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Computer Structure and Logic

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Computer Structure and Logic


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Not for Sale



  • 150 review questions, with clear explanations of every answer.
  • Explains every part of a computer and shows how each part works together
  • Teaches simple troubleshooting and repair techniques
  • Packed with real-world examples and case studies
  • Operating systems: The basics of Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux
  • Basic security: Protecting your data, connections, and computer
  • Troubleshooting: The tools and methods every good PC technician must know
  • Networks and the Internet: How they work, how they communicate, and how to connect to them
  • and much more....


  • Copyright 2011
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-7897-4793-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-4793-8

Computer Structure and Logic

Pearson Certification Team

The place to start your computer career!

Learn about computers and networks from the ground up!

Learn about computers and networks from the ground up!

  • Your first step toward certifications from CompTIA, Microsoft, or Cisco… absolutely no experience necessary!
  • Explains every part of your computer and shows how each part works together
  • Teaches simple troubleshooting and repair techniques
  • Packed with real-world examples and case studies

Master the basics and build your strong foundation for success!

  • I/O: How information gets into and out of computers
  • Motherboards and buses: How your computer’s parts are connected
  • CPU: How your computer’s “brain” works—and how to install and troubleshoot it
  • Memory and storage: The types you need and how to install them
  • Bootup: How your computer starts, what can go wrong, and how to fix it
  • Operating systems: The basics of Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux
  • Basic security: Protecting your data, connections, and computer
  • Troubleshooting: The tools and methods every good PC technician must know
  • Networks and the Internet: How they work, how they communicate, and how to connect to them

Test your knowledge, gain confidence, and succeed!

  • More than 150 questions, with clear explanations of every answer!

Sample Content

Online Sample Chapter

I/O Ports and Devices

Table of Contents

Introduction xix

Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers 3

History of Computers 3

The von Neumann Computer Model 4

Modern Computers 7

    From Tubes to Transistors 7

    Integrated Circuits 10

History of the PC 11

    Birth of the Personal Computer 11

    The IBM Personal Computer 13

    The PC Industry Nearly 30 Years Later 14

What Is a PC? 17

    Who Controls PC Software? 18

    Who Controls PC Hardware? 21

    White-Box Systems 24

    PC Design Guides 25

    System Types 26

    System Components 26

Chapter Review Questions 28

    Case Study 1 31

    Case Study 2 31

Answers and Explanations 31

    Case Study 1 Solution 33

    Case Study 2 Solution 33

Chapter 2 Understanding Computer Math and Measurement 35

Numbering Systems Used in Computers 35

    Decimal Numbering System 36

    Binary Numbering System 36

        Binary Versus Decimal MB/GB 40

        Data Storage and Overhead 43

    Hexadecimal Numbering System 44

Basic Boolean Operations 45

    AND 46

    OR 47

    NOT 47

    Mixed Boolean Operations 48

Measuring Data Transfer and Frequency 48

    Bandwidth 49

        Parallel Information Transfers 49

        Serial Transfers 51

    Hertz (Hz) 51

Chapter Review Questions 53

    Case Study 1 56

    Case Study 2 56

Answers and Explanations 56

    Case Study 1 Solution 57

    Case Study 2 Solution 58

Chapter 3 I/O Ports and Devices 61

Understanding I/O Ports 61

    USB 61

        USB Port Types, Speeds, and Technical Details 62

        Adding USB Ports 66

    Serial (COM) 67

        Types of Serial Cables 69

        Standard IRQ and I/O Port Addresses 70

    Parallel (LPT) 70

    SCSI 72

        Multiple Device Support with SCSI Host Adapters 73

        Jumper Block and DIP Switch Settings for Device IDs 74

        SCSI Standards 74

    IEEE 1394 (FireWire) 75

        IEEE 1394 Ports and Cables 75

        IEEE 1394–Compatible Devices and Technical Requirements 76

    PS/2 (Mini-DIN) 77

    Centronics 77

    1/8-Inch Audio Mini-Jack 77

    SPDIF Digital Audio 78

    MIDI Port 79

    RG-6 Coaxial 79

Understanding Input Devices 80

    Keyboard 80

    Mouse and Pointing Devices 81

    Game Controllers 82

    Bar Code Reader 82

    Biometric Devices 82

    Voice-Activated Typing 83

Understanding Display Types 83

    CRT Monitor 84

    LCD Monitor 85

    Data Projector 86

    Touch Screens 87

Understanding Video Connector Types 88

    VGA 88

    DVI 89

    HDMI 89

    Component/RGB 91

    S-Video 91

    Composite 91

Printing Fundamentals 93

    Laser Printers 93

        Toner Cartridges 94

        Laser Printer Paper and Media 95

    Inkjet Printers 96

        Ink Cartridges 97

        Inkjet Printer Paper and Media 98

    Thermal Printers 98

        Thermal Printer Ribbons 99

        Thermal Printer Paper 100

    Impact Printers 100

        Impact Printer Ribbons 101

        Impact Printer Paper and Media 102

Understanding Multimedia Devices 103

    Webcam 103

    Digital Camera 103

    MIDI Music and MIDI Ports 103

    Sound Card 103

    Microphone 104

    Video Capture Card 105

Chapter Review Questions 106

    Case Study 1 109

    Case Study 2 109

Answers and Explanations 110

    Case Study 1 Solution 112

    Case Study 2 Solution 112

Chapter 4 Motherboards and Buses 115

Motherboards and Their Components 115

    The System Bus and I/O Bus 116

    The Chipset 117

    Form Factors 118

        ATX and Micro ATX 118

        BTX 119

        NLX 120

        Riser Cards and Daughterboards 120

    Integrated I/O Ports 122

    Memory Slots 124

    Expansion Slots 124

        PCI Slots 125

        AGP 125

        PCIe (PCI Express) Slots 126

        AMR and CNR Slots 128

    Mass Storage Interfaces 129

        EIDE/PATA 130

        SATA 131

        SCSI 131

    Choosing the Best Motherboard for the Job 133

    Installing Motherboards 133

        Step-by-Step Motherboard Removal (ATX and BTX) 134

        Step-by-Step Motherboard Removal (NLX) 136

        Preparing the Motherboard for Installation (ATX/BTX) 137

        Step-by-Step Motherboard Installation (ATX/Baby-AT) 137

        Step-by-Step Motherboard Installation (NLX) 138

    Troubleshooting Motherboards 138

        System Does Not Start 139

        Devices Connected to the Port Cluster Don’t Work 143

        Devices Connected to Header Cables Don’t Work 144

        Mass Storage Devices Do Not Work Properly 145

        Memory Failures 145

        Card, Memory, or Heat Sink Blocked by Motherboard Layout 145

Installing Adapter Cards 146

    General Installation 146

    Display Adapters 149

    Sound Cards 150

    Video Capture Cards 150

    Troubleshooting Adapter Cards 151

        Device Connected to Adapter Card Doesn’t Work 151

        Performing Driver and Firmware Upgrades 152

Chapter Review Questions 153

    Case Study 1 156

    Case Study 2 156

Answers and Explanations 157

    Case Study 1 Solution 158

    Case Study 2 Solution 159

Chapter 5 The CPU 161

Intel and AMD Processors 161

    Intel Processors 162

    AMD Processors 165

    Processor Sockets and Packaging 168

    Overview of Processor Differences 168

CPU Technologies 169

    CPU Clock Rate 170

    Hyperthreading (HT Technology) 171

    Dual-Core and Multi-Core 171

    Processor Throttling 172

    MMX and 3DNow! Instruction Sets 172

    Overclocking 173

    Cache 174

    VRM 175

    32-Bit Versus 64-Bit 175

Choosing the Best Processor for the Job 176

    Performance 176

    Thermal Issues 176

    32-Bit Versus 64-Bit (x64) Compatibility 176

    Other Processor Features 177

Installing and Upgrading Processors 177

    Removing the Heat Sink 178

    Removing the Processor 180

    Installing a New Processor 181

    Slot-Type CPU (Early Pentium III, Early AMD Athlon, and Others) 183

Troubleshooting Processors 185

    System Runs Slower Than Rated Speed 185

        Causes for Overheating 185

        Fan Failure 185

        Incorrect Heat Sink for Processor Type/Speed 185

        Overheating of the Processor or System 185

        Underclocked System 186

    Processor Failure 186

Chapter Review Questions 187

    Case Study 1 190

    Case Study 2 190

Answers and Explanations 190

    Case Study 1 Solution 192

    Case Study 2 Solution 192

Chapter 6 Memory and Storage 195

RAM Basics 195

RAM Types 198

    DRAM 198

    SRAM 198

    SDRAM 198

    DDR SDRAM 199

    DDR2 SDRAM 199

    Rambus 199

    Comparison of Memory Modules 200

Installing DIMMs and Rambus RDRAM Modules 202

Hard Disk Drives 204

    PATA and SATA Data and Power Cables 205

    PATA Drive Jumpering and Cable Select 206

    ATA Specifications 207

    ATA/IDE Drive Physical Installation 209

    SATA Hard Drive Physical Installation 211

    Installing an SATA Host Adapter 213

    Configuring PATA BIOS 214

    Configuring SATA BIOS 216

    Creating an ATA or SATA RAID Array 218

    Optimizing ATA/IDE Performance 221

        Selecting the PIO and DMA Transfer Modes 221

        Selecting the IDE Block Mode 223

        Installing IDE Busmastering Drivers 223

        Enabling DMA Transfers for PATA Devices in Windows 223

        Adjusting Disk Caching Settings in Windows 225

CD and DVD Optical Drives 226

    CD and DVD Drive Interfaces 227

    Physical Installation of Optical Drives 227

IDE/ATAPI Optical Drive Installation Issues 228

Chapter Review Questions 229

    Case Study 1 232

    Case Study 2 232

Answers and Explanations 232

    Case Study 1 Solution 234

    Case Study 2 Solution 234

Chapter 7 Computer Operation 237

Understanding BIOS, CMOS, and Firmware 237

Configuring the System BIOS 240

    Accessing the BIOS Setup Program 241

    BIOS Settings Overview 243

        Automatic Configuration of BIOS/CMOS Settings 246

        Selecting Options 247

    Main Menu 247

    Standard Features/Settings Menu 248

        PATA and SATA BIOS Configuration 249

        Floppy Drive BIOS Configuration 249

        System Information 249

    Advanced BIOS Settings/Features Menu 251

    Integrated Peripherals Menu 252

        Onboard Devices Submenu 253

        I/O Devices Submenu 253

        PATA/IDE and SATA Configuration Menus 255

    Power Management Menu 256

    PnP/PCI Configuration Settings 257

    Hardware Monitor 259

    Processor and Memory Configuration 260

    Security Features 262

    Exiting the BIOS and Saving/Discarding Changes 263

Power-On Self-Test and Error Reporting 264

    Beep Codes 265

    POST Error Messages 266

    POST Hex Error Codes 266

BIOS Updates 268

    Flash BIOS Update 269

    BIOS Chip Replacement 271

Chapter Review Questions 273

    Case Study 1 276

    Case Study 2 276

Answers and Explanations 276

    Case Study 1 Solution 278

    Case Study 2 Solution 278

Chapter 8 Operating Systems 281

Types of Operating Systems 281

    Mac OS 282

    Linux 283

    Windows 283

Differences in Windows Versions 284

    GUI 284

    System Requirements 287

Windows Interfaces 287

    Windows Explorer 288

        Common Tasks View 289

        Windows Vista Additions to Windows Explorer 290

        Windows 7 Additions to Windows Explorer 290

    My Computer 291

    Control Panel 292

    Command Prompt 293

    Network 294

    My Network Places 295

    Taskbar/Systray 296

    Start Menu 296

Managing Disk Partitions, Files, and Folders 298

    Disk Partitions 298

    Using Disk Management 299

    Mount Points and Mounting a Drive 303

    Windows File Systems 304

        FAT32 304

        NTFS 304

    Working with Folders/Directories 305

    File Management 306

        Creating Files 306

        File Types 307

        File Names and Extensions 308

        Indexing 309

        File Permissions 310

    DEFRAG 311

    CHKDSK.EXE 312

    Format 313

System Management Tools 314

    Device Manager 314

    Computer Management and the MMC 317

    Task Manager 318

    Event Viewer 319

    System Restore 321

Chapter Review Questions 323

    Case Study 1 326

    Case Study 2 326

Answers and Explanations 327

    Case Study 1 Solution 328

    Case Study 2 Solution 329

Chapter 9 Basic Security 331

Security Fundamentals 331

    Secure and Insecure File Systems 331

    Authentication Technologies 332

        Username/Password/PIN 332

        Smart Cards 332

        Biometrics 333

    Protection Against Viruses and Malware 333

    Software Firewalls 334

    Hardware Recycling and Deconstruction 335

Data and Physical Security 335

    Data Access Local Security Policy 335

    Encryption Technologies 336

        Encrypting File System 337

        BitLocker Encryption 337

    Backups 338

    Data Migration 338

    Data and Data Remnant Removal 339

    Password Management 339

    Locking a Workstation 340

    Incident Reporting 340

    Social Engineering 341

Access Control Purposes and Principles 342

    Operating System Access Control 342

        User, Administration, and Guest Accounts 342

        User Account Control (UAC) 343

        Groups 343

        Permissions Actions, Types, and Levels 344

        Permission Inheritance and Propagation 344

        Moving and Copying Folders and Files 345

    Components 345

    Restricted Spaces 345

    Auditing and Event Logging 346

Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting Security Features 347

    BIOS Security Features 347

    Software Firewalls 348

    Troubleshooting Software Firewalls 349

    File Systems (Converting from FAT32 to NTFS) 351

    Malicious Software Protection 351

        Types of Malware and Infection Methods 351

        Training Users in Malware Protection 352

Wireless Security 353

    WEP and WPA Encryption 353

    Configuring Wireless Clients 354

    Troubleshooting Wireless Clients 357

    Unused Wireless Connections 359

Chapter Review Questions 361

    Case Study 1 364

    Case Study 2 364

Answers and Explanations 364

    Case Study 1 Solution 366

    Case Study 2 Solution 366

Chapter 10 Troubleshooting 369

PC Tools 369

Preventing Electrostatic Discharge 370

Using a Troubleshooting Process 372

Determining Whether a Problem Is Caused by Hardware or Software 374

    What Components to Check First 375

    Points of Failure on the Outside of the Computer 376

     “Known-Working” Doesn’t Mean “New”—Best Sources for Replacement Parts 377

    Keeping Track of Your Solutions 378

Troubleshooting Windows 378

    Recovering an Operating System 378

        Last Known Good Configuration, Safe Mode, and Other Advanced Boot Options 379

        Windows Recovery Environment (WinRE) 382

        Recovery Console 384

        Using System Restore with Advanced Boot Options 386

        Using Windows Vista’s Complete PC Backup 386

        Using Automated System Recovery (ASR) (Windows XP) 387

    Diagnosing and Troubleshooting Other Problems 389

        Identifying the Problem: User Interview 389

        Analyzing the Problem 390

        Identifying the Problem: Logs and Services 390

        Recording Symptoms and Error Codes 392

        Checking Configurations and Device Manager 393

    Common Problems 394

        STOP (Blue Screen) Errors 394

        Application Troubleshooting 396

        Using Task Manager 397

        Troubleshooting with Device Manager 398

Where to Go for More Information 401

Chapter Review Questions 404

    Case Study 1 407

    Case Study 2 407

Answers and Explanations 408

    Case Study 1 Solution 409

    Case Study 2 Solution 411

Chapter 11 Networks 413

Network Models 414

    Client/Server 414

        Servers 414

        Clients 415

    Peer-to-Peer 416

Internet Connectivity Technologies 417

    Modems and Dial-Up Internet Connectivity 417

    ISDN Internet Connectivity 419

        ISDN Hardware 420

        Setting Up an ISDN Connection 420

    Broadband Internet Services (DSL, Cable, Satellite) 421

        Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) 421

        Cable Internet 423

        Satellite 425

    LANs and Internet Connectivity 425

TCP/IP Applications and Technologies 426

    ISP 426

    HTTP/HTTPS 426

    SSL 427

    TLS 427

    HTML 427

    FTP 428

    Telnet 429

    SSH 429

    DNS 429

    Email 430

        SMTP 431

        POP 431

        IMAP 432

    Ports 432

Installing Network Interface Cards 433

Cable and Connector Types 433

    UTP and STP Cabling 434

    Fiber-Optic Cabling 437

    Coaxial Cabling 438

    Plenum and PVC 439

    Connector Types 439

Network Devices 440

Configuring TCP/IP 441

        TCP/IP Configuration with a DHCP Server 442

        TCP/IP Alternate Configuration 443

        TCP/IP User-Configured IP Address, DNS Addresses, and Advanced Settings 444

        Understanding IP Addressing, Subnet Masks, and IP Classes 445

        WINS Configuration 448

        Gateway 448

        DNS Configuration 448

Using Network Command-Line Tools 448

    Using ipconfig 449

    Using ping 450

    Using tracert 451

    Using the net Command 451

    Using nslookup 452

Chapter Review Questions 453

    Case Study 1 456

    Case Study 2 456

Answers and Explanations 456

    Case Study 1 Solution 458

    Case Study 2 Solution 459

9780789747938   TOC   1/3/2011

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