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Commercializing Great Products with Design for Six Sigma

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Commercializing Great Products with Design for Six Sigma


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  • Copyright 2007
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-238599-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-238599-2

Optimize Every Stage of Your Product Development and Commercialization

To remain competitive, companies must become more effective at identifying, developing, and commercializing new products and services. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) is the most powerful approach available for achieving these goals reliably and efficiently. Now, for the first time, there's a comprehensive, hands-on guide to utilizing DFSS in real-world product development.

Using a start-to-finish case study, a practical roadmap, and easy-to-use templates, Commercializing Great Products with Design for Six Sigma shows how to optimize every stage of product commercialization. Drawing on a combined sixty-five years of product experience, the authors show how to make better product and portfolio decisions; develop better business cases and benefits assessments; create better concepts and designs; scale up manufacturing more effectively; and execute better launches.

Learn how to

  • Establish infrastructure to support successful commercialization
  • Use Stage-Gate® processes to minimize risk and optimize the use of people and resources
  • Create better plans: Segment markets, define product value, estimate financial value, and position new products for success
  • Capture the "Voice of the Customer," analyze it, and use it to drive development
  • Choose the right tools: Ideation, Pugh Concept Selection, QFD, TRIZ, and many more
  • Develop better products and processes: Process Maps, Cause and Effects Matrices, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, Statistical Design and Data Analysis Tools, and more
  • Test and improve product performance and reliability
  • Perform Post Mortems and apply what you've learned to your next project

Whether you're an executive, engineer, designer, marketer, or quality-control professional, Commercializing Great Products with Design for Six Sigma will help you identify more valuable product concepts and translate them into high-impact revenue sources.



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Table of Contents

Preface ix Acknowledgments xvii About the Authors xix Section I Getting Started 1 Chapter 1 What Is Design for Six Sigma? 3

Design for Six Sigma Defined 3

The Risk of Development 4

A Little History 5

An Overview of the Methodology 7

Chapter 2 The Business Case for DFSS 11

The Product Life Cycle 11

Where Have All the Vacuum Tubes Gone? 13

Understanding Dynamic Markets: The Kano Model 15

The Role of DFSS 18

Chapter 3 Six Sigma Financial Metrics 21

Candy Wrapper Film: A DFSS Case Study 21

How to Measure Success in a DFSS Project 22

The Cost of Long-Term Variation 33

Chapter 4 Project Identification and Portfolio Management 41

Linking Projects to Strategy 41

The Project Charter 42

DFSS Projects Linked to Financial Results 43

Project Hopper and Pipeline Management 46

Managing the Commercialization Pipeline 48

Technology Platform Projects 48

Project Pipeline Scorecard 48

Chapter 5 Stage-Gate Processes 51

The Stage-Gate Structure 51

Stage-Gate 1: Opportunity Assessment 53

Stage-Gate 2: Market Analysis and Product Definition 55

Stage-Gate 3: New Product Concept Finalized 55

Stage-Gate 4: Design of the New Product and Supporting Manufacturing Process 58

Stage-Gate 5: Validate Product and Process Design 58

Stage-Gate 6: Product Launch Plan 60

Managing the Stage-Gate Process 62

Chapter 6 Project Management 67

DFSS Project Roadmaps 67

Developing the Project Schedule 69

Project Schedule Management 73

Good Project Management 74

Section II Preparing the Business Plan 75 Chapter 7 Business Plan Overview 77

Review of the Business Plan at Gate 3 77

Components of the Business Plan 77

Chapter 8 Market Segmentation 83

The Financial Value of Market Segmentation 83

Developing the Segmentation Strategy 89

Chapter 9 Identifying Market Opportunities 93

The SWOT Analysis 93

Developing the Ratings by Market Segment 95

SWOT Analysis Results 97

The Market FMEA 98

Chapter 10 Defining Product Value 101

The Value Concept 101

Making Quality a Weapon 102

Mapping the Value Chain 105

Tools for Defining Value 107

Chapter 11 Estimating Financial Value 109

Calculating the Project Value 109

How to Handle Fixed Costs 110

Examining the Project Returns 115

Chapter 12 Product Positioning 123

The Market Perceived Quality Profile 123

Product Positioning Maps 129

Section III The Voice of the Customer 131 Chapter 13 Concept Development 133

The Concept Development Process 133

Concept Development Applications 135

Advantages of the Concept Development Process 135

Chapter 14 Developing the Interview Guide 139

Developing a Purpose Statement 139

Identifying and Listing Five to Ten Bullet-Point Interview Objectives 140

Developing a Customer Selection Matrix 141

Creating the Interview Guide Questions 143

Chapter 15 Conducting Customer Interviews 151

Preparing for the Interviews 151

Interview Team Roles 152

Conducting the Interview 153

Debriefing the Interview 155

Good Project Management of the Interview Process 155

Practice, Practice, Practice 156

Chapter 16 KJ Analysis 157

An Overview of the KJ Process 158

The Image KJ 158

The Requirements KJ 168

The Next Steps 178

Chapter 17 Relative Importance Survey 179

Designing and Conducting the Survey 179

Analyzing the Survey Results 183

Identifying Requirements in Kano Terms 185

Chapter 18 Ideation 187

The Ideation Process 187

Ideation in the Candy Wrapper Film Case Study 190

Chapter 19 Pugh Concept Selection 193

The Pugh Concept Selection Process 194

Pugh Concept Selection in the Candy Wrapper Film Case Study 198

Chapter 20 QFD 199

The Value of QFD 199

Executing the QFD 201

The QFD Flowdown 206

QFD across the Value Chain 209

Some Final Thoughts 215

Chapter 21 TRIZ 217

Technical Contradictions 218

The TRIZ Methodology 218

Some Final Thoughts on TRIZ 229

Chapter 22 Critical Parameter Management 231

Documenting Critical Information from the QFD 232

The Critical Parameter Scorecard 232

The Benefits of Using Critical Parameter Scorecards 236

Section IV Product/Process Development 239 Chapter 23 Process Mapping 241

Types and Uses of Process Maps 241

The Process Variables Map 241

The "As-Is/Can-Be" Process Map 247

Some Final Thoughts on Process Mapping 249

Chapter 24 Cause and Effects Matrix 251

Comparing C&E Matrix and QFD3 251

Developing the C&E Matrix 252

Using the C&E Matrix Output 257

Chapter 25 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis 263

Two Types of FMEA in New Product Development 263

The Design FMEA 264

The Process Design FMEA and the Process Manufacturing FMEA 271

Chapter 26 Statistical Analysis Tools Overview 275

Variation in Product and Process Development 275

Some Basic Statistics 279

Graphical Analysis Techniques 282

Numerical Descriptive Statistics 301

A Look Ahead 303

Chapter 27 Measurement Systems Analysis 307

Measurement System Error 307

The Impact of Measurement Error in Development 308

Assessing Measurement System Usefulness 309

Conducting a Measurement System Study 316

Long-Term Measurement System Assessments 322

Chapter 28 Process Capability 323

Using the Normal Distribution Curve to Estimate Waste 323

Short-Term Process Capability Analysis 325

Long-Term Process Variation: The Shift 326

Designing for Six Sigma Performance 329

Revisiting the Cp Statistic 330

The Cpk Statistic 332

Long-Term Process Capability Analysis 335

Interpreting the Capability Indices 336

Capability Analysis in Minitab 337

Ensuring Measurement System Adequacy 341

Process Capability for Attribute Data 343

The Importance of Process Capability 344

Chapter 29 Tools for Data Analysis 347

General Methods of Data Analysis 347

Hypothesis Testing 348

Sample Size Calculation 350

Comparing a Process Mean to a Target Value 352

Comparing Means and Standard Deviations from Two Film Samples 359

Comparing Two Variances 364

Comparing Two Means: 2-Sample t-test 364

Comparing 2 Medians: The Mann-Whitney Test 367

Comparing Two Means: Paired Comparisons 367

Assessing Means and Standard Deviations: Con*dence Interval 371

Comparing Means and Standard Deviations from More Than Two Samples 374

Comparing Variance 377

Comparing Means: One-Way ANOVA 379

Comparing Medians: Kruskal-Wallis Test 384

Data Comparison Tools Summary 385

Correlation Analysis 385

Regression Analysis for a Single Input Variable 388

Multiple Regression Analysis 394

Correlation and Regression Analysis Summary 400

References 400

Chapter 30 Design of Experiments 401

Full Factorial Designs 401

Fractional Factorial Designs 415

Response Surface Designs 424

Choosing an Experimental Design 430

References 432

Chapter 31 Robust Design 433

Quantifying Robust Design Performance 433

The Taguchi Approach to Robust Design 435

Robust Design Example 438

Alternative Approaches to Robust Design 442

Dealing with Variation 447

Chapter 32 Mixture Experiments 449

Mixture Equations 449

Mixture Designs 451

Creating Mixture Designs in Minitab 451

Analyzing a Mixture Design Experiment 455

Response Surface Study for a Mixture Investigation 458

Choosing a Mixture Design 466

References 468

Chapter 33 Seeking an Optimal Solution 469

The Multiple Response Optimization Process 470

Three-Response Optimization 477

Monte Carlo Simulation in Optimization 481

Multiple Response Optimization Final Thoughts 488

Chapter 34 Design for Reliability 491

A Roadmap for Reliability 491

Design for Reliability 493

Identifying Reliability Requirements: VOC 493

Reliability Expectations and the Kano Model 494

Customer Reliability Expectations 495

Typical Reliability Metrics 495

The Hazard Function 498

Types of Reliability Tests 503

Reliability and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis 506

Reliability Functions and Mathematical Models 508

Types of Distributions and the Hazard Function 511

Reliability Modeling Using Minitab Software 512

The Implications of Product Reliability on Warranty Costs 516

Chapter 35 Statistical Tolerancing 519

Worst Case Analysis 520

Root Sum of Squares Analysis 521

Six Sigma Tolerance Analysis 525

Chapter 36 Production Scale-up 541

Confirming the Product 542

Design for Manufacturability Assessment 550

Scaling up the Product 553

Chapter 37 Control Plans 559

Developing a Control Plan 560

The Final Control Plan Package 572

Section V Product Launch and Project Post-Mortem Analysis 575 Chapter 38 Product Launch and Project Post-Mortem Analysis 577

Product Launch Planning 577

Project Post-Mortem Analysis 583

Conclusions 588

Appendix A Glossary 589 Appendix B Abbreviations 599 Index 601


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