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High-Speed Networks and Internets: Performance and Quality of Service, 2nd Edition

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High-Speed Networks and Internets: Performance and Quality of Service, 2nd Edition


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  • NEW - Reorganization of the text—Provides a better grouping of topics.
    • Offers a more natural flow of topic organization and coverage. Ex.___

  • NEW - Part VI: Quality of Service in IP Networks.
    • Provides a unified and up-to-date discussion of this important topic, including coverage of Differentiated Services and Multiprotocol Label Switching. Ex.___

  • NEW - New background chapter on TCP and IP.
    • Provides unified discussion of the information vital to an understanding of QoS and performance issues in IP-based networks. Ex.___

  • NEW - Separate chapter devoted to congestion control.
    • Teaches about congestion control techniques. Ex.___

  • NEW - Thorough coverage of Differentiated Services (DS).
    • Offers up-to-date coverage of these developments that allow the Internet to support a variety of multimedia and time-sensitive traffic. Ex.___

  • NEW - Many expanded and new topics.
    • Discussions of issues such as Guaranteed Frame Relay (GFR), high-speed LANs, frame relay, and wavelet compression exposes readers to current developments. Ex.___

  • NEW - Introduction to Sockets programming with programming project assignments.
    • Provides excellent hands-on projects. Ex.___

  • The most comprehensive and up-to-date survey of the key issues of high speed TCP/IP networks.
    • Solid coverage of issues such as TCP performance design issues and congestion control. Ex.___

  • Exclusive treatment of self-similar traffic.
    • Unlike any other text, explains the mathematics behind self-similar traffic, its performance implications, and how to estimate performance parameters. Ex.___

  • Up-to-date survey of the key issues of ATM networks.
    • Discusses the basic technology of ATM including the newest ATM traffic controls. Ex.___

  • Solid, easy-to-absorb mathematical background.
    • Provides students with the necessary math as needed in a non-threatening way. Ex.___

  • Parts IV through VII of the book are relatively independent.
    • Flexible design allows instructors to customize the book to the needs of their course. Ex.___

  • Unified coverage of integrated (IS) and differentiated services (DS).
    • Provides a detailed discussion and comparison of these two principal approaches to providing Quality of Service over IP-based internets. Ex.___

  • Thorough coverage of next-generation Internet protocols.
    • Provides students with an integrated treatment of standards such as RSVP, MPLS, RTP, and IPv6 and how they fit together. Ex.___

  • Broad and detailed coverage of routing.
    • Offers an integrated treatment of both unicast routing and multicast routing. Ex.___

  • Coverage of 10 gigabit Ethernet networks.
    • Provides coverage of high-speed network design issues needed for networks in the gigabit range as well as in the 10s and 100s of megabit per second range. Ex.___

  • 185 homework problems.
    • Offers students the opportunity for review and reinforcement of material in each chapter. Ex.___


  • Copyright 2002
  • Edition: 2nd
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-032221-0
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-032221-0

William Stallings offers the most comprehensive technical book to address a wide range of design issues of high-speed TCP/IP and ATM networks in print to date. High-Speed Networks and Internets presents both the professional and advanced student an up-to-date survey of key issues. The Companion Website and the author's Web page offer unmatched support for students and instructors. The book features the prominent use of figures and tables and an up-to-date bibliography.

In this second edition, this award-winning and best-selling author steps up to the leading edge of integrated coverage of key issues in the design of high-speed TCP/IP and ATM networks to include the following topics:

  • Unified coverage of integrated and differentiated services.
  • Up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of TCP performance.
  • Thorough coverage of next-generation Internet protocols including (RSVP), (MPLS), (RTP), and the use of Ipv6.
  • Unified treatment of congestion in data networks; packet-switching, frame relay, ATM networks, and IP-based internets.
  • Broad and detailed coverage of routing, unicast, and multicast.
  • Comprehensive coverage of ATM; basic technology and the newest traffic control standards.
  • Solid, easy-to-absorb mathematical background enabling understanding of the issues related to high-speed network performance and design.
  • Up-to-date treatment of gigabit Ethernet.
  • The first treatment of self-similar traffic for performance assessment in a textbook on networks (Explains the mathematics behind self-similar traffic and shows the performance implications and how to estimate performance parameters.)
  • Up-to-date coverage of compression. (A comprehensive survey.)
  • Coverage of gigabit networks. Gigabit design issues permeate the book.

Sample Content

Table of Contents


1. Introduction.

A Brief Networking History. The Need for Speed and Quality of Service. Advanced TCP/IP and ATM Networks. Outline of the Book. Appendix lA: Internet and Web Resources.

2. Protocols and Architecture.

The Need for a Protocol Architecture. The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture. The OSI Model. Internetworking. Recommended Reading and Web Site.

3. TCP and IP.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). User Datagram Protocol. The Internet Protocol (IP). IPv6. Recommended Reading and Web Sites.


4. Frame Relay.

Packet-Switching Networks. Frame Relay Networks. Recommended Reading and Web Sites.

5. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).

ATM Protocol Architecture. ATM Logical Connections. ATM Cells. ATM Service Categories. ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL). Recommended Reading and Web Sites.

6. High-Speed LANs.

The Emergence of High-Speed LANs. Ethernet. Fibre Channel. Wireless LANs. Recommended Reading and Web Sites.


7. Overview of Probability and Stochastic Processes.

Probability. Random Variables. Stochastic Processes. Recommended Reading and Web Site.

8. Queuing Analysis.

How Queues Behave—A Simple Example. Why Queuing Analysis. Queuing Models. Single-Server Queues. Multiserver Queues. Examples. Queues with Priorities. Networks of Queues. Other Queuing Models. Estimating Model Parameters. Recommended Reading and Web Site.

9. Self-Similar Traffic.

Self-Similarity. Self-Similar Data Traffic. Examples of Self-Similar Data Traffic. Performance Implications of Self-Similarity. Modeling and Estimation of Self-Similar Data Traffic. Recommended Reading and Web Site. Appendix 9A: The Hurst Self-Similarity Parameter.


10. Congestion Control in Data Networks and Internets.

Effects of Congestion. Congestion and Control. Traffic Management. Congestion Control in Packet-Switching Networks. Frame Relay Congestion Control. Recommended Reading and Web Sites.

11. Link-Level Flow and Error Control.

The Need for Flow and Error Control. Link Control Mechanisms. ARQ Performance. Recommended Reading. Appendix 11A: High-Level Data Link Control.

12. TCP Traffic Control.

TCP Flow Control. TCP Congestion Control. Performance of TCP Over ATM. Recommended Reading and Web Sites.

13. Traffic and Congestion Control in ATM Networks.

Requirements for ATM Traffic and Congestion Control. ATM Traffic-Related Attributes. Traffic Management Framework. Traffic Control. ABR Traffic Management. GFR Traffic Management. Recommended Reading.


14. Overview of Graph Theory and Least-Cost Paths.

Elementary Concepts of Graph Theory. Shortest Path Length Determination. Recommended Reading.

15. Interior Routing Protocols.

Internet Routing Principles. Distance-Vector Protocol: RIP. Link-State Protocol: OSPF. Recommended Reading and Web Site.


16. Exterior Routing Protocols and Multicast.

Path-Vector Protocols: BGP and IDRP. Multicasting. Recommended Reading and Web Site.

17. Integrated and Differentiated Services.

Integrated Services Architecture (ISA). Queuing Discipline. Random Early Detection. Differentiated Services. Recommended Reading and Web Sites. Appendix 17A: Real-Time Traffic.

18. Protocols for QOS Support.

Resource Reservation: RSVP. Multiprotocol Label Switching. Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP). Recommended Reading and Web Sites.


19. Overview of Information Theory.

Information and Entropy. Coding. Recommended Reading.

20. Lossless Compression.

Run-Length Encoding Techniques. Facsimile Compression. Arithmetic Coding. String-Matching Algorithms. Recommended Reading and Web Site.

21. Lossy Compression.

Discrete Cosine Transform. Wavelet Compression. JPEG Image Compression. MPEG Video Compression. Recommended Reading and Web Sites.

Appendix A: Standards and Standards-Setting Organizations.

The Importance of Standards. Standards and Regulation. Internet Standards and the Internet Society. The International Telecommunications Union. IEEE 802 Standards.

Appendix B: Sockets Programming.

Versions of Sockets. Sockets, Socket Descriptors, Ports, and Connection. The Client/Server Model of Communication. Sockets Elements. Stream and Datagram Sockets. Run-Time Program Control. Remote Execution of a Windows Console Application.



This book aims at helping to disentangle from an immense mass of material the crucial issues and cardinal decisions. Throughout I have set myself to explain faithfully and to the best of my ability what happened and why.
The World Crisis, Winston Churchill


High-speed networks now dominate both the wide-area network (WAN) and local area network (LAN) markets. In the WAN market, two related trench have appeared. Public and private data networks have evolved from packet switching networks in the 10s and 100s of kbps, to frame relay networks operating at up to 2 Mbps, and now to asynchronous transfer mode (ATM networks operating at 155 Mbps or more. For the Internet and private corporate internets, data rates have also soared, with one noteworthy milestone being the construction of a 155-Mbps backbone in 1996.

For many years, the most common LAN was the 10-Mbps shared Ethernet. Then came the switched Ethernet, which offers a dedicated 10 Mbps to each end system. This was followed by Fast Ethernet at 100 Mbp a and now Gigabit Ethernet and 10-Gbps Ethernet. Recent years have also seen the introduction of Fibre Channel LANs with speeds up to 3.2 Gbps and wireless LANs with speeds up to 54 Mbps.

This rapid introduction of high-speed networks has spurred the development of new applications and has in turn been driven by the popularity o. those applications. Key driving forces have been the increasing use of stir image and video data in applications and the popularity of the World Wide Web.


High-speed networks, including gigabit networks, form the focus of the book. Design issues related to two types of networks occupy our attention: internets based on the Internet Protocol (IP) and the entire TCP/IP protocol suite, and ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) networks. These two networking technologies dominate the high-speed scene and share many common design approaches.

The objective of this book is to provide an up-to-date survey of developments in this area. Central problems that confront the network designer are the need to support multimedia and real-time traffic, the need to control congestion, and the need to provide different levels of quality of service (QoS) to different applications.


This book is intended for both a professional and an academic audience. For the professional interested in this field, the book serves as a basic reference volume and is suitable for self-study.

As a textbook, it is suitable for an advanced undergraduate or graduate course. The book treats a number of advanced topics and provides a brief survey of the required elementary topics. After Parts One and Two, the parts are relatively independent. Fewer parts could be covered for a shorter course, and the parts can be covered in any order.


The book is divided into seven parts:

  • Part One. Background: Provides a brief survey of fundamental principles, with coverage of TCP/IP and internetworking.
  • Part Two. High-Speed Networks: Provides an overview of frame relay networks, ATM networks, and high-speed LANs.
  • Part Three. Performance Modeling and Estimation: The modeling of traffic flow is important both for network design and configuration and for the request of network services. This part provides a tutorial on the use of queuing analysis to model throughput, delay, and buffer requirements. There is increasing evidence that much of the traffic on high-speed networks is self-similar, for which the traditional queuing analysis does not apply. The nature of self-similar traffic, and modeling approaches, are examined.
  • Part Four. Congestion and Traffic Management: Begins with a discussion of congestion control issues and design approaches for networks and internets. The relatively simple case of link level flow control is used to introduce issues of end-to-end flow control. This part then discusses end-to-end performance parameters and techniques used by TCP to achieve high throughput and to manage congestion. Finally, the part deals with traffic management and congestion control in ATM networks
  • Part Five. Internet Routing: Covers the major approaches to routing, including distance-vector, link-state, and path-vector routing, and examines multicast routing.
  • Part Six. Quality of Service in IP Networks: Within an IP-based network, techniques are needed to control congestion and to provide the desired QoS to active applications. This part surveys those techniques, beginning with a discussion of integrated and differentiated services. Then, important protocols that relate to QoS are examined, including RSVP, MLPS, and RTP.
  • Part Seven. Compression: Covers both lossless and lossy compression techniques.

In addition, the book includes an extensive glossary, a list of frequently used acronyms, and a bibliography. Each chapter includes problems, suggestions for further reading, and pointers to relevant Web sites.


There is a Web page for this book that provides support for students and instructors. The page includes links to relevant sites, transparency masters of figures and tables in the book in PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format, PowerPoint slides, and signup information for the book's internet mailing list. The Web page is at WilliamStallings.com/HsNet2e.html; see Chapter 1 for more details. An Internet mailing list has been set up so that instructors using this book can exchange information, suggestions, and questions with each other and with the author. As soon as typos or other errors are discovered, an errata list for this book will be available at WilliamStallings.com. Finally, I maintain the Computer Science Student Resource Site at WilliamStallings.com/StudentSupport.html.


The book includes a description of Sockets (Appendix B), and the instructor's manual includes a set of programming projects. The appendix includes a concise overview of Sockets, a discussion of the importance of this facility and a short primer on how to use Sockets, as well as pointers for getting more information on the Web. Sockets programming is an "easy" topic and one that can result in very satisfying hands-on projects for students.


In the four years since the first edition of this book was published, the field has seen continued innovations and improvements. In this edition, I try to capture these changes while maintaining a broad and comprehensive coverage of the entire field. To begin the process of revision, the first edition of this book was extensively reviewed by a number of professors who teach the subject and by professionals working in the field. The result is that, in many places, the narrative has been clarified and tightened, and illustrations have been improved. Also, a number of new "field-tested" problems have been added.

Beyond these refinements to improve pedagogy and user friendliness, the technical content of the book has been updated throughout, to reflect the ongoing changes in this exciting field. In addition, the book has been reorganized to provide a better grouping of topics. Some of the most noteworthy changes are the following:

  • Congestion control: A separate chapter is now devoted to this topic. This unified presentation clarifies the issues involved.
  • Differentiated services: There have been substantial developments, since the publication of the first edition in enhancements to the Internet to support a variety of multimedia and time-sensitive traffic. The most important development, and perhaps the most important vehicle for providing QoS in IP-based networks is differentiated services (DS). This edition provides thorough coverage of DS.
  • Guaranteed frame rate (GFR): Since the first edition, a new ATM service has been standardized: GFR. GFR is designed specifically to support IP backbone subnetworks. This edition provides an explanation of GFR and examines the mechanisms underlying the GFR service.
  • Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS): MPLS has emerged as a fundamentally important technology in the Internet and is covered in this edition.
  • TCP/IP details: A new background chapter on TCP and IP has been added, pulling together material scattered throughout the first edition. This material is vital to an understanding of QoS and performance issues in IP-based networks.
  • High-speed LANs: The chapter on high-speed LANs has been extensively updated and revised. The material on Ethernet now includes 10-Gbps Ethernet. The chapter now covers Fibre Channel and high-speed wireless LANs.
  • Frame relay: Despite the importance and growing acceptance of ATM, frame relay remains the most widely used high-speed WAN technology. Accordingly, the coverage of the frame relay protocol and frame relay congestion control is expanded in this edition.
  • Wavelet compression: Wavelet compression has become increasingly popular and is covered in this edition.


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