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Java? Programming Language, The, 4th Edition


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The story of Java---direct from the creators and Godfather of Java, James Gosling!

° Completely revised for Java 2 Standard Edition 5.0

° Features perspective and commentary from the creators of the Java Programming Language

° Coverage on generics, autoboxing and all new features to J2SE 5.0


  • Copyright 2006
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 928
  • Edition: 4th
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-321-34980-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-321-34980-4

Direct from the creators of the Java™ programming language, the completely revised fourth edition of The Java™ Programming Language is an indispensable resource for novice and advanced programmers alike.

Developers around the world have used previous editions to quickly gain a deep understanding of the Java programming language, its design goals, and how to use it most effectively in real-world development. Now, Ken Arnold, James Gosling, and David Holmes have updated this classic to reflect the major enhancements in Java™ 2 Standard Edition 5.0 (J2SE™ 5.0).

The authors systematically cover most classes in Java’s main packages, java.lang.*, java.util, and java.io, presenting in-depth explanations of why these classes work as they do, with informative examples. Several new chapters and major sections have been added, and every chapter has been updated to reflect today’s best practices for building robust, efficient, and maintainable Java software.

Key changes in this edition include

  • New chapters on generics, enums, and annotations, the most powerful new language features introduced in J2SE 5.0
  • Changes to classes and methods throughout to reflect the addition of generics
  • Major new sections on assertions and regular expressions
  • Coverage of all the new language features, from autoboxing and variable argument methods to the enhanced for-loop and covariant return types
  • Coverage of key new classes, such as Formatter and Scanner

The Java™ Programming Language, Fourth Edition, is the definitive tutorial introduction to the Java language and essential libraries and an indispensable reference for all programmers, including those with extensive experience. It brings together insights you can only get from the creators of Java: insights that will help you write software of exceptional quality.

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Table of Contents

Preface   xxi

Chapter 1: A Quick Tour   1

1.1  Getting Started   1
1.2  Variables   3
1.3  Comments in Code   6
1.4  Named Constants   7
1.5  Unicode Characters   8
1.6  Flow of Control   9
1.7  Classes and Objects   12
1.8  Methods and Parameters   15
1.9  Arrays   18
1.10  String Objects   21
1.11  Extending a Class   24
1.12  Interfaces   27
1.13  Generic Types   29
1.14  Exceptions   32
1.15  Annotations   35
1.16  Packages   36
1.17  The Java Platform   38
1.18  Other Topics Briefly Noted   39

Chapter 2: Classes and Objects   41

2.1  A Simple Class   42
2.2  Fields   44
2.3  Access Control   47
2.4  Creating Objects   49
2.5  Construction and Initialization   50
2.6  Methods   56
2.7  this   68
2.8  Overloading Methods   69
2.9  Importing Static Member Names   71
2.10  The main Method   73
2.11  Native Methods   74

Chapter 3: Extending Classes   75

3.1  An Extended Class   76
3.2  Constructors in Extended Classes   80
3.3  Inheriting and Redefining Members   84
3.4  Type Compatibility and Conversion   90
3.5  What protected Really Means   93
3.6  Marking Methods and Classes final   96
3.7  Abstract Classes and Methods   97
3.8  The Object Class   99
3.9  Cloning Objects   101
3.10  Extending Classes: How and When   107
3.11  Designing a Class to Be Extended   108
3.12  Single Inheritance versus Multiple Inheritance   114

Chapter 4: Interfaces   117

4.1  A Simple Interface Example   118
4.2  Interface Declarations   120
4.3  Extending Interfaces   122
4.4  Working with Interfaces   126
4.5  Marker Interfaces   130
4.6  When to Use Interfaces   131

Chapter 5: Nested Classes and Interfaces   133

5.1  Static Nested Types   133
5.2  Inner Classes   136
5.3  Local Inner Classes   142
5.4  Anonymous Inner Classes   144
5.5  Inheriting Nested Types   146
5.6  Nesting in Interfaces   148
5.7  Implementation of Nested Types   149

Chapter 6: Enumeration Types   151

6.1  A Simple Enum Example   151
6.2  Enum Declarations   152
6.3  Enum Constant Declarations   154
6.4  java.lang.Enum    159
6.5  To Enum or Not   160

Chapter 7: Tokens, Values, and Variables   161

7.1  Lexical Elements   161
7.2  Types and Literals   166
7.3  Variables   169
7.4  Array Variables   173
7.5  The Meanings of Names   178

Chapter 8: Primitives as Types   183

8.1  Common Fields and Methods   184
8.2  Void    187
8.3  Boolean    187
8.4  Number    188
8.5  Character    192
8.6  Boxing Conversions   198

Chapter 9: Operators and Expressions   201

9.1  Arithmetic Operations   201
9.2  General Operators   204
9.3  Expressions   214
9.4  Type Conversions   216
9.5  Operator Precedence and Associativity   221
9.6  Member Access   223

Chapter 10: Control Flow 229

10.1  Statements and Blocks   229
10.2  if-else    230
10.3  switch    232
10.4  while and do-while    235
10.5  for    236
10.6  Labels   241
10.7  break    241
10.8  continue    244
10.9  return    245
10.10  What, No goto?   246

Chapter 11: Generic Types   247

11.1  Generic Type Declarations   250
11.2  Working with Generic Types   256
11.3  Generic Methods and Constructors   260
11.4  Wildcard Capture   264
11.5  Under the Hood: Erasure and Raw Types   267
11.6  Finding the Right Method--Revisited   272
11.7  Class Extension and Generic Types   276

Chapter 12: Exceptions and Assertions 279

12.1  Creating Exception Types   280
12.2  throw    282
12.3  The throws Clause   283
12.4   try, catch, and finally   286
12.5  Exception Chaining   291
12.6  Stack Traces   294
12.7  When to Use Exceptions   294
12.8  Assertions   296
12.9  When to Use Assertions   297
12.10  Turning Assertions On and Off   300

Chapter 13: Strings and Regular Expressions   305

13.1  Character Sequences   305
13.2  The String Class   306
13.3  Regular Expression Matching   321
13.4  The StringBuilder Class   330
13.5  Working with UTF-16   336

Chapter 14: Threads   337

14.1  Creating Threads   339
14.2  Using Runnable   341
14.3  Synchronization   345
14.4  wait, notifyAll, and notify   354
14.5  Details of Waiting and Notification   357
14.6  Thread Scheduling   358
14.7  Deadlocks   362
14.8  Ending Thread Execution   365
14.9  Ending Application Execution   369
14.10   The Memory Model: Synchronization and volatile    370
14.11  Thread Management, Security, and ThreadGroup    375
14.12  Threads and Exceptions   379
14.13  ThreadLocal Variables   382
14.14  Debugging Threads   384

Chapter 15: Annotations   387

15.1  A Simple Annotation Example   388
15.2  Annotation Types   389
15.3  Annotating Elements   392
15.4  Restricting Annotation Applicability   393
15.5  Retention Policies   395
15.6  Working with Annotations   395

Chapter 16: Reflection   397

16.1  The Class Class   399
16.2  Annotation Queries   414
16.3  The Modifier Class   416
16.4  The Member classes   416
16.5  Access Checking and AccessibleObject   417
16.6  The Field Class   418
16.7  The Method Class   420
16.8  Creating New Objects and the Constructor Class   423
16.9  Generic Type Inspection   426
16.10   Arrays   429
16.11  Packages   432
16.12  The Proxy Class   432
16.13  Loading Classes   435
16.14  Controlling Assertions at Runtime   444

Chapter 17: Garbage Collection and Memory   447

17.1  Garbage Collection   447
17.2  A Simple Model   448
17.3  Finalization   449
17.4  Interacting with the Garbage Collector   452
17.5  Reachability States and Reference Objects   454

Chapter 18: Packages   467

18.1  Package Naming   468
18.2  Type Imports   469
18.3  Package Access   471
18.4  Package Contents   475
18.5  Package Annotations   476
18.6  Package Objects and Specifications   477

Chapter 19: Documentation Comments   481

19.1  The Anatomy of a Doc Comment   482
19.2  Tags   483
19.3  Inheriting Method Documentation Comments   489
19.4  A Simple Example   491
19.5  External Conventions   496
19.6  Notes on Usage   497

Chapter 20: The I/O Package   499

20.1  Streams Overview   500
20.2  Byte Streams   501
20.3  Character Streams   507
20.4  InputStreamReader and OutputStreamWriter   512
20.5  A Quick Tour of the Stream Classes   514
20.6  The Data Byte Streams   537
20.7  Working with Files   540
20.8  Object Serialization   549
20.9  The IOException Classes   563
20.10  A Taste of New I/O   565

Chapter 21: Collections   567

21.1  Collections   567
21.2  Iteration   571
21.3  Ordering with Comparable and Comparator    574
21.4  The Collection Interface   575
21.5  Set and SortedSet    577
21.6  List    580
21.7  Queue    585
21.8  Map and SortedMap   587
21.9  enum Collections   594
21.10  Wrapped Collections and the Collections Class   597
21.11  Synchronized Wrappers and Concurrent Collections   602
21.12  The Arrays Utility Class   607
21.13  Writing Iterator Implementations   609
21.14  Writing Collection Implementations   611
21.15  The Legacy Collection Types   616
21.16  Properties   620

Chapter 22: Miscellaneous Utilities   623

22.1  Formatter    624
22.2  BitSet   632
22.3   Observer/Observable    635
22.4  Random    639
22.5  Scanner    641
22.6  StringTokenizer    651
22.7  Timer and TimerTask   653
22.8  UUID   656
22.9   Math and StrictMath    657

Chapter 23: System Programming   661

23.1  The System Class   662
23.2  Creating Processes   666
23.3  Shutdown   672
23.4  The Rest of Runtime   675
23.5  Security   677

Chapter 24: Internationalization and Localization   685

24.1  Locale   686
24.2  Resource Bundles   688
24.3  Currency   694
24.4  Time, Dates, and Calendars   695
24.5  Formatting and Parsing Dates and Times   703
24.6  Internationalization and Localization for Text   708

Chapter 25: Standard Packages 715

25.1  java.awt--The Abstract Window Toolkit   717
25.2  java.applet--Applets   720
25.3   java.beans--Components   721
25.4  java.math--Mathematics   722
25.5  java.net--The Network   724
25.6  java.rmi--Remote Method Invocation   727
25.7  java.security and Related Packages--Security Tools   732
25.8  java.sql--Relational Database Access   732
25.9  Utility Subpackages   733
25.10  javax.* --Standard Extensions   737
25.11  javax.accessibility--Accessibility for GUIs   737
25.12  javax.naming--Directory and Naming Services   738
25.13  javax.sound--Sound Manipulation   739
25.14  javax.swing--Swing GUI Components   740
25.15  org.omg.CORBA--CORBA APIs   740

Appendix A: Application Evolution   741

A.1  Language, Library, and Virtual Machine Versions   741
A.2  Dealing with Multiple Dialects   743
A.3  Generics: Reification, Erasure, and Raw Types   744

Appendix B: Useful Tables   749

Further Reading   755

Index   761


Untitled Document Beautiful buildings are more than scientific. They are true organisms,spiritually conceived; works of art, using the best technology by inspirationrather than the idiosyncrasies of mere taste or any averaging by the committee mind.
--Frank Lloyd Wright

The Java™ programming language has been warmly received by the world community of software developers and Internet content providers. Users of the Internet and World Wide Web benefit from access to secure, platform-independent applications that can come from anywhere on the Internet. Software developers who create applications in the Java programming language benefit by developing code only once, with no need to "port" their applications to every software and hardware platform.

For many, the language was known first as a tool to create applets for the World Wide Web. An applet is a mini-application that runs inside a Web page. An applet can perform tasks and interact with users on their browser pages without using resources from the Web server after being downloaded. Some applets may, of course, talk with the server to do their job, but that's their business.

The Java programming language is indeed valuable for distributed network environments like the Web. However, it goes well beyond this domain to provide a powerful general-purpose programming language suitable for building a variety of applications that either do not depend on network features, or want them for different reasons. The ability to execute downloaded code on remote hosts in a secure manner is a critical requirement for many organizations.

Other groups use it as a general-purpose programming language for projects in which machine independence is less important. Ease of programming and safety features help you quickly produce working code. Some common programming errors never occur because of features like garbage collection and type-safe references. Support for multithreading caters to modern network-based and graphical user interface-based applications that must attend to multiple tasks simultaneously, and the mechanisms of exception handling ease the task of dealing with error conditions. While the built-in tools are powerful, it is a simple language in which programmers can quickly become proficient.

The Java programming language is designed for maximum portability with as few implementation dependencies as possible. An int, for example, is a 32-bit signed two's-complement integer in all implementations, irrespective of the CPU architecture on which the program executes. Defining everything possible about the language and its runtime environment enables users to run compiled code anywhere and share code with anyone who has a Java runtime environment.

About This Book

This book teaches the Java programming language to people who are familiar with basic programming concepts. It explains the language without being arduously formal or complete. This book is not an introduction to object-oriented programming, although some issues are covered to establish a common terminology. Other books in this series, and much online documentation, focus on applets, graphical interfaces, databases, components, and other specific kinds of programming tasks. For other references, see "Further Reading" at the end of the book.

This fourth edition provides integrated coverage of the Java programming language as provided by the Java™ 2 Platform Standard Edition 5.0, and specified by The Java™ Language Specification, Third Edition. It also covers most of the classes in the main packages (java.lang.*, java.util, java.io) as implemented in the J2SE™ Development Kit 5.0 (more commonly known as JDK 5.0, or in the older nomenclature JDK 1.5.0). If you have already read the third edition, you will find that there have been some major changes, both in the language and this book, since the 1.3 release that the third edition covered. There are new chapters on generics, enums and annotations--the major new language features introduced in the 5.0 release--and major new sections on assertions and regular expressions. There has been some restructuring of existing material to accommodate other changes and improve the general flow of the text--such as introducing the new boxing and unboxing conversions. But every single chapter has been updated in some way--whether it is a new language feature like variable argument methods, or the new enhanced for loop construct; or a new class such as Formatter for formatting text output; or changes to classes and methods caused by the addition of generics (such as the collections utilities and the reflection classes)--change permeates this entire fourth edition.

The Java programming language shares many features common to most programming languages in use today. The language should look familiar to C and C++ programmers because it was designed with C and C++ constructs where the languages are similar. That said, this book is neither a comparative analysis nor a "bridge" tutorial--no knowledge of C or C++ is assumed. C++ programmers, especially, may be as hindered by what they must unlearn as they are helped by their knowledge.

Chapter 1--A Quick Tour--gives a quick overview of the language. Programmers who are unfamiliar with object-oriented programming notions should read the quick tour, while programmers who are already familiar with object-oriented programming paradigms will find the quick tour a useful introduction to the object-oriented features of the language. The quick tour introduces some of the basic language features that examples through the rest of the book are built on.

Chapters 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 cover the object-oriented core features of the language, namely, class declarations that define components of a program, and objects manufactured according to class definitions. Chapter 2--Classes and Objects--describes the basis of the language: classes. Chapter 3--Extending Classes--describes how an existing class can be extended, or subclassed, to create a new class with additional data and behavior. Chapter 4--Interfaces--describes how to declare interface types which are abstract descriptions of behavior that provide maximum flexibility for class designers and implementors. Chapter 5--Nested Classes and Interfaces--describes how classes and interfaces can be declared inside other classes and interfaces, and the benefits that provides. Finally, Chapter 6--Enumeration Types--covers the definition and use of type-safe enumeration constants.

Chapters 7, 8, 9, and 10 cover standard constructs common to most languages. Chapter 7--Tokens, Values and Variables--describes the tokens of the language from which statements are constructed, the types defined by the language and their allowed values, and the variables that are used to store data either in objects, arrays or locally within methods. Chapter 8--Primitives as Types--explores the relationship between the primitive types and objects of their corresponding wrapper classes, and how boxing and unboxing can transparently convert between them. Chapter 9--Operators, and Expressions--describes the basic operators of the language, how operators are used to build expressions, and how expressions are evaluated. Chapter 10--Control Flow--describes how control statements direct the order of statement execution.

Chapter 11--Generic Types--describes how generic types are written and used, their power and their limitations.

Chapter 12--Exceptions and Assertions--describes the language's powerful error-handling capabilities, and the use of assertions to validate the expected behavior of code.

Chapter 13--Strings and Regular Expressions--describes the built-in language and runtime support for String objects, the underlying character set support, and the powerful utilities for regular expression matching.

Chapter 14--Threads--explains the language's view of multithreading. Many applications, such as graphical interface-based software, must attend to multiple tasks simultaneously. These tasks must cooperate to behave correctly, and threads meet the needs of cooperative multitasking.

Chapter 16--Annotations--describes the annotation types used to document some of the extra-linguistic properties of classes and method.

Chapter 15--Reflection--describes the type introspection mechanism and how objects of unknown type can be constructed and manipulated dynamically at runtime.

Chapter 17--Garbage Collection and Memory--talks about garbage collection, finalization, and lower-strength reference objects.

Chapter 18--Packages--describes how you can group collections of classes and interfaces into separate packages.

Chapter 19--Documentation Comments--shows how to write reference documentation in comments.

Chapters 20 through 24 cover the main packages. Chapter 20--The I/O Package--describes the input/output system, which is based on streams. Chapter 21--Collections--covers the collection or container classes such as sets and lists. Chapter 22--Miscellaneous Utilities--covers the rest of the utility classes such as bit sets, formatted output, text scanning, and random number generation. Chapter 23--System Programming--leads you through the system classes that provide access to features of the underlying platform. Chapter 24--Internationalization and Localization--covers some of the tools used to create programs that can run in many linguistic and cultural environments.

Chapter 25--Standard Packages--briefly explores the packages that are part of the standard platform, giving overviews of those packages not covered in more detail in this book.

Appendix A--Application Evolution--looks at some of the issues involved in dealing with the evolution of applications and the Java platform, and the impact this has on some of the new language features.

Appendix B--Useful Tables--has tables of information that you may find useful for quick reference.

Finally, Further Reading lists works that may be interesting for further reading on complete details, object orientation, programming with threads, software design, and other topics.

Examples and Documentation
All the code examples in the text have been compiled and run on the latest version of the language available at the time the book was written, which was the JDK 1.5.0_02 product version. Only supported features are covered--deprecated types, methods, and fields are ignored except where unavoidable, or where knowledge of the past is necessary to understand the present. We have also covered issues beyond writing programs that simply compile. Part of learning a language is to learn to use it well. For this reason, we have tried to show principles of good programming style and design.

In a few places we refer to online documentation. Development environments provide a way to automatically generate documentation (usually HTML documents) from a compiled class using the documentation comments. This documentation is normally viewed using a Web browser.

Results! Why, man, I have gotten a lot of results.I know several thousand things that won't work.
--Thomas Edison


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