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Juniper Networks Field Guide and Reference

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Juniper Networks Field Guide and Reference


  • Sorry, this book is no longer in print.
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  • Copyright 2003
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 912
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-321-12244-5
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-321-12244-5

The first in-depth, definitive book from Juniper Networks, the innovator of high-performance routing platforms used by the world's largest service providers. Written and edited by Juniper engineers and editors, this book has been produced to be a portable technical compendium on all things Juniper. This comprehensive reference was culled from an incredible array of technical material including technical manuals (5000 pages), Juniper Technical Assurance Center FAQs and field alerts (2000 pages), Juniper Engineering Labs, www.juniper.net, and the Juniper Customer Service Center. The organization is superb -- its vast number of tables has been distilled into at-a-glance comprehension, and pointer and marginal cross-references aid the reader to easily find the information they seek. The book covers the most recent software releases, including JUNOS 5.3, the newest routing platforms, the T-Series Routing Node and the complete M-Series routers. It even includes more than 100 pages of sought-after sample configurations direct from Juniper's labs.

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Juniper Routing Policy and Firewall Filters

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Table of Contents

List of Figures.

List of Tables.


Book Conventions.

1. Juniper Networks.

Juniper Networks Markets.

Customer Services.

Education Services.

Technical Certification.

Professional Services.


Internet and E-mail Contact Information.

2. JUNOS Internet Software Overview.

JUNOS Processes.

Routing Protocol Process.

Interface Process.

Chassis Process.

SNMP and MIB II Processes.

Management Process.

Supported Networking Standards.

3. Juniper Networks Router Overview.

Router Architecture.

Hardware Components.


Flexible PIC Concentrators.

Physical Interface Cards.

Routing Engine.

Power Supplies.

Cooling System.

Cable Management System.

Field-Replaceable Units.

T640 Internet Routing Node.

T320 Internet Router.

M160 Internet Router.

M40e Internet Router.

M40 Internet Router.

M20 Internet Router.

M5 and M10 Internet Routers.

4. Router Installation and Basic JUNOS Setup.

Preparing for Installation.

Rack Requirements.

Power and Grounding Cable Requirements.

Network Cable Requirements.

Site Wiring Guidelines.

Fiber-Optic Connection Guidelines.

Unpacking the Router.

Installing the Router.

Initially Configuring the Software.

Installing the Software.

Upgrading Software Packages.

Upgrading Individual Software Packages.

Basic Software Setup.

Configuring User Accounts.

Configuring Login Classes.

Configuring User Authentication.

Configuring Time.

5. CLI and System Management.

Using the CLI.

CLI Screen Output.

Filtering Screen Output.

CLI Operational Mode.

Setting the Date and Time.

Displaying CLI Command History.

Monitoring Who Uses the CLI.

Controlling the CLI Environment.

CLI Configuration Mode.

Configuration Statements and Identifiers.

How the Configuration Is Stored.

Entering and Exiting Configuration Mode.

Moving among Levels of the Hierarchy.

Displaying the Current Configuration.

Creating and Modifying the Configuration.

Running Operational Mode CLI Commands from Configuration.

Displaying Configuration Mode Command History.

Verifying and Committing a Configuration.

Saving a Configuration to a File.

Loading a Configuration.

Returning to a Previously Committed Configuration.

Getting Help.

Adding Comments in a Configuration.

System Management with SNMP.

Management Information Base.

SNMP Traps.

JUNOS SNMP Agent Features.

System Logging for SNMP Traps.

Configuring SNMP.

Configuring System Information.

Configuring the SNMP Community String.

Configuring SNMP Trap Options.

Configuring the Interfaces on Which SNMP Requests are Accepted.

Configuring MIB Views.

Tracing SNMP Activity.

6. Interfaces and Class of Service.

JUNOS Interface Terminology.

Configuring Interfaces on the Router.

Configuring Physical Interface Properties.

Configuring Logical Interface Properties.

Configuring Family and Address Interface Properties.

Configuring ATM Interfaces.

Configuring E1 and E3 Interfaces.

Configuring Encryption Interfaces.

Configuring Ethernet Interfaces.

Configuring Ethernet Physical Interface Properties.

Configuring 802.1Q VLANs.

Configuring Static ARP Table Entries.

Configuring VRRP.

Configuring the Management Ethernet Interface.

Configuring the Internal Ethernet Interface.

Configuring Aggregated Ethernet Interfaces.

Configuring Frame Relay.

Configuring the Loopback Interface.

Configuring Multilink Interfaces.

Configuring Multilink Properties.

Configuring Physical and Logical Multilink Interfaces.

Configuring SONET/SDH Interfaces.

Configuring SONET/SDH Physical Interface Properties.

Configuring APS.

Configuring the Media MTU.

Configuring the Clock Source.

Configuring Receive and Transmit Leaky Bucket Properties.

Damping Interface Transitions.

Configuring Interface Encapsulation.

Configuring Aggregated SONET/SDH Interfaces.

Configuring T1 and T3 Interfaces.

Configuring Tunnel Interfaces.

Configuring a Unicast Tunnel.

Configuring a Multicast Tunnel.

Configuring a VPN Tunnel for Route Table Lookup.

Configuring a VPN Tunnel for VRF Table Lookup.

Configuring PIM Tunnels.

Configuring Channelized Interfaces.

Configuring Channelized DS-3 to DS-0 Interfaces.

Configuring Channelized DS-3 to DS-1 Interfaces.

Configuring Channelized E1 Interfaces.

Configuring Channelized OC-12 Interfaces.

Configuring Channelized OC-3 and STM-1 Interfaces.

Configuring Class of Service (CoS).

Defining Code-Point Aliases.

Configuring Forwarding Classes.

Classifying Packets by Behavior Aggregate Class.

Configuring Scheduling Policy Maps.

Configuring RED Drop Profiles.

Rewriting Packet Header Information.

Configuring CoS-Based Forwarding.

7. IP Security (IPSec).

Configuring IPSec Global and Proposal Properties.

Configuring Security Associations.

Configuring Dynamic Security Associations.

Configuring IKE.

Configuring an IPSec Proposal.

Configuring an IPSec Policy.

8. Routing Policy and Firewall Filters.

Policy Terminology.

Comparison of Routing Policies and Firewall Filters.

Routing Policy Framework.

Configuring Routing Policy.

Defining Routing Policies.

Applying Routing Policies.

Applying Routing Policies to the Forwarding Table.

Configuring AS Path Regular Expressions.

Configuring Communities.

Configuring Prefix Lists and Route Lists.

Configuring Route Lists.

Configuring Subroutines.

Configuring the AS Path Prepend Action.

Configuring BGP Route Flap Damping.

Configuring Per-Packet Load Balancing.

Configuring Firewall Filters.

Applying Firewall Filters to Interfaces.

Configuring Policing.

Configure Accounting.

Configuring Filter-Based Forwarding.

Configuring Traffic Sampling and Forwarding 3.

Configuring Per-Flow Load Balancing Information.

Configuring Traffic Sampling Output Files.

Tracing Traffic Sampling Operations.

Configuring Flow Aggregation (cflowd).

Configuring Port Mirroring.

9. Routing and Routing Protocols.

Routing Protocols Concepts.

Creating Routing Tables.

Configuring Static, Aggregate, and Generated Routes.

Specifying Policy with Aggregate and Generated Routes.

Configuring Martian Addresses.


BGP Messages.

Configuring BGP.


IS-IS Packets.

Configuring IS-IS.


OSPF Routing Algorithm.

OSPF Packets.

Configuring OSPF.


RIP Packets.

Configuring RIP.

Tracing RIP Protocol Traffic.

Multicast Protocols Overview.


PIM Packet Formats.

Configuring PIM.


DVMRP Packet Formats.

Configuring DVMRP.


IGMP Packets.

Configuring IGMP.

Tracing IGMP Protocol Traffic.

SAP and SDP.

SAP and SDP Packets.

Configuring SAP and SDP.


MSDP Packets.

Configuring MSDP.

Configuring MSDP Peers.

Multicast Scoping.

Configuring Multicast Scoping.

10. IPv6.

IPv6 Packet Headers and Addressing.

Configuring IPv6.

Configuring Interfaces.

Configuring Firewall Filters.

Configuring Routing Policy.

Creating IPv6 Routing Tables.

Configuring IPv6 Routing Protocols.

IPv4-to-IPv6 Transition Mechanisms.

Dual IP Layer.

Configured Tunnels.

11. MPLS Applications.

Traffic Engineering.

Traffic Engineering Components.


Types of LSPs.

Flexible LSP Calculation and Configuration.


Routers in an LSP.

How a Packet Travels along an LSP.

Constrained-Path LSP Computation.

Fate Sharing.

IGP Shortcuts.

Advertising LSPs into IGPs.

IP and MPLS Packets on Aggregated Interfaces.

MPLS Applications for Traffic Engineering.

MPLS and Routing Tables.

MPLS and Traffic Protection.

Per-Prefix Load Balancing.

Automatic Bandwidth Allocation.

Configuring MPLS-Signaled LSPs.

Configuring the Ingress Router for MPLS-Signaled LSPs.

Configuring LDP Tunneling.

Using Fate Sharing to Configure Alternate Backup Paths.

Enabling RSVP.

Configuring MPLS over GRE Tunnels.

Configuring Static LSPs.

Configuring Explicit-Path LSPs.

Configuring Miscellaneous MPLS Properties.

Popping the Label on the Ultimate-Hop Router.

Configuring Traffic Engineering for LSPs.

Configuring MPLS to Gather Statistics.

Controlling MPLS System Log Messages and SNMP Traps.

Tracing MPLS Protocol Packets and Operations.


Enabling RSVP.

Configuring RSVP Aggregation.

Configuring the RSVP Hello Interval.

Configuring RSVP Authentication.

Reserving Bandwidth on an Interface.

Configuring RSVP Timers.

Preempting RSVP Sessions.

Tracing RSVP Protocol Traffic.

Configuring RSVP and MPLS.


Enabling LDP.

Configuring the LDP Hello Interval.

Configuring the LDP Hold Time.

Configuring the LDP Keepalive Interval.

Configuring the LDP Keepalive Timeout.

Configuring LDP Route Preferences.

Popping the LDP Ultimate-Hop Router.

Filtering Inbound and Outbound LDP Labels.

Enabling LDP over LSPs Established by RSVP.

Configuring the Transport Address Used by LDP.

Configuring LDP Egress Policy.

Configuring FEC Deaggregation.

Configuring LDP to Use the IGP Route Metric.

Tracing LDP Protocol Traffic.

Circuit Cross-Connect.

Configuring Layer 2 Switching Cross-Connects.

Configuring MPLS LSP Tunnel Cross-Connects.

Configuring LSP Stitching Cross-Connects.

12. Layer 2 and Layer 3 VPNs.

VPN Concepts.

Configuring Layer 2 VPNs.

Configuring Layer 3 VPNs.

Configuring Policy for the PE Router's VRF Table.

Configuring VPN Routing between the PE and CE Routers.

Configuring Layer 3 VPN Tunnel Interfaces.

13. Monitoring Commands.

System Management.



Accounting Options.


Firewall Filters.

Forwarding Options.

Class of Service.

Protocol-Independent Routing.

Routing Policy.




Generic IP Multicast Information.





Multicast Scoping.




Layer 2 VPNs.

Layer 3 VPNs.

IP Security (IPSec).

14. Sample JUNOS Configurations.

ATM Interface Configuration.

BGP Configurations.

Basic BGP Configuration.

BGP Routing Policy.

Route Aggregation.

Controlling Peering.

Route Flap Damping.

Route Reflectors.


IS-IS Configurations.

Basic Configuration.

Export Static Routes.

Simple Authentication.

Interface-Level Hello Authentication.

Passive Interfaces.

Layer 3 VPN Configurations.


Additional Resources.


Index. 0321122445T09252002


When I wrote the first Juniper Networks software manual in the early summer of 1997, it was about 250 pages. When we shipped JUNOS Release 3.2 in March 1999, the JUNOS manual was just shy of 1,000 pages. I was dismayed at the prospect of having the manual be in two books and asked the development engineers to stop writing code. Of course, they didn't honor my request. At the time of this writing, the JUNOS 5.3 documentation set is 5,700 pages in 13 separate volumes. Similarly, the hardware documentation set has grown from a single 120-page manual to more than 250 pages of documentation for each of six platforms.

When our long-time publishing consultant, Patrick Ames, suggested that we might want to create a small field guide for installing, configuring, and operating Juniper Networks routers, I thought it would be nice to return to a world in which we could document the product in under a thousand pages. We created a small team of technical documentation writers and editors--Gary Drenan, Cris Morris, Patrick Ames, and myself--and together we sifted the contents of all the JUNOS and hardware documentation, extracting the material that we felt was essential for understanding the mission of Juniper Networks and for understanding our hardware and software products. (We felt this was a more prudent method than simply removing all the vowels or deleting all the verbs.)

This book is the result of our extracting and condensation process. We begin with a brief overview of Juniper Networks the company, describing our markets, services, and offerings. While much of this exists on the Web site--and we recommend you get the most updated material there--we felt that the book should provide some background about the company itself.

Chapter 2, JUNOS Internet Software Overview, presents the big picture view of the JUNOS software. This chapter is short not by design, but because the JUNOS architecture has always been straightforward, clear, and succinct. In Chapter 3, Juniper Network Hardware Overview, our senior hardware writer Gary Drenan has worked diligently not only to review all the components and specifications of both the M-series and new T-series routers, but also to collect and collate it in one place. In creating Chapter 4, Router installation and JUNOS Setup, Gary has similarly collected everything about installation, from unpacking the crate to getting the router up and running in the network.

Chapters 4 through 12 are concerned with configuring the router and describing the feature set of the JUNOS Internet software. Beginning with Chapter 5, CLI and System Management, our senior editor Cris Morris efficiently describes how to work with the software. The following chapters detail interfaces and Class of Service (in Chapter 6), IPv6 (in Chapter 7), and IPSec (in Chapter 8). Chapters 9 and 10 get to the heart of IP networking, discussing routing policy and firewall filters, and routing and routing protocols, respectively.

Chapter 11 looks at MPLS applications, Chapter 12 at virtual private networks (VPNs), and Chapter 13 provides sample configurations that come directly from the Juniper Networks testing labs. We conclude the book with a useful, tabular summary of all the critical JUNOS Internet software monitoring commands (I suspect these might turn out to be the most dog-eared pages of your field guide). Finally, we include a glossary of the many Juniper Networks-specific acronyms and terms so you don't have to try to memorize them all.

While we have tried to summarize the Juniper Networks hardware and software features in this field guide, there will undoubtedly be places where the information is insufficient for your needs. Please refer to Appendix A in this book that lists additional resources. Also remember that you can always find a full and complete discussion in the Juniper Networks technical product documentation.



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