), 39
   analyzing, 447
   identifying, 452
Nekema.com case study, 343-346
net domain, 223
Non-metadata factors
   administration, 311-316
   case study, 276-279
   internal environment, 271-279
   metadata presentation, 296-302
   in metadata requirements, 101
   multitool architectures, 281-286
   organization charts, 318-323
   organizational responsibilities, 316-317
   readiness determination, 260-266
   redefining metadata solution, 259-260
   reusing metadata, 308-310
   scope determination, 266-271
   sharing architectural metadata, 302-307
   staffing requirements, 317-318
   tool connections, 286-296
Nondisclosure agreements, 339
Normalization, 463


Object Database Connectivity (ODBC), 463
Object Management Group (OMG)
   Common Warehouse Model by, 244
   CORBA from, 252-253
   defined, 463
   meta-metamodels, 200
   metamodels, 171-173
   standards from, 240
Object names for metamodels, 148
Object orientation
   defined, 463
   and management, 87
Object-oriented DBMS (OODBMS), 214
Object-oriented (OO) metadata
   access to, 232
   origins of, 231-232
Object-oriented (OO) metamodels, 154-155
Object-oriented (OO) models, 51-52
   class libraries in, 52
   component libraries in, 231-232
   inheritance in, 52
   reusability in, 52-53
   in information directory population, 386-387
   long-term, 453-454
   in metadata disaster case study, 351-353
   in metadata solutions, 158-159
   short-term, 452-453
Objects in meta-metamodels, 202
Obtaining data, 23-24
ODBC (Object Database Connectivity), 377, 463
ODS (operational data stores), 50, 79, 463
OEE. See Open Enterprise Edition
Off-the-shelf (OTS) items, 464
Off-the-shelf metamodels, 154, 337
Off-the-shelf repositories, 55-59
Official names in data administration, 313
OIM. See Open Information Model
Old versus new repository technology, 213-215
OMG. See Object Management Group
OODBMS (object-oriented DBMS), 214
Open Enterprise Edition (OEE)
   metamodels in, 366
   templates in, 368-369
   tools in, 367-368
Open Information Model (OIM), 171-173, 241-244, 463
Open repositories, 210
Open-schema connections, 380
Operational data, 22
Operational data stores (ODS), 50, 79, 463
   in meta-metamodels, 202
   in Meta Object Facility, 249
Operations organization, 319
org domain, 223
Organization charts, 318-323
Organization support in metadata solutions, 358
Organizational responsibilities, 316, 324, 425-434
Organizational structures, 320-323, 434-438
   in metadata categorization, 128
   in object-oriented metadata, 231-232
OTS (off-the-shelf) items, 464
Outputs, 91
Outside data
   downloading, 31-33
   information exchange, 37-40
   vendors for, 33-37
Outside world in meta-metamodels, 200, 202


Packages, CWM
   analysis, 245
   foundation, 245
   management, 245
   resource, 245
   software deployment, 245-247
Parsers, XML, 225, 396-397, 421
Passive repositories, 464
PC COBOL installations, 357
PDMs (physical data models), 441, 464
Penetration of data models, 44
Personal computers (PCs) in knowledge evolution, 9
Personal objectives, 353
Personnel requirements, 317-318
   in metadata, 95-97, 264
   metamodel, from sources, 143-145
Pharmaceutical company case study, 73
Phased implementation, 447-448
   responsibilities in, 432
Physical connections, 327
Physical data elements, metamodels, 169-170
Physical data models (PDMs), 441, 464
Physical metadata population, 387-388
Physical representation, 297
Planned functionality in metadata stores, 335-336
Planning phase, responsibilities in, 430
Planning process, 99
   architectural, 116-117
      metadata flows in, 120-124
      metadata of record identification in, 124-127
      process flows in, 117-119
Platinum Repository Open Enterprise Edition (PR/OEE), 363-364, 368
   Data Shopper, 364-365
   metamodels in, 366
   templates in, 368-369
   tools in, 367-368
Points of contact, 26
   defined, 464
   in metadata presentation, 300
   for repositories, 210
Polymorphism, 52
   directories, 384-388
   metamodels, 408-409
Population Center, 367
Population tools/utilities, 364
Portal/directory-based access, 166
Portals, enterprise. See Enterprise portals
PR/OEE. See Platinum Repository Open Enterprise Edition
Preliminary architecture, 100
Preprocessed data, 91
Presentation, metadata. See under Metadata
Primary Metadata Solution Administrators, 319
Primary points of contact, 26
Primary/secondary architecture defined, 464
   in multirepositories, 334
Privileges in metadata presentation, 300
Proactive data management, 77-78
Process flows in architectural planning, 117-119
   in architectural planning, 116
   for centralized repositories, 369-371
   embedded, 247, 249
   by file type, 230
   in information exchange, 39-40, 247, 249
   IT, revising, 448-449
   meta-metadata, 183, 187-188
   in meta-metamodels, 202
   in metadata requirements process, 101
   models for, 441, 464
   for repositories, 215
   responsibilities in, 428
   tools for, 351
Product architecture, 413-416
Product Support organization, 319
Production roles and support
   in development environment, 268
   organization charts for, 318-319
Program libraries, requirements of, 356-357
Programmers, 319, 323
Project managers, 429-430
   in information directory population, 386-387
   in metadata disaster case study, 353
   objectives for, 353
   responsibilities for, 429-433
Proliferation in readiness, 452
Public Interface Tables, 380
Public library analogy, 182


Quality control in centralized custom databases, 160
Quasi repositories, 216
Queries, MetaMatrix, 416, 420-421
Query engines, 415
Query languages, 8. See also Structured Query Language


Rationalization processes, 369-370
Reactive data management, 76-77
Read access in CRUD, 286-287
Readiness determination, 260
   commitment, 265-266
   development approach, 265
   metadata in, 261-265
   tasks for, 451-456
   adding, 444-445
   examples of, 186
   in information sharing, 25-28
   in metadata sources, 110-112
   in repositories, 58
   in tool functions, 285-286
Regulations, data management, 36-37
Relational database designs, 464
Relational metamodels, 366
Relational models, 8-9
   in application data model, 43
   in enterprise data model, 42
   in meta-metamodels, 202
   in metadata groups, 417
   in metamodels, 148
   in standalone metadata stores, 406-407
Remote procedure calls (RPCs)
   for accessing metadata, 166
   defined, 464
   in metadata exchange, 247
   for repositories, 210, 292
Reporting cycles, 47
   administration of, 316, 434-435
   in architectural planning process, 116
   batch export/import for, 292
   centralized, 165
   centralized metadata repository case study, 363-371
   command languages for, 292
   custom-built, 217
   databases for, 210, 214
   defined, 207-208, 464
   distributed, 331-335
   essential characteristics of, 211-213
   examples, 217-218
   generic, 209-211, 335
   graphics in, 214
   input methods, 292-295
   integrated repository architecture case study, 373-381
   internal architecture, 209-211
   internal tool, 289-292
   for meta-metadata, 185-186
   meta-metamodels, 197-200, 210
   meta-repositories, 186-187
   metadata used by, 95, 294
   in metamodel organization, 193-194
   metamodels, 210, 215
   off-the-shelf, 55-59
   old vs. new technology, 213-215
   quasi, 216
   scanners for, 293
   software for, 210-211, 215
   templates for, 211-212
   for tools, 185-186
      generic, 291-293
      internal, 289-291
   tools for
      centralized, 165
      distributed, 165-166
      interfaces for, 292-293
   vs. tools, 197-200
   unloading, 368
   utilities for, 211, 291, 367-368
   vendor-specific, 335
Repository architecture, 209, 464
Repository in a box, 165, 213
Repository scanners, 293
Repository states, 464
Requirements, metadata. See Metadata requirements
Requirements diversions, 101
Resource Package, 245
Responsibilities, 425-426
   end-user, 433
   enterprise-level, 426-428
   organizational, 316-317
   organizational structures in, 434-438
   project-level, 429-433
Retrieval tools, 186
Reuse of data
   file types, 229
   metadata, 308-310
   metadata impact on, 274-279
   in object-oriented models, 52-53
   in repositories, 218
Reverse engineering
   defined, 464
   software for, 293
   in development environment, 268
   of information, 10-14
   of metadata, 96-97
   of tools in multitool architectures, 282-286
RPCs. See Remote procedure calls
   about information, 10-14
   business, 87, 458
   templates for, 368


Sample metadata solutions
   centralized metadata repository, 363-371
   enterprise portal, 413-421
   information directory, 383-389
   integrated repository architecture, 373-381
   metadata disaster, 349-361
   metadata interexchange, 391-404
   standalone metadata store, 405-412
Scanners, 293
Schedules, 429
   in accessing metadata, 168-169
   in centralized custom databases, 161
   determination of, 266-267
      architectural accessibility in, 270-271
      coverage in, 268-269
      function in, 267-268
   in integrated repositories, 373-374
   in metadata exchange, 295, 396-397
   in metadata requirements, 100
   in metadata solutions, 358
   restricted, 161
   in standalone metadata stores, 405-406
Search and retrieval
   in identification schemes, 264-265
   text, 264
   on Web, 221-224
Search engines, 163-164, 221
   in centralized metadata repositories, 367
   in data administration, 315
   in internal directories, 65
   in metadata presentation, 299-302
   in metadata solutions, 358
   for repositories, 212
   templates for, 369
   on Web, 340
Security manager, 367
Security-specific meta-metadata, 183
Semi-extensible quasi repositories, 216
Services in meta-metamodels, 202
SGML (Standardized Generalized Markup Language), 221
Sharing information
   architectural metadata, 302-307
   in long-term goals, 454
   redundancy in, 25-28
SKU (Stock Keeping Unit) numbers, 36, 38
SMIF (Stream-based Metadata Interchange Format), 251
   deployment of, 245-247
   in meta-metamodels, 202
   for repositories, 210-211, 215
   responsibilities in, 428
Software interfaces for metadata, 101
Solution determination, 325-326
   buying vs. building, 341-343
   Internet in, 340-341, 343-346
   metadata stores in. See Metadata stores
   metamodels in, 337-340
   sample. See Sample solutions
Source/target interface and translation, 397-403
Sources of metadata, 23
   adding, 444-445
   in data administration, 314
   identifying, 100, 108-114
   metamodels based on, 153
   in moving to metamodels, 141, 143-145
   storing metadata at, 162-163
   URLs for, 223
Specialties, information, 87-88
Specialty contexts, 89-90
Specific metadata
   categorizing, 127-128
   defined, 465
Specific metamodels, 153
SQL. See Structured Query Language
Staffing requirements, 317-318
Staging areas, 397, 459
Standalone metadata stores, 59-60
   case study, 405
      accessibility in, 409-411
      maintenance in, 412
      metamodels in, 406-407
      populating metamodels in, 408-409
      scope in, 405-406
   custom-built, 60-61
   vendors for, 61-62
Standardization and standards, 233
   compliance with, 253
   for data models, 45
   early efforts in, 26-27
   external, 236
      history of, 236-240
      for metamodels, 241-247
   for file types, 229
   in information exchange, 37-40, 238
   internal, 233-236
   for languages, 249, 254
   in long-term goals, 454
   with meta-metamodels, 340
   in metadata exchange, 166, 237, 247, 249-253, 295, 393-396, 404
   in metadata solutions, 358
   for metamodels, 241
   in readiness, 452
   repositories for, 218
   for storing metadata at source, 163
Standardized Generalized Markup Language (SGML), 221
Star schema design, 49
Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) numbers, 36, 38
Stores, metadata. See Metadata stores; Repositories
   metadata, 159-160
      centralized custom databases for, 160-162
      centralized repository tools for, 165
      distributed repository tools for, 165-166
      distributed storage for, 163-164
      at source, 162-163
   meta-metadata, 184-185
      meta-repositories for, 186-187
      tool repositories for, 185-186
Stream-based Metadata Interchange Format (SMIF), 251
Structured Query Language (SQL)
   defined, 465
   in knowledge evolution, 8
   in MetaMatrix queries, 420
Subclasses, 52
Subject areas
   categories, search, 264
   in enterprise data model, 42-43
   in internal directories, 64-65
   responsibilities in, 428
   standard, 42-43
   in AD/Cycle, 241
   defined, 465
   in Open Information Model, 172-173
Super vendors, 240, 253
Superclasses, 52
Suppliers, incorporating, 309-310
Support of metadata solution, 323
Synchronization in storing metadata at source, 162


   in metadata exchange, 392-393
   and search engines, 221-222
   standard, 393
   with XML, 224-225, 227
Target information in information directories, 384
   in information directory population, 386-387
   in metadata scope, 353
   for readiness, 451-456
Technical architecture, responsibilities for, 427, 429
Technical support
   administration, 311-316
   organization charts, 318-323
   organizational responsibilities, 316-317
   staffing requirements, 317-318
Technological effectiveness in metadata solutions, 361
Technology, repository, old vs. new, 213-215
   in data administration, 315
   defined, 465
   in metadata presentation, 297-299
   for repositories, 211-212, 364-365, 368-369
Testing phase, responsibilities in, 432
Text searches, 264
Textual deliverables in object-oriented models, 52
Tool-based data modeling, 441
Tool-driven access for metadata, 166
Tool-specific metamodels, 170
Tools, 80-81
   in accessing metadata, 168
   in architectural planning, 116
   as beneficiaries, 105-106
   browser, 31-32, 221
   for data models, 44-45, 351
   for meta-metadata, 185-186
   for meta-metamodels, 197-200
   metadata connections to, 286
      accessibility distribution in, 287-288
      connecting, 288-296
      CRUD in, 286-288
   in metadata disaster case study, 350-351
   metadata used by, 95
   in multitool architectures, 281-286
   for repositories
      centralized, 165
      distributed, 165-166
      interfaces for, 292-293
   vs. repositories, 197-200
   repositories for, 185-186, 214
      generic, 291-293
      internal, 289-291
   requirements for, 356
   retrieval, 186
   scoping, 396-397
   view of metadata by, 177-178
Transactional applications, 465
Transactional data, 8
   defined, 391
   source/target, 397-403
   of specialty contexts, 89
Tunnel vision
   defined, 465
   effects of, 15-16
   with metadata, 235
   object-oriented metamodels for, 155
Tunnels, information, 14


UCC (Uniform Code Council), 39
UCC-12 standard, 38
Unclassified metadata, 135-139
Unified Modeling Language (UML)
   defined, 465
   for metamodels, 170
   and OIM, 242
Uniform Code Council (UCC), 39
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), 222-223
Unique metadata
   categorizing, 128-129
   defined, 465
Universal Base Metamodel, 239
UPC codes, 38-39
Update access in CRUD, 286-287
Upper management executive requirements, 354
URLs (Uniform Resource Locators), 222-223
Usability of information, 12
User boundaries in metadata stores, 335
User interface templates, 368
Users. See End users
Uses in categorization, 128
Utilities for repositories, 211, 291, 367-368


Validation in centralized custom databases, 160
VB (Visual Basic), 465
Vendor independence in repositories, 208, 211
Vendor metamodels vs. custom, 153-156
Vendor-specific repositories, 335
   customer identification numbers supplied by, 36
   data, 33-37
   metamodel integration strategies of, 192-193
   for standalone metadata stores, 61-62
   super vendors, 253
   in Universal Base Metamodel, 239
   of metadata of record, 126
   in repositories, 212
Virtual databases, 414
Virtual holding areas, 208
Visual Basic (VB), 465
Vocabulary, enterprise, 376


Warehousing. See Data warehousing
W3C standards committee, 240, 251
Web, the World Wide, 220-221
   categorizing on, 224-226
   for data management, 71-73
   development tools for, 33
   downloading data from, 31-33
   for exchange, 226-228, 294, 396
   interface on, 226-228
   move to, 455
   search and retrieval on, 221-224
   sites, 223-224
   in solution determination, 340-341, 343-346
   standards for, 249
Weighted matrices, 342
Word documents, self-implemented, 60
Wrappers, 227


XMI (XML Metadata Interchange) specification, 251-252, 465
XML (Extensible Markup Language), 222, 224-226
   case study, 343-346
   and CWM Packages, 245
   defined, 465
   for exchange, 294, 392, 396-403
   with MetaMatrix, 420-421
   parser in, 225, 396-397, 421
   for portal technologies, 227-228
   and standards, 240, 249
   tags, 397
XML-based information, transferring, 226-227, 251
XML Metadata Interchange (XMI) specification, 251-252, 465
Y2K impact analyses, 337
Zachman framework, 374


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