Home > Store

JSP and XML: Integrating XML and Web Services in Your JSP Application

Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon.

JSP and XML: Integrating XML and Web Services in Your JSP Application


  • Sorry, this book is no longer in print.
Not for Sale


  • Copyright 2002
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 592
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-672-32354-0
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-672-32354-6

The first Internet revolution was all about delivering information to people. We are now in the second revolution, which focuses on delivering information to systems. XML is the tool that makes this new revolution a reality, and Web services are the methods by which businesses will drive system-to-system communication. JSP(TM) and XML takes you beyond the basics, giving you practical advice and in-depth coverage. In the book, you'll learn the technologies and techniques needed to create your own Web services for use in JSP applications. Written by programmers for programmers, the book will help you successfully utilize these exciting technologies with minimal hassle and maximum speed.

In JSP™ and XML you will:

  • Learn how to use XML, XSLT, and XPath in your JSP site
  • Program SAX to speed up your XML document processing
  • Understand DOM to learn the W3C standard method of working with XML
  • Coordinate cross-browser client-side XML utilization
  • Understand the Web services alphabet
  • Learn how to leverage Web services to simplify access to your data
  • Learn how SOAP, WSDL, and UDDI integrate into Web Services
  • Use JDOM and dom4J to easily work with XML files
  • Design a balanced JSP site using XML
  • Expand your knowledge of JSP to add new functionality to your Web pages
  • Learn how to practically apply Servlet filters and listeners to a Web site
  • Build dynamic JSP pages that can self- modify, making sites easier to maintain
  • Understand how the new JSP XML syntax works
  • Review the basics of database access within JSP
  • Learn JSP tag library design and how tag libraries simplify using XML and Web Services


Source Code

Dowload the Source Code by clicking on the link below:


Sample Content

Online Sample Chapters

Understanding Web Services

Understanding Web Services

Using XML in Reporting Systems

Table of Contents



1. Integrating JSP and Data.

Using JSP with a Database.

Entering the Data.

Reviewing the Code for Entering Data.

Viewing the Data.

Other Considerations.

Connection Pooling.

Testing Components.

Testing for Scale.

Basic Design Concepts.

Using a Tag library.


2. Introduction to XML/XSL.

What Is XML?

Rules of XML.

Tags and Elements.

The XML Declaration.

Document Type Declaration.


Character Entities.

CDATA Sections.


Well-Formed and Validated Documents.

On to Using XML.



Stylesheet Linking.



Stylesheet Errors.

Whitespace and Encoding.

Entity Declarations.

Trees, Nodes, and Family.



3. Understanding Web Services.

What Is a Web Service?

Crystal Ball Readings.

The ABCs of Web Services.

The Basic Building Blocks.

Service Management Initiatives.

Java APIs.

How to Use a Web Service.

Using SOAP.

Roaming the Internet.



4. A Quick Start to JSP and XML Together.

The Relationship Between XML and JSP.

A Warning.

JAXP, Xerces, and Xalan.

JSP and XML: An Overview.


DOM (XML Document Object Model).

SAX (XML Parser).

JDOM (XML Document Representation).

dom4j (XML Document Representation).

JAXB (Parser and XML Document Representation).


5. Using DOM.

What Is the DOM?

Strengths of DOM.

Weaknesses of DOM.

Nodes and Tree Structure.

The Document Node.

Programming with DOM.



Removing a Node.

Moving Nodes.

Copying and Appending Nodes.

Programmatically Creating an XML Document.

Moving Nodes Between Documents.




JDOM, dom4j, and Deferred DOM.


6. Programming SAX.

What Is SAX?

The Workings of SAX.

SAX Interfaces.

Downsides to SAX.

Differences Between SAX1 and SAX2.

First SAX Example.

Characters and Ignorable Whitespace.

Processing Versus Validation.

Characters Revisited.

Error Handling.

Ignorable Whitespace.

Entity References.

The Document Locator.

Breaking the System to See How It Works.

Processing Versus Validation Revisited.

Using SAX to Output HTML.


7. Successfully Using JSP and XML in an Application.

Using a Java Representation of an XML Document.

Why Not Just Use SAX or DOM?

Installing JDOM and dom4j.




Why Both JDOM and dom4j?

JDOM and dom4j: A Quick Comparison.

Common Ways to Use XML.

Using a Database with XML.

XML Initialization Files.

Storing the Initialization Data.

Using a Listener to Store the DatabaseParameter Object.

Using a Java XML Model.

Threading Issues.

Getting the Row Count.

XML and the WebRowSet.

Building a dom4j Helper Class.

Creating a Banner Handler.

Creating a Test JSP Page.

Using a Java Representation of an XML Document.

Using JAXB.

HashMap Versus Java XML Representation.

Pulling in XML Files.

Defining an XML File.

Pondering XML Design.

Reading XML Files and Creating New Output.

Using JDOM.

Building the Final JSP Page.


8. Integrating JSP and Web Services.

Thinking in JSP and Web Services.

Tag Libraries Versus Web Services.

Using Tag Libraries to Access a Web Service.

Integrating a Web Service into a JSP Page.

A Tag Library/Service Warning.

Fixing Some Network Issues.

Web Service Reliability.

When Should You Build Your Own Web Service?

JSP Pages Versus Web Service.

Building a Corporate Web Service.

Goal of This Web Service Example.

Realities of Building a Web Service.

Setting Up the Example.

Initializing Data.

Accessing Application Data.

Building the Actual Web Service.

Deploying a Web Service.

Where Is the WSDL?

Writing a JSP Page to Deploy the Descriptor File.

More on Security.

Building a Page to Access the Service.

Apache SOAP Help.


9. Advanced JSP and XML Techniques.

Accessing Web Services from a Browser.

Using an Applet.

Handling Large XML Documents.



Handling Special Characters and Encoding.

Using XML Tag Libraries.

XSL Tag Library.

XTags Library for XML.



10. Using XSL/JSP in Web Site Design.

Handling XML Files Directly.

How Servlet Mappings Work.

Building an XML Servlet Handler.

Building a SAX Reader.

Creating a Servlet to Process XML Files.

Register the Servlet.

Building the Error Page.

Creating Some Test Files.

Accessing XML Directly.


11. Using XML in Reporting Systems.

Architecture of Reporting Systems.

When to Use XML with Reports.

Data Source for Reports.

Creating Database Data.

ResultSet to XML.

What It Does.

Bringing It All Together.

The Sorting Table Stylesheet.

The Cross Tab Stylesheet.


12. Advanced XML in Reporting Systems.

Multiple-Page Reports.

The JSP for the Multiple-Page Report.

The Stylesheet for the Multiple-Page Report.

Reports on Data with One-to-Many Relationships.

The JSP for the One-to-Many Report.

The Stylesheet for the One-to-Many Report.

Real-World Reporting Systems.

Well-Formed Documents Revisited.


13. Browser Considerations with XML.

Client-Side XML and Browser Support.

Client-Side JavaScript and XML.

The JSP.

Client-Side Transformations and XML.

The Cross-Browser JavaScript Source File.

The JSP.

The Two XSL Stylesheets.


14. Building a Web Service.

Designing a Web Service.

What Is the Goal?

What Are the Requirements?

What Data Does the Service Need?

Building the Web Service.

Building a File Handler.

Building a Search Utility.

Creating an ElementHandler.

Building a Document Object.

Applying a Stylesheet.

Creating a Stylesheet.

Building the Web Service at Last.

Registering the Web Service with Apache SOAP.

Creating a WSDL File.

WSDL Namespaces.

Creating the JSPBuzz WSDL File.

WSDL Implementation File.

WSDL Documentation.

Registering Within UDDI.

Registering a Service.

Using Java to Access a WSDL Document.


15. Advanced Application Design.

Dynamic JSP.

When Not to Use Dynamic JSP.

Building a Dynamic JSP Example.

SOAP Server Security Concerns.

Using Tomcat Security Zones.

Servlet Filtering.

Other Apache SOAP-Specific Security Steps.

Quick Takes.

Web Services—SSL and Data Encryption.

Using Cocoon.



A. Setting Up.

Installing the JSP Environment.

The Java Software Development Kit (SDK).

The Tomcat Server.

Creating a Web Site for the Book.


The MySQL Database Server.

Creating a MySQL Database.

Installing a JDBC Driver.


B. Introduction to JSP and How Things Work.

JSP Basics.

JSP Banner Example.


JSP Actions, Directives, and Implicit Objects.

A More Robust JSP Example.

Additional Information About JSP.

What Is JSP and How Does It Work?

JSP XML Syntax.

JSP Documentation Resources.


C. Tag Library.

Tag Library Overview.

What Is a Tag Library?



The Six Steps to Building Tag Libraries.

Tag Library Concepts.

Isolating the Business Logic.

The Tag Handler.

The Tag Library Descriptor (TLD).

Creating a Distribution File.

Registering the Tag Library.

Using the Tag Library Declaration on a JSP Page.

Building a Tag Library.

Isolating the Business Logic.

Building a Tag Handler.

The Tag Library Descriptor.

Registering the Tag Library.

Using the Tag Library on a JSP Page.

General Notes.

Body Data.

Design Notes.

Empty Tags.



D. XSL Reference.

XSLT and XPath.

Context and Current Nodes.


XSLT Elements.

XPath Functions.

Index. 0672323540T03282002


The purpose of this book is to teach you how to implement XML and Web services within a JSP Web application or site. The book will start very simply and then work its way up in complexity. This will make the book accessible to a wide range of readers.

The target audience includes new and intermediate JSP programmers. However, this book will be useful for any JSP programmer who wants to expand his or her XML or Web service implementation knowledge. The book is also geared towards helping a JSP programmer think in terms of the combination of JSP, XML, and Web services. The goal is to show how to usefully integrate these technologies into your projects and share the lessons we have learned in building Web applications.


We are programmers who spend quite a bit of time building Web applications. Over the past few years, we have been implementing XML in our projects. However, implementing XML is easier said than done at times. Even worse, many times XML is implemented in ways that can be harmful to a project. You should never use XML for XML's sake. This book is a reflection of our ordeals in learning the various tools and the methods of incorporating XML in a useful way into a Web site.

The problem for developers hasn't been about finding information on XML, but about using XML successfully within Web applications. While there are plenty of solid XML titles, no title really focuses on how to integrate XML into your JSP project. This book is written with the JSP developer in mind. We want to help teach XML, XSL, XPath, and the entire alphabet soup that goes along with XML. By showing how to use XML within a JSP framework, we intend to help make implementing XML both easy and advantageous for the JSP developer.

On Web Services

Web services are the latest fad. They are so new that many of the accompanying tools are still in beta or are only now being released into the marketplace. It's still very early to learn Web services. Web services are too new for anyone to truly be an expert in the field. This makes learning Web services both an exciting and a strange experience. Our intention is to teach you how to incorporate Web services into JSP. We will remove the confusion that surrounds Web services and give a clear path to learning the basics. This book will show the various elements that constitute a Web service.

On the Structure of the Book

The book is divided into four parts. Part I is designed to introduce you to each of the technologies exemplified throughout this book. Part II drills deeply into the various tools for each of these technologies. Part III shows how to successfully combine all these technologies to make your project easier and faster to implement. Part IV contains appendixes that provide reference material.

Part I: Data, XML, and Web Services Introduction

This part is intended to ground you. We do not assume that you already know a great deal about JSP, XML, or Web services; these three topics are introduced in Chapters 1-3.

Chapter 1: Integrating JSP and Data

This chapter shows how to use JSP and a database together. The chapter serves to ground you in JSP and show you how to perform basic database connectivity.

Chapter 2: Introduction to XML/XSL

This chapter is a whirlwind tour of XML and XSL. It introduces each of the major concepts that are needed for XML and begins teaching XSL and XPath.

Chapter 3: Understanding Web Services

Chapter 3 introduces the concepts of Web services. Web services are a confusing topic, and the chapter focuses on the basic concepts you will need to use them.

Part II: Integrating JSP and XML

Part II is a review of the tools, APIs, and logic required to successfully implement XML and Web services. These chapters introduce the various concepts of Web services and the various parsers for XML. Once you've studied these chapters, you will have enough knowledge to begin using XML and Web services successfully.

Chapter 4: A Quick Start to JSP and XML Together

This chapter gives you a quick start to mixing JSP and XML together. The chapter reviews the basic XML APIs and works through some examples of merging JSP and XML.

Chapter 5: Using DOM

This chapter teaches the important aspects of the DOM API. The DOM is the standard supported by the W3C for working with an XML file programmatically.

Chapter 6: Programming SAX

This chapter teaches you the ins and outs of the SAX API. SAX is probably the most common API used to read in an XML file. Most of the time, SAX is used automatically by other XML APIs. However, this chapter is very important because understanding SAX is critical for handling more complicated XML-based processes.

Chapter 7: Successfully Using JSP and XML in an Application

This chapter introduces the other major Java XML APIs: JDOM and dom4j. This chapter produces an integrated example showing how to work with JSP, XML, and a database. The goal of this chapter is to begin walking you through the integration of XML in a natural way within your JSP application.

Chapter 8: Integrating JSP and Web Services

Chapter 8 examines how to use a Web service within your JSP site. This chapter covers two important Web services topics. The first is using a Web service; the chapter shows the most efficient way to use a Web service within your JSP application. The second topic is building a Web service; the chapter walks through the creation of a Web service that can be used by other applications.

Chapter 9: Advanced JSP and XML Techniques

This chapter explores XML concepts that aren't discussed in other chapters. Topics include accessing a Web service from an HTML page, XML encoding issues, ways of processing large XML documents, and XML tag libraries.

Part III: Building JSP Sites to Use XML

Building a JSP site requires far more than just knowing how to use JSP. It requires the ability to think in terms of building a Web application. Web application design is a fine art that involves integrating many different tools as a seamless unit within a JSP project. To this end, Part III covers the implementation of XML and Web services from an application point of view. The chapters in this part cover many topics, from Web service security to building XML reporting systems. We show many different facets of Web application design, from the server to the often-overlooked browser client.

Chapter 10: Using XSL/JSP in Web Site Design

This chapter examines what is possible by going back to the roots of JSP--or more specifically by using servlets. The goal of the chapter is to examine generic XML handling. This means that the initial processing of an XML document can happen at the application level rather than at the page level. The chapter shows how to capture the processing of an XML page and route it directly to a servlet.

Chapter 11: Using XML in Reporting Systems

No matter what the Web application, it's a safe bet that there will be some reporting involved. This chapter examines how reporting systems can benefit from the appropriate placement and use of XML.

Chapter 12: Advanced XML in Reporting Systems

This chapter builds on the examples in Chapter 11. Additional concepts and topics to enhance an XML-based reporting system are shown in this chapter's examples. Among the examples is one that shows how to create reports that show a one-to-many relationship in the database.

Chapter 13: Browser Considerations with XML

JSP developers often overlook client-side XML processing. This is a serious oversight, as browsers are a growing and improving XML client-side tool. This chapter examines how using the browser can enhance handling of XML data and reduce Web server load.

Chapter 14: Building a Web Service

In this chapter, we build a Web service system for news delivery. The code within this chapter is based on a Web service within a production environment. The goal is to show the design and full integration of a complete Web service.

Chapter 15: Advanced Application Design

This chapter covers two topics. First, we'll show you how to build JSP pages that update themselves. This advanced capability permits JSP sites to be more flexible and to expand what is possible with XML, Web services, and JSP. The second main topic is security; the chapter examines how to secure your Web services.


The appendixes support the material presented in the main part of the book. Their contents are briefly described here.

Appendix A: Setting Up

This appendix covers basic information about setting up the JSP container and introduces NetBeans for the creation of all your JSP pages.

Appendix B: Introduction to JSP and How Things Work

For new JSP users, this appendix offers a crash course on JSP and how it works.

Appendix C: Tag Library

This book uses JSP tag libraries as much as possible. For users who are new to JSP, this appendix quickly covers how to build and use a JSP tag library.

Appendix D: XSL Reference

XSL is used extensively in this book. Appendix D is a reference to the most commonly used XSL tags and XPath functions.

A Word about Source Code

All the source code from the listings and programs included in this book is available via download.

Throughout the book, we create sample class files and JSPs and then build on them later in the same or another chapter. Whenever we do so, we clearly indicate where the original file can be found. Lines of code that should be added or changed are indicated in boldface type.

How to Use the Book

As we mentioned earlier, this book is geared toward new and intermediate JSP programmers. How you use the book, and where you begin reading, will depend on your experience level. Here are a few tips to get you started.

For All Users

If possible, we recommend coding the examples. In programming, the best way to learn is by coding, and the examples have been geared to enable you to do so. If you have any questions about initially setting up the JSP container or NetBeans to create JSPs, refer to Appendix A. Otherwise, the first time a specific component is used, it will be referenced for installation at that time.

In many respects, coding the examples is very important because this book explores many different concepts. If you don't write the code, many of the concepts are likely to slip by or not sink in as deeply as they should. We also encourage you to expand and tweak the examples. Try to break the code and find out why it breaks. As programmers, we learn best by coding and by fixing broken code. Coding is best learned by experience; don't shy away from this reality.

For New JSP Users

We are not going to assume that you already know JSP like the back of your hand. Someone with little or no JSP experience can pick up this book and learn how to use JSP and XML. The code and topics are built in a logical and easy manner to help show what is required in using XML within your JSP projects. Beginning JSP programmers will want to study the chapters in Part I closely. The examples are simple enough that they will be a great learning aid. New JSP readers will also benefit from reading Appendix B.

For Intermediate JSP Users

The best starting place will depend on your skills. For users who are inexperienced in XML or Web services, Part I is still your best bet. Otherwise, we recommend skimming the first section, as there is quite a bit of information within each chapter. These chapters have some information that can benefit more experienced readers. However, if you find that you already know the Part I material, skip ahead to Part II.

Conventions Used in This Book

The following typographic conventions are used in this book:

  • Code lines, commands, statements, variables, and any text you type or see onscreen appears in a mono typeface.
  • Placeholders in syntax descriptions appear in an italic mono typeface. Replace the placeholder with the actual filename, parameter, or whatever element it represents.
  • Italics highlight technical terms when they're being introduced and defined.
  • The book also contains Notes to help you spot important or useful information more quickly.

A Final Note

This book was written as a reference for JSP, XML, and Web services. Learning this material on our own was a long process, and our goal is to help give JSP developers some insights into building JSP Web applications. The fact is, XML and Web services are both fast becoming essential tools to most JSP applications. The problem is trying to learn everything at once. Our goal was to provide integrated examples of practical JSP, XML, and Web service implementations. We hope that you benefit from reading the book as much as we benefited from writing it.



Submit Errata

More Information

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020