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IT Measurement: Practical Advice from the Experts

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IT Measurement: Practical Advice from the Experts


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  • Copyright 2002
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 800
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-74158-X
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-74158-2

In today's brutally tough software marketplace, quantifying software quality and process output is more important than ever. In this book, the world's leading software measurement experts bring together advanced software measurement techniques for enhancing quality, increasing productivity, and maximizing the business value of software. With contributions from renowned experts such as Capers Jones and Howard Rubin, this book is the definitive guide to state-of-the-art software metrics. Specific topics covered include: new roles for function point metrics; measuring work output for IT work units; using metrics to estimate and track projects more effectively; benchmarking; statistical process control; software sizing; predicting software reliability; IT "balanced scorecard" approaches, and more. The book also includes detailed coverage of metrics for outsourcing agreements and B2B e-commerce projects. For every IT executive, manager, project manager, and professional concerned with improving the efficiency and effectiveness of software development.

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Table of Contents




1.The expanding roles of function point metrics.
Capers Jones


Expanded Uses for the Function Point Metric.

1975: Function Points Invented Within IBM.

1978: IBM Announces Function Points to the Software Industry.

1980: Function Points and Programming Language Evaluation.

1985: Function Points and Software Cost Estimating.

1986: Formalized Function Point Training.

1987: Function Points and Software Quality.

1988: Function Points and Software Benchmarks.

1989: Function Points and Software Portfolio Analysis.

1990: Function Points and Tool Analysis.

1991: Function Points and Make Versus Buy Analysis.

1992: Function Points and International Industry Comparisons.

1993: Function Points and Outsource Analysis.

1994: Function Points and Business Process Reengineering.

1994: Function Points and the Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model.

1995: Function Points and Taxation of Software Assets.

1995: Function Points and Outsource Litigation.

1996: Function Points and Estimating Rules of Thumb.

1997: Function Points and Mass Updates such as the Year 2000 Projects.

1997: Function Points and Enterprise Resource Planning Applications.

1998: Function Points and Web-Based Applications.

1999: Function Points and the Euro.

2000: Function Points and the Earned-Value Approach.

2001: Function Points and the Balanced Scorecard Approach.

Optimizing Function Point Value.

Function Points and Software Requirements.

Ratios of Function Point Counting Specialists.

In-House Counts Versus Consultant Function Point Counts.

Potential Expansion of Function Point Metrics.

Improved Guidelines for Embedded and Real-time Software.

The Need for Data Point Metrics.

The Need for Service Point Metrics.

The Need for Engineering Point Metrics.

The Need for COTS Point Metrics.

The Need for Value Point Metrics.

The Need for Risk Point Metrics.

Summary and Conclusions.


2. IT Organization, Benchmark Thyself.Michael Mah

Metrics That Matter.

Compared to What? A Frame of Reference.

Interpreting the Metrics.

Collecting the Data: You Can Be Your Own NCHS.

Start Charting.

Managing the Data.

Establish a Routine.

Organize What You Have Learned.

Present What You Have Collected.

The Driving Pressure: Deadlines.

Obstacles to Acquiring IT Metrics Information.

What Projects to Use.

Old Data Versus New.

Analysis Advice.

Do Not Play the Ratio Game.

A Graphical Analysis.

What It All Means.


3. The Core of Software Planning.Lawrence H. Putnam and Ware Myers

Measuring the Core Metrics.

Measuring the Product.

Measuring Quality.

Measuring Process Productivity.

Measuring the Time.

Measuring the Effort.

Measurement Seeks Results.

Estimating with the Core Metrics.

Bidding with the Core Metrics.

Control with the Core Metrics.

Replan with Revised Metrics.


4. Work Output Measurement: IT Work Units.Howard Rubin


Work Output Measurement.

Computing Throughput.

Normalization and the Work Unit.

Initial Observations on ITWUs.

Applying ITWUs.

ITWU Example from MCI Systemhouse.

Evolutionary Development of a Purer Work Unit Metric.




5. EDS Brazil Metrics Program: Measuring for Improvement.
Marcio Luiz Barroso da Silveira

Why a Metrics Program and Why It Must Be Formalized.

Metrics Program: Organizational Structure.

Metrics Program Processes.

Estimating Process.

Why Some Metrics Programs Fail.

EDS Brazil and the Corporate Metrics and Estimating Program.



6. Measurement Program Implementation Approaches.Lori Holmes


Step 1: Defining Goals and Initiatives.

Step 2: Defining Measures.

Step 3: Defining Data Collection.

Data Definitions.

Data Collection Points.

Data Collection Responsibilities.

Data Collection Vehicles.

Step 4: Defining Reports.

Step 5: Implementing the Measurement Process.


Staffing Needs.

Process and Methods Development.




7. Benchmarking.Arlene F. Minkiewicz


What Is Benchmarking?

Why Benchmark?

Internal Benchmarking.

External Benchmarking.

Getting Started with Benchmarking.

Analyzing What Has Been Learned.



8. A Data Definition Framework for Defining Software Measurements.James Rozum


Uses of Data Definition Frameworks.

Data Modeling and Terminology.

DDF Architecture.

Data Definition Columns.

Definition Column Descriptions.

Example of Data Definition Columns.

Data Manipulation Columns.

Total Count.

Separate Counts.


Putting It All Together.

An Example from Practice.

Complete Effort (Staff Hours) DDF.



9. Cheaper, Better, Faster: A Measurement Program That Works.Janet Russac


Metrics: Concept, Benefits, and Uses.

Metrics Selection Criteria.

Metrics Categories.





Key Measures.

Function Points.



Calendar Months.


Project Attributes.

The Measurement Team.

Data Collection.

Data Analysis Process.

Organizational Metrics Reporting.





10. How and When Can Functional Size Fit with a Measurement Program?
Carol A. Dekkers


Software Measurement Steps.

Planning the Measurement Program.

Which Metrics to Choose.

Pilot the Appropriate Target Metrics.

Critical Success Factors.

Cultural Change.



11. An Early Estimation of Software Reliability Based on the Size Estimation and the Software Process Assessment of Large Telecom Systems.Alex Lubashevsky


Software Reliability Estimation.

The Role of Size and Complexity.

Early Size and Reliability Estimation.



12. Establishing Central Support for Software Sizing Activities in a Large Organization.Valerie Marthaler and Steve Keim

Business Drivers.

Industry Standards.

ISO standard 14143-1.




Methods and Tools.

Function Point Analysis.

Organizational Guidelines.

Model-Based Estimating Tools.

Function Point Analysis Repository Tools.

SLOC Counting Tool.

Recommended Organization Structure.

Central Sizing Support Team Responsibilities.

Central Point of Contact.

Recommend Sizing Approaches.

Training and Mentoring.

Establishing and Maintaining Asset and Project Sizes.

Validating Asset and Project Sizes.

Providing Issue Resolution.

Communicating Organizational and Industry Standards and Guidelines.

Reporting Back to the Organization and Leadership.



13. Function Points as Part of a Measurement Program.Pam Morris


Managing Project Development.

FPA Uses and Benefits in Project Planning.

FPA Uses and Benefits in Project Construction.

FPA Uses and Benefits after Software Implementation.

Customizing Packaged Software.

Estimating Package Implementations.

FPA Infrastructure and Resources.

Roles and Responsibilities.

Selecting Software to Count.

Activities That Do Not Deliver Function Points.

Standards for Recording Function Point Counts.

Standards for Resolving Count Issues.

Standards for Reviewing Counts.

Resources and Cost.

Cost of Implementation.



14. Tracking Software Progress.
Elizabeth (Betsy) Clark

Tracking Progress: Criteria for Effective Measures.

Activity-Based Measures of Progress.

Detailed Activity-Based Measure.

Product-Based Measures of Progress.

Comparing Activity-Based and Product-Based Measures of Progress.



15. Effectively Utilizing Software Metrics: Project Metrics.Daniel D. Galorath


Strategic versus Tactical.

The Project Framework.

Function Points and Sizing.

Effective Size.


Assessing Risks.

Earned Value Management.

Product Quality.

Product Defect Tracking: Managing with Metrics.



16. Project Metrics Using Effort Metrics for Tracking.Magnus Hoeglund


Why Measure and Analyze?

Avoiding the Pitfalls.

Effort: What Is It?

Active Planning and Tracking.

Status Diagram.

Trend Diagram.

Earned Value.


Tracking on Different Levels.



17. Using Project Metrics to More Efficiently Manage Projects.Steven M. Woodward


New Development Project Management.

Enhancement Project Management.

Key Measures.

Function Points.



Project Duration Days.


Lines of Code.

Supplementary Information.

Practical Real-Life Application of Project Metrics.

Case Example Results.

Relationship of Measures.

Using Internal or External Productivity Benchmarks.




18. Avoiding Obstacles and Common Pitfalls in the Building of an Effective Metrics Program.
Sheila P. Dennis

Phase I. Requirements Identification and Analysis.

Phase II. Design.

Phase III. Design Implementation.

Phase IV. Program Testing.

Phase V. Implementation and Maintenance.


19. Unreported and Unpaid Overtime: Distorted Measurements and Formulas for Failure.Gene Fellner


The Numbers.

The History of Overtime.

Computerization and Overtime.

The Reasons for Unreported and/or Unpaid Overtime.

The Desire.

The Expectations.

The Law.

The Defects.

A Software Metrics Perspective.

The Impact on Organizations.

The Social Costs.

Overtime Overseas.

The Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model.

A Status Report.




VI. Using Software Metrics for Effective Estimating 321

20. Metrics in Support of Estimating in a Large Software Services Company.
Donald Beckett and Pamela C. Llorence


The Role of Estimating in Metrics and Process.

Improvement Activities.

Establishing Estimating Centers.

Estimating Dilemmas.

Corporate Metrics for Estimating.

The Business Value of Estimating Centers.

The Case for Model-Based Estimating.

Schedule Compression in Estimating: A Case Study.



21. Estimating Software Development Projects.Craig P. Beyers

Why Estimating is Important.

Estimating Concepts.

Using Data for Estimating.

Estimating Models.

How to Estimate Software Projects.

Estimating New Projects or Major Enhancements.

Reestimating Ongoing Projects.



22. Enhanced Estimation: On Time, Within Budget.David Garmus


Conducting a Proof of Concept.

Selecting a Tool.

Ability To Do What-if Analysis.

Comparisons to Industry and Best-in-Class.

Deliverable Estimates.

Exporting to Project Management Tools.

Identification of Process Strengths and Weaknesses.

Interface with Function Point Repository.

Portfolio or Baseline Creation (Storage of Data).

Reporting Feature.

Where Do We Go from Here?


23. Enhanced Estimation.John A. Landmesser


Function Point Counting and Effort Estimation.

Measurement Areas to Evaluate the Estimation Process.

Requirements Analysis Effort Estimation.

Implementation Effort Estimation.

Translating Effort into Client-Friendly Numbers.



24. ESE: Enhanced Software Estimation.Luca Santillo


The Basic Model: IFPUG Guidelines and ISBSG Benchmark.

To Adjust or Not to Adjust: The VAF Issue.

Internal Benchmarking: The “Best of” Issue.

An Algorithmic Model: Constructive Cost Model.

Function Points and Lines of Code: The Backfiring Issue.

Parametric Models: The Simplicity versus Differentiation Issue.

The Software Reuse Issue.

The Intrinsic Complexity Issue.

Requirements Volatility: The Change Requests Issue.

How Sure Are We: The Uncertainty Issue.

Enhanced Software Estimation: An Integration.

Future Enhancements.



25. The New and Improved Requirements Engineer.
Joe Madden


The Importance of Good Requirements.

The Importance of Accurate Estimates.

Why a Software Estimation Group or Consultant is Not Enough.

Other Benefits When Requirements Engineers Have Software Size Expertise.

Function Point Analysis Can Help Determine the Completeness of a Requirements Specification.

Function Point Analysis Becomes More Mainstream.


Suggested Readings.


26. Early and Quick Function Point Analysis from Summary User Requirements to Project Management.Roberto Meli


Managing the Requirements of a Software Project.

Definition of Requirement.

Requirements Management Framework.

Using Requirements to Estimate Project Resources.

General Software Measurement Framework.

General Software Contractual Framework.

Estimating the Resources of a Software Project.

Measuring or Estimating Function Points.

Early & Quick Function Point Analysis.

Method's Overview.

Method's Details.

Numerical Assignments.

EQFPA Procedure.




27. Critical Success Factors for Developing and Implementing a Contractual Metrics Program.
Melinda Ayers


Timely and Robust Definition of Requirements.

Example 1: Batch Processing Performance Measure—Purpose.

Example 2: Batch Processing Performance Measure—Operational Definition.

Example 3: Batch Processing Performance Measure—Research.

Additional Considerations for Definition of Requirements.

Training and Education.

Pre- and Post-implementation Support.



28. Considerations for Getting Maximum Benefit from an Enterprise-Wide Metrics Repository.Dawn Coley


The Assumptions.

Getting Started with Storing Collected Metric Data.

Consistency versus Customization.

Maturing the Repository with the Organization.

Enterprise-Wide View and Needs.

Everything but the Kitchen Sink.



29. The Role of Universities in Promoting Software Measures.Ewa Magiera


The Role of Software Measurement.

The Role of Teaching.




30. Measurements Necessary to Support an IT Balanced Scorecard: IT Indicators.
Conrado Estol


Identification and Selection of Good Indicators for IT Function.

The Balanced Scorecard.

The Balanced Scorecard and IT.

Customer Perspective.

Internal Business Process Perspective.

Innovations and Learning Perspective.

Financial Perspective.



31. Software Balanced Scorecards: The Icing on the Cake.Bill Hufschmidt

What Is a Software Balanced Scorecard?

Overcoming Fear and Objections.

Using a Software Balanced Scorecard.

Preparing the Software Balanced Scorecard.

Other Important Measures.



32. Keeping a Well-Balanced Scorecard.Sara Kathryn Shackelton


Positioning Your Company for a Strategic Approach.

Laying Out Your Balanced Scorecard.

Step 1: Create the Company's Vision.

Step 2: Lay Out Your Company's Strategy.

Step 3: Find Measures That Will Determine if You Reach Your Goals.

Step 4: Outline the Formulas For Your Measures.

Step 5: Ensure That Your Measures Use Valid Data.

Step 6: Balance Your Measures.

Step 7: Assign an Owner to Each Measure.

Step 8: Implement Your Balanced Scorecard.

Step 9: What to Do After You Achieve Your Results.

Step 10: Keep Your Measures in Step With Your Company's Progress.

One Final Note.



33. Introduction to Metrics in Outsourcing.
Scott Goldfarb



Defining and Classifying Outsourcing Arrangements.

Steps in Establishing Metrics for Outsourcing.

Metrics for Outsourcing.

Establishing the Baseline.

Strategic Analysis.

Financial Analysis.

Productivity/Quality Analysis.

Benefits of an Outsourcing Baseline.

Metrics and Outsourcing Major Projects.

Future Trends: Price Models and Independent Benchmarking.



34. Litigation: The Product of Not Practicing Function Point Metrics.Ron J. Salvador

The Proposal: Will You Dance with Me?.

Silver Bullets Only Work on Werewolves.

Determining Fault: “It's the Interface, Stupid.”

The Phases of Project Development.

The Productivity of Individual Team Members.

Someone Please Tell Me What's Going On Here.

After the Love is Gone.

It's a Bug's Life.

The Requirements They Are A-Changin'.

The Costs of Software Metrics: Are They Worth It?


35. Metrics in Outsourcing.Koni Thompson

A Recipe for Success.

Planning Phase.

Planning: Analysis and Identification.

Planning: Definition.

Sample Metrics Profile Outline.

Planning: Implementation.

Planning: Capability Analysis.

Planning: Approval.

Executing Phase.

Execution: Collection.

Execution: Consolidation.

Execution: Repository.

Execution: Baseline.

Execution: Reporting.

Governing Phase.

Governance: Review.

Governance: Contract Conformance.

Governance: Auditing.

Governance: True Up.

A Quality Model.



Recently Published Articles.


36. Standardizing a SLOC Counting Tool to Support ISO and CMM Requirements.
Jeanne Doyle


Designing and Developing the SLOC Counting Tool.

Impact of SLOC Counting Tool.

Impact of SLOC Counting Tool on Our CMM Journey.

Impact of SLOC Counting Tool on ISO 9000-3 Activities.



37. Measurement and Analysis in Software Process Improvement.Dennis Goldenson, Joe Jarzombek, and Terry Rout

Why Care about Measurement.

The Need for Explicit and Focused Guidance.

The Need for an Early Focus.

Doing Measurement Right.

Standards and Models.

The Measurement Process.

Practical Software and Systems Measurement.

An Overview of CMMI.

Measurement and Analysis in CMMI.

Describing Good Measurement Practice.

Maturing Measurement Capability.

Implementing Good Measurement Practice.

Maturing Analytic Capability.

Analytic Approaches.

Available Guidance.

Product-based Improvement.

Establishing an Effective Measurement Program.

With Special Respect to the Technical Staff.

What Successful Measurement Programs Have In Common.

Summary and Conclusions.



38. What Can Function Point Analysis Do to Support CMM?Li Hongxing


Putting CMM into Practice.

The Role of FPA in CMM Improvement.

A Repeatable Method for Organizations at Lower Levels.

Control the Scope, Productivity, and Function Requirements.

Putting FPA and CMM into Practice in an Organization.

The Need for Detailed Procedures and Guidelines for FPA and CMM.

The Complexity Matrix and Rating Value Matrix of FPA.

Private Backfiring Standards.

FPA Matures with the Maturing Progress of CMM Status.

Accuracy: Popular Misconceptions.




39. Applying Statistical Process Control to Performance Management.
Ron McClintic


The Performance Management Challenge.

Testing and Production.

Issues with Data Collection.

Control Charts Defined.

Using SPC as a Management Tool.

Control Charts in Testing.

SPC in the Software Development Life Cycle.



40. Applying Statistical Process Control to Software.Edward F. Weller

Business Needs.

Possible Uses.

Why Should I Use SPC?

Prerequisites to Using SPC.

Basics of SPC.

Upper and Lower Control Limit Basics.

Functional Examples.

Inspection Data Analysis.

Preparation Rate.

Defect Data.

Anomalous Patterns.

Control Charts and Predicting Quality.

Defect-Removal Effectiveness.

Cause and Effect Relationships.

Other Uses.

Cost to Implement and Use.




41. The Role of Functional Metrics in B2B E-Commerce Project Success.
Sam Bayer and Vic Tolomei


B2B E-Commerce Primer.

Overall Function Point Counting and Estimation Methodology.

Benefits of Function Point Counting and Estimation.

Extensions to IFPUG CPM 4.1.

The Function Point Counting and Estimation Repository.

The Function Point Counting and Estimation Team-based Process.

Function Point Estimation Worksheet Example Segment.

Other Applications.

Pre-Sales: The Make versus Buy Decision.

Post-Sales: Project Staffing.

During Implementation: Project Control.

Internal Challenges at eSell.

Summary and Conclusions.

Final Questions to Ponder.


42. Measuring the Usability of E-Commerce Applications.Loredana Frallicciardi


A Usability Measurement Model.

Measuring Usability Subcharacteristics.

Ease of Use.




Evaluating Usability.



43. Metrics in E-Commerce: Function Point Analysis and Component-Based Software Measurements.Jacqueline Jones


What Is Component-Based Software?

What Should We Measure?

Marti's Analysis.

Jacque's Analysis.

Will These Measures Work?







Bibliography.Index. 020174158XT03282002


This is a book whose time has come. As the software industry continues to mature, there is an increased emphasis on the need to better understand the impact of technology, methodology, and effective use of skilled resources. Software measurement is one of the key components necessary to effectively monitor progress. Software measurement, for the purposes of this book, is defined as the definition, collection, consolidation, analysis, and reporting of quantitative and qualitative measures within the software development and maintenance arena. Software metrics provide insights into productivity and quality gains realized as a result of applying a combination of skills, technology, and methodology to the software problem domain.

As you begin to read and use this book, you will find a compilation of articles dealing with various aspects of software measurement. The authors include noted industry gurus on the subject, such as Capers Jones and Howard Rubin, as well as writings from both practitioners and service providers. The articles are designed to reflect real-life experiences from which we can all learn.

The contents of this book are intended to serve as a series of reference points on a variety of measurement-related topics. It is unlikely that anyone will pick up the book and read it cover to cover. The audience, therefore, will be as broad as the scope of topics covered. Several of the articles deal with the fundamentals of measurement, while others are for the more advanced or sophisticated practitioner.

The development of this book was part of a volunteer committee effort under the banner of the International Function Point Users Group (IFPUG). However, this compilation of articles is not solely focused on advancing awareness of the use of function points. The book's primary purpose is to provide the audience with the best information available regarding the use of software metrics.

Each of the thirteen parts contains two or more chapters, which are presented alphabetically by author. We have provided a brief biography for each author that will enable you to contact the author directly if you wish to discuss a given topic in greater detail. We also invited the inclusion of a company profile if an author so desired. This form of "advertising" is the only compensation these authors will receive for this book. They contributed their articles with the complete understanding that this was a book intended for the betterment of the software industry as a whole.

The idea for this book came out of the Management Reporting Committee (MRC), one of IFPUG's subcommittees. Its charter it is to support the IFPUG organization with regard to the development and publication of documents necessary to advance the use of software metrics. Once the book was approved by the Executive Board, MRC set about its task of soliciting articles.

A three-tier list of potential authors was compiled that included invitations to industry notables, known practitioners in the field of software metrics, and various membership audiences from a variety of software metrics-related organizations. A range of topics was developed, and responses from those solicited were reviewed based on a common set of acceptance criteria. Once in place, the articles were grouped into sections.

The MRC reviewed all the articles and wrote introductions to the sections. They served as the "agent" between the publisher and the authors, taking on the task of ensuring all reviews and edits were done properly. This book is the result of their tireless efforts, and a note of thanks is appropriate to the following committee members:

David Herron, Committee Chair
Janet Russac, Vice Chair
Dawn Coley
James Curfman
Barbara Emmons
Joe Schofield

We should also note the efforts of the IFPUG organization as a whole: the insight of the Board, who authorized the funding for this project, and select members who contributed some of the writings in this book.

The International Function Point Users' Group (IFPUG) is a membership-governed, nonprofit organization committed to increasing the effectiveness of its members' information technology environments through the application of function point analysis (FPA) and other software measurement techniques. IFPUG endorses FPA as its standard methodology for software sizing. In support of this, IFPUG maintains the Function Point Counting Practices Manual, the recognized industry standard for FPA. IFPUG also provides a forum for networking and information exchange that promotes and encourages the use of software product and process metrics. IFPUG members benefit from a variety of services, including

  • Annual Conference: IFPUG's annual conference brings together leading industry experts, practitioners, and technology vendors for a week-long exchange of experiences and presentations on the latest happenings in the field of software metrics. The Vendor Showcase provides conference attendees the opportunity to compare state-of-the-art products and services in support of the IT measurement discipline.
  • Educational Seminars and Workshops: In conjunction with its conferences, IFPUG offers a variety of training opportunities designed to complement sound software management practices. Workshops cover a range of topics, including function point counting practices, project management techniques, and process improvement strategies.
  • Professional Certification: Through its Certified Function Point Specialist (CFPS) program, IFPUG offers professional certification for practitioners of FPA. The certification program has recently been extended to cover function point training materials and software tools designed to perform FPA tasks.
  • Working Committees: IFPUG members support the advancement of software metrics disciplines by volunteering to participate on a variety of working committees. These committees produce vital information for the membership on counting standards, management reporting guidelines, and the impact of new technologies on the software measurement process.
  • Industry Publications: IFPUG produces and maintains a suite of timely publications on software measurement standards and guidelines. METRICVIEWS, the official newsletter of IFPUG, is a leading source of current information, ideas, and success stories in the field of software measurement.

Organized in 1986, IFPUG is one of the fastest growing software metrics user groups in the world. With the addition of its affiliate member organizations, IFPUG serves over 1200 members in more than 30 countries. IFPUG members represent every major industry segment, including aerospace, automotive, banking, insurance, manufacturing, retail, and telecommunications. For further information on the International Function Point User Group, please contact their offices in Princeton Junction, New Jersey (phone number 609-799-4900) or access them electronically on their Web site at www.ifpug.org.

David Herron



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Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020