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Configuration Management Principles and Practice

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Configuration Management Principles and Practice

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Description

  • Copyright 2003
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 424
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-321-11766-2
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-321-11766-3

Configuration management (CM) is frequently misunderstood. This discipline is growing in popularity because it allows project participants to better identify potential problems, manage change, and efficiently track the progress of a software project. CM is not easy, but at the same time, it need not be difficult. This book gives the reader a practical understanding of the complexity and comprehensiveness of the discipline. Many current CM practitioners rely too heavily on commercial CM tools, and fail to understand the concept as a whole. With the deeper knowledge of CM principles taught in this book, readers will be better able to manage and deliver their next project. The book is included in the Agile Software Development Series because there is growing recognition that an effective configuration management strategy is the cornerstone of a truly agile project.

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What Is Configuration Management?

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Table of Contents



List of Figures


List of Tables


Foreword by Kim Caputo


Foreword by Alistair Cockburn


Preface


Introduction

I. WHAT IS CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT?

1. Definition of Configuration Management Used in This Book

Configuration Management Activities

Metadata

Configuration Management Is Cyclicor Is It?

Quality Assurance Process

Audit

Identification

Inputs

Outputs

Process Descriptions

Unique Identification

Examples

Authorization

Roles

Connection with Other Activities

Storage

Library

Main Processes

Process Descriptions

Roles

Connection with Other Activities

Example

Change Control

Inputs

Outputs

Change Control Activities

Usage of Metadata

Consequence Analysis

Roles

Process Descriptions

Connection with Other Activities

Example

Status Reporting

Inputs

Outputs

Process Descriptions

Roles

Connection with Other Activities

False Friends: Version Control and Baselines

Version Control

Baseline

2. Configuration Management in Maturity Models

CMM Version 1.1

CMM Maturity Levels

Definition

Activities

CMMI

CMMI Process Areas

Definition

Goals

Practice-to-Goal Relationships

Capability and Maturity Levels

Achieving Capability Levels

Level 2 for All Process Areas

Raising the Capability of the Configuration Management Process

ISO 15504 (SPICE) and BOOTSTRAP 3.2

SPICE Process Model

Definition

Goals

Best Practices

Maturity Levels

Maturity of Configuration Management

3. Configuration Management in International Standards

Overview of Related Standards

BS6488, DoD, IEEE

BS6488

DoD Mil-Std-973

IEEE-Std-610.12-1990

ESA PSS-05-09

Introduction from the Guide

GAMP

Description from the Guide

ISO 9001:1994, ISO 9000-3, and ISO 9001:2000

ISO 9001:1994

ISO 9000-3

ISO 9001:2000

4. Organizations Working with Configuration Management

Institutions and Companies

CM Today Yellow Pages

Institute of Configuration Management

Conferences

Ovum

Software Engineering Institute

Projects

ACME

AdCoMs

DaSC

5. Scoping the Configuration Management Task

Level of AmbitionCost/Benefit Analysis

Level of Ambition = Scope + Formalism

Formalism for a Configuration Item

Degrees of Formalism

Earliest and Latest Extremes for Starting Configuration Management

Formalism and Tools

Expansion of Scopefrom Candidate to Item

No Rough Drafts—Please!

Expansion from the Middle

Examples

Calculation of Profitability

Expenses

Savings

Pitfalls in Connection with Scoping

Too Demanding

Wrong

Too Coarse or Too Fine

Too Embracing or Too Exclusive

Too Late or Too Early

How to Treat What Is Kept Outside

Objects to Keep Outside

Identification

Storage

II. CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT DATA

6. What Can Be Placed under Configuration Management

Physical or Electronic Objects

Configuration Item Class Hierarchy

Physical Objects

Electronic Objects

Types of Objects in Product Perspective

Software

Hardware

Network

Data

Services

Tools

Types of Objects in Project Perspective

Life Cycle Activities

Support Functions

Tools

Types of Objects in Cross-Organizational Perspective

Cross-Organizational Perspective

Administrative Documents

Company Product Assets

Infrastructure

Quality System

Deliveries under Configuration Management

Examples

Project Relationships

Deliveries for Planned Events Like Milestones

Development Model

Milestones

7. What One Needs to Know about a Configuration Item

Overview of Metadata for a Configuration Item

Data Elements

Metadatabase Medium

Other Data Elements

Metadata for Unique Identification

Belongs To

Name

Version

Status

Date

Storage Location

Storage Medium

Example of States for a Document

Example of States for a Source Code Unit, Including in Build

Metadata for Authorization

Producer

Person Holding Overall Responsibility

Person Responsible for Approval

Ownership

Metadata for Relations to Other Configuration Items

Traces To (and From!)

Tracing Registration

Importance of Tracing

Produced With

Derived From

Consists Of

Metadata for Distribution

May Be Distributed To

Has Been Distributed To

8. What One Must Register for a Configuration Item

Item Approval

Quality Approval

Medium

Content

Examples

Release Request

Medium

Content

Stock Control

Examples

Event Registration

Life Cycle and Responsibility

Content

Created

For Evaluation

Under Decision

Under Change

Closed

Classification

Examples

Change Request

Life Cycle and Responsibility

Content

Created

Implemented

Approved

New Events

Examples

9. What Information Is Available for Configuration Items

Examples

Release Note

Item Status List

Item History List

Item Composition List

Trace Report

Configuration Management as Supplier of Measurements

Ideas for Process Improvement

III. ROLES IN CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT

10. People and Configuration Management

Configuration Management as a Career

Qualifications

Managing Configurations Is Everyone's Job

Understanding Team Roles

Putting Teams Together

11. Configuration Management Roles

Configuration Control Board

Skills and Knowledge

Multiple Boards

Managing Configurations of CCB Work Products

References

Librarian

Tools

Managing Configuration of Library Work Products

References

Person Responsible for Configuration Management

Planning Configuration Management

Managing Configuration Management Work Products

References

12. Organizational Roles

Management

Defining and Tracking Goals

Benefits

References

Person Responsible for Assets

Different Process Descriptions

References

Person Responsible for Operation

Configuration Management Responsibility

References

Person Responsible for Process Management

Managing Configurations of Process Management Work Products

References

Person Responsible for Environments and Tools

Managing Configurations of Environments and Tools

References

Support/Helpdesk

References

13. Project-Related Roles

Analyst

Benefits

References

Designer

Benefits

References

Programmer

Benefits

References

Integrator

Benefits

References

Tester

Benefits

References

Project Manager

Benefits

Managing Configurations of Project Management Work Products

References

Person Responsible for Quality

Managing Configurations of Quality Assurance Work Products

References

Person Responsible for Customer Contact

References

Person Responsible for Subcontractor Contact

References

14. External Roles

Customer

References

Subcontractor

References

IV. CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT IN PRACTICE

15. General Principles

Milestones

Identification

Generic Content Lists

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

Document Handling

Configuration Items or Deliveries

Identification

Authorization

Tracing

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

Emergency Changes

Examples

Principles for “Cheating”

Avoid Cheating

Examples Again

16. Configuration Management in Development Activities

Documentation Activities (Specifications and Design)

Identification

Coding

Unique Identification

Authorization

Tracing

Storage

Change Control

Integration

Production Time

Unique Identification

Tracing

Storage

Change Control

Test

Deliveries

Identification

Tracing

Storage

Change Control

Operational Use

Configuration Management Considerations

Release

Event Registration

Status Reporting

Organizational Considerations

Backup

Maintenance

New Versions

Configuration Management Considerations

Example

17. Managing Configurations for Project Support Functions

Project Management

Example

Deliveries

Connection with Other Processes

Identification

Tracing

Change Control

Status Reporting

Configuration Management

Milestone Deliveries

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

Quality Assurance

Connection with Other Processes

Subcontractor Management

Identification

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

Delivery

18. Managing Configurations in Different Development Models

Agile Development

Configuration Management in Agile Development

Empowered Teams

Process Handling

Environment and Support

Requirements Management

Working Together

Frequent Delivery of Working Software

Communication and Documentation

Status Reporting

Frequent-Build Technique

Planning Considerations

Configuration Management Considerations

Frequent Builds Are Not Frequent Storage

Identification

Building

Storage

Backtracking

Change Control

Example

Integrated Product Development

Organizational Considerations

Configuration Management Considerations

Approach

Iterative Development

Configuration Management Considerations

Requirements Management

Identification

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

Sequential Development

W-Model

Configuration Management Considerations

Identification

Change Control

Status Reporting

19. Managing Configurations for Different Product Types

Composite Systems

Design Considerations

Configuration Management Considerations

Identification

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

Multiplatform

Configuration Management Considerations

Identification

Multivariants

Examples

Requirements Considerations

Design Considerations

Configuration Management Considerations

Identification

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

Safety-Critical Products

Examples

Configuration Management Considerations

Size of Product (Large and Small)

Small Systems

Large Systems

Identification

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

Tool Considerations

Web Applications

Examples

Content Management

Configuration Management Considerations

Identification

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

20. Managing Configurations under Special Conditions

Multisite Development (Geographic Distribution)

Example

Organizational Considerations

Configuration Management Considerations

Identification

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

Example

Multiple Stakeholders

Get an Overview of the Requirements

Analyze the Requirements

Describe the Fulfillment

Conflict of Authority

Parallel Development

Example

Planning Considerations

Configuration Management Considerations

Identification

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

Tool Considerations

Tool Support

Configuration Management Considerations

21. Managing Configurations for Cross-Organizational Functions

Company Infrastructure

Organizational Considerations

Identification

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

Cross-Organizational Objects

Configuration Management Considerations

Identification

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

External Reuse Component Development

Examples

Configuration Management Considerations

Identification

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

Internal Asset Development (Product-Line Approach)

Examples

Central Ownership of Components

Configuration Management Considerations

Identification

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

Quality System, Including Process Management

Configuration Management Considerations

Responsibility

Identification

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

V. IMPROVING CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT

22. Getting Started on Configuration Managementup to Capability Level 1

How to Get Started from Nothing 267

Getting the Right People

Collecting Best Practices Internally

Looking at the Outside World

Focus

Look Ahead

First Steps Toward Configuration Management

Establish Baselines

Track and Control Changes

Minimum Documentation

Establish Integrity

Experiences in Implementing Configuration Management

Overall Conclusion

Datamat Ingegneria dei Sistemi

S.I.A S.p.A

Istiservice, S.p.a

Event A/S

Sysdeco A/S

23. Planning Configuration Managementup to Capability Level 2

General Planning Advice

The Plan Itself

Connection to the Project

Template

Table of Contents for a Configuration Management Plan

Configuration Management Plan: Introduction

Purpose

Scope

Vocabulary and Reference Lists

Configuration Management Plan: Management and Relations to the Environment

Organization

Responsibilities

Interface Control

Subcontractor Management

Relevant Standards

Configuration Management Plan: Activities

Identification

Storage

Change Control

Status Reporting

Configuration Management Plan: Schedule

Tasks

Phases and Milestones

Diagrams and Charts

Configuration Management Plan: Tools, Techniques, and Methods

Tools

Techniques and Methods

24. Processes for Configuration Managementup to Capability Level 3

Processes in General

Connection with Maturity Models

Definitions

A Process Is Like a Recipe

Process Model

Configuration Management ProcessesOverview

Special Requirements for Configuration Management Processes

Configuration Management ProcessModel Examples

25. Continuous Improvement of Configuration Managementup to Capability Level 4 and 5

General Software Process Improvement Advice

Processes in Use

Dissemination and Adaptation

Companies at Capability Levels 4 and 5

Metrics for Controlling Configuration Management Performance

Metrics in General

Measuring Methods

Measurement Plan

Examples

Analyzing Metrics for Control and Improvement

Statistics

Balance Point

VariationWhat Is Normal

Control Charts

26. Tool Support for Configuration Management

Classes of Tools for Configuration Management

Individual Support

Project-Related Support

Full, Company-Wide Process Support

Who Should Use Which Tool?

Organizational Considerations

Business Goals

Buy It or Do It Yourself

Environmental Constraints

Legacy from the Past

Financing

Organizational Scope

Ownership

Planning for the Future

Willingness to Change

Selecting a Configuration Management Tool

Evaluation Group

Evaluation Method

Requirements

Detailed Evaluation

Nomination of the Winner

Requirements for Configuration Management Tools

Integration with Other Tools

Performance

Scalability

Usability

Web Access

Requirements for the Tool Supplier

Acquaintances

Employees

Financial Status

Focus

Tool Use

Reputation

Support Facilities

Customizing Configuration Management Tools

One Tool or More

Changing Tools or Processes

From Class to Class

Appendix A. Configuration Management Process Model:A Software Code Example
Appendix B. Configuration Management Process Model:A Tracing Example
Appendix C. Agile SCM
Glossary
Bibliography
Index 0321117662T12242002

Preface

My Life As a Software Professional

I have two—well three, really—passions in my professional life: test, configuration management, and process improvement. I started my career as an all-round developer—a little requirements elicitation, a little analysis, a lot of coding and re-coding, and some test—more than 20 years ago. During these first professional years, I always loved the testing part themost—making my work run on the computer and enjoying the satisfaction of being told, in a factual and precise way, that something was wrong, which enabled me to carry out the correction and then finally enjoy the privilege of knowing that at least this error was a secret between me and the computer.

My experience grew, and my working teams grew. The problems grew. I wasn't always certain that I had produced what I was supposed to and that I had tested everything. And sometimes an error would reoccur! I got a job as the person responsible for system and acceptance test in a company making software for the European Space Agency, and, for the first time in my then twelve year career, I heard the words configuration management. I had no clue as to what it was, but as I spent hours and hours trying to figure it out, discussing it with the person responsible for quality assurance, and actually using parts of it in my daily work, I came to understand what a wonderful tool I had found.

For the first time I was able to trace my test cases to the requirements. I was able to tell, at any given point, how many requirements I had covered in my test specification and how many requirements were still outstanding. I didn't have to encounter the frustration of having made test cases for requirements that were not going to be implemented anyway. In cases where I had forgotten the reason for a turn in the work, I was able to find a previous version of my test specification and see why I had changed it. I loved it!

For the last seven years, I have been working as a consultant, spending a good deal of my time on testing assignments of many different types in many different companies. One of the things I have learned from these assignments is that there is often a difference between what a customer asks for and

  • what he really wants
  • what he needs, i.e. what you want to give him
  • what you are able to give him
  • Test consultants are often presented with a system to test without the right conditions for performing a professional test.

    The requirements may be in any state from non-existent to brilliantly documented, with a pronounced bias towards the first extreme. If requirements are present, they are most often not up-to-date. This is partly a requirement specification problem, partly a configuration management problem.

    Test requires resources in terms of time and people to perform the test. These resources are often all too scarce. This is a project management problem. When test consultants plan and perform a test they need to establish an overview of not only what has to be tested, but also how the test is progressing, what errors have been found, and what the state of error correction is. These are configuration management issues.

    It is a temptation for a consultant to try to deliver what the customer really needs. There are, however, some limitations and threats in this approach. The art is to strike the right balance between what is needed and what is feasible. One of the things to keep in mind as a consultant is to keep up the standards, but keep it light. So I try to keep up the configuration management standards as I solve the test assignment—hoping that my customer will get an idea of what configuration management is, and maybe ask for some assistance in that direction too.

    Another part of my time is spent assessing software producing companies using the BOOTSTRAP maturity model and method. Like the related Capability Maturity Model (CMM), this model includes configuration management. As an assessor in more than forty assessments, I have time and again seen the blank look in people's eyes when I ask how they perform configuration management. The eyes rarely get less blank if I elaborate and ask about tracing between work products, production of error reports, or other detailed configuration management disciplines.

    On the other hand people are more than willing to talk about the problems they have experienced due to lack of control over what is being implemented and tested, and when, and lack of control over what errors have occurred and which ones are being corrected and which are not.

    Despite the fact that configuration management is one of the basic disciplines for a sound development (in CMM it is a key process area at level 2) many people go through a considerable part of their career without any idea of what configuration management is and how it can ease their everyday tasks; just like I did. So I keep emphasizing the importance of configuration management and very often recommend it as one of the first disciplines a company should be working on when embarking on structured process improvement.

    The Creation ofThis Book

    In 1999 the Danish organization Datateknisk Forum, an association of about seventy software producing companies, asked me to write a book on configuration management. The demand was the result of a survey amongst the members as to what topic they needed a book on.

    Some of the comments and requirements that came back from the survey were:

  • How do you incorporate configuration management in the development process?
  • How do you handle the fact that different kinds of work products, like documents and code, are treated differently?
  • How do you obtain integration between different configuration management tools?
  • How do you handle multi-site development?
  • How do you handle configuration management in relation to OO-development, e.g. component based development?
  • I took on the assignment because in my own experience, configuration management has been of great value, not because I felt I knew much about it theoretically. I know much more now, and I hope I shall be able to convey to the readers some of the understanding, knowledge, and appreciation of the discipline that I have gained during my work on this book. If the readers try at least some of the detailed disciplines of configuration management, it is my hope that they will experience the same enthusiasm about the usefulness of the discipline as I did.

    The book is written on the basis of the study of literature as well as experience—and also on the basis of attitudes and opinions. It contains a lot of examples, advice, and recommendations, which are not to be regarded as the TRUTH, but primarily as the sum of a lot of experience—positive as well as negative.

    When I learned that the book was to be published in the Agile series, I knew little about Agile development. But as I studied the values and principles I found out that I had practiced it in parts for years. Agile software development is a wonderful idea, and one of the cornerstones of its success is configuration management, so it was a pleasure to be able to contribute to the series with one of my favorite disciplines. The book may seem a bit heavy to some Agilists, but I think it is better to discard some formality and some detailed activities deliberately, knowing what it is that one has not performed, rather than just not performing it, out of ignorance. So, Agilists and others, read and choose!

    The Purpose of the Book

    This book is not supposed to be a primer in configuration management. It does, however, start with an introduction to fundamental principles, in order to establish a basic understanding of the concepts used in the main part of the book, which discusses the more advanced issues encountered when configuration management has to be implemented in practice.

    The overall purpose of the book is twofold:

  • To scare those who are engaging in configuration management! The book will give the reader an understanding of the complexity and comprehensiveness of the discipline. Configuration management is not easy! If this is what you think, you'll be unable to solve the configuration management task in a professional way.
  • To take away the fear from those who are engaging in configuration management! The book will provide a fundamental understanding of the principles of the discipline, their interrelations and usage. Configuration management is not difficult! All you have to do, is to do it; and if you understand the discipline, it is much easier to specify and plan the task so that it fulfils its purpose and becomes as manageable as possible.
  • It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge of other disciplines within software development, such as planning, design, test, and quality assurance.



    0321117662P08272002

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