This is a practical book that explains how to write C# programs using some of the most common design patterns. With the release of C# and Visual Studio .NET, there is a new interest in the Microsoft development community in some of the OO world's key tools, such as UML and Design Patterns, which they had neglected before. The book covers every pattern identified in Gamma et al's Design Patterns which can be executed in C#. For each pattern, it starts with a brief verbal description, and then builds simple example programs. Each of these examples is a visual program that can be run and examined to make the pattern as concrete a concept as possible. All of the examples will be on the companion CD. The emphasis is on the practical ways to use these patterns to ease the developer's day to day work. This book should be well timed for the growing number of developers who have learned the basics of C#, and now want information on how to get the most out of C# in their real-world application development.
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I. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING IN C#.1. What Are Design Patterns?
Defining Design Patterns.
The Learning Process.
Studying Design Patterns.
Notes on Object-Oriented Approaches.
C# Design Patterns.
How This Book Is Organized.2. Syntax of the C# Language.
Converting between Numbers and Strings.
Declaring Multiple Variables.
Declaring Variables as You Use Them.
Multiple Equals Signs for Initialization.
A Simple C# Program.
Increment and Decrement Operators.
Combining Arithmetic and Assignment Statements.
Making Decisions in C#.
The Most Common Mistake.
The Switch Statement.
The Ornery Ternary Operator.
Looping Statements in C#.
The While Loop.
The Do-While Statement.
The For Loop.
Declaring Variables as Needed in For Loops.
Commas in For Loop Statements.
How C# Differs from C.
How C# Differs from Java.
Summary.3. Writing Windows C# Programs.
Objects in C#.
Managed Languages and Garbage Collection.
Classes and Namespaces in C#.
Building a C# Application.
The Simplest Window Program in C#.
ListBoxes and ComboBoxes.
The Items Collection.
The Windows Controls Program.
Programs on the CD-ROM.4. Using Classes and Objects in C#.
What Do We Use Classes For?
A Simple Temperature Conversion Program.
Building a Temperature Class.
Converting to Kelvin.
Putting the Decisions into the Temperature Class.
Using Classes for Format and Value Conversion.
Handling Unreasonable Values.
A String Tokenizer Class.
Classes as Objects.
Classes and Properties.
Programming Style in C#.
Programs on the CD-ROM.5. Inheritance.
Drawing and Graphics in C#.
Creating a Square from a Rectangle.
Public, Private, and Protected.
Virtual and Override Keywords.
Overriding Methods in Derived Classes.
Replacing Methods Using New.
Overriding Windows Controls.
Comparing Interfaces and Abstract Classes.
Programs on the CD-ROM.6. UML Diagrams.
WithClass UML Diagrams.
C# Project Files.7. Arrays, Files, and Exceptions in C#.
The File Object.
Reading a Text File.
Writing a Text File.
Exceptions in File Handling.
Testing for End of File.
A csFile Class.
Program on the CD-ROM.
II. CREATIONAL PATTERNS.8. The Simple Factory Pattern.
How a Simple Factory Works.
The Two Derived Classes.
Building the Simple Factory.
Using the Factory.
Factory Patterns in Math Computation.
Programs on the CD-ROM.9. The Factory Method.
The Swimmer Class.
The Events Classes.
Our Seeding Program.
When to Use a Factory Method.
Program on the CD-ROM.10. The Abstract Factory Pattern.
A GardenMaker Factory.
Handling the RadioButton and Button Events.
Adding More Classes.
Consequences of Abstract Factory.
Program on the CD-ROM.11. The Singleton Pattern.
Creating Singleton Using a Static Method.
Exceptions and Instances.
Throwing the Exception.
Creating an Instance of the Class.
Providing a Global Point of Access to a Singleton.
Other Consequences of the Singleton Pattern.
Programs on the CD-ROM.12. The Builder Pattern.
An Investment Tracker.
The Stock Factory.
The CheckChoice Class.
The ListboxChoice Class.
Using the Items Collection in the ListBox Control.
Plotting the Data.
The Final Choice.
Consequences of the Builder Pattern.
Program on the CD-ROM.13. The Prototype Pattern.
Cloning in C#.
Using the Prototype.
Cloning the Class.
Using the Prototype Pattern.
Dissimilar Classes with the Same Interface.
Consequences of the Prototype Pattern.
Programs on the CD-ROM.
Summary of Creational Patterns.
III. STRUCTURAL PATTERNS.14. The Adapter Pattern.
Moving Data between Lists.
Making an Adapter.
Using the DataGrid.
Detecting Row Selection.
Using a TreeView.
The Class Adapter.
Object versus Class Adapters in C#.
Programs on the CD-ROM.15. The Bridge Pattern.
The Bridger Interface.
The VisList Classes.
The Class Diagram.
Extending the Bridge.
Windows Forms as Bridges.
Consequences of the Bridge Pattern.
Programs on the CD-ROM.16 The Composite Pattern.
An Implementation of a Composite.
The Employee Classes.
The Boss Class.
Building the Employee Tree.
Doubly Linked Lists.
Consequences of the Composite Pattern.
A Simple Composite.
Composites in .NET.
Other Implementation Issues.
Programs on the CD-ROM.17. The Decorator Pattern.
Decorating a CoolButton.
Handling Events in a Decorator.
Control Size and Position.
Decorators, Adapters, and Composites.
Consequences of the Decorator Pattern.
Programs on the CD-ROM.18. The Facade Pattern.
What Is a Database?
Getting Data Out of Databases.
Kinds of Databases.
Connecting to a Database.
Reading Data from a Database Table.
Executing a Query.
Deleting the Contents of a Table.
Adding Rows to Database Tables Using ADO.NET.
Building the Facade Classes.
Building the Price Query.
Making the ADO.NET Facade.
The DBTable Class.
Creating Classes for Each Table.
Building the Price Table.
Loading the Database Tables.
The Final Application.
What Constitutes the Facade?
Consequences of the Facade.
Program on the CD-ROM.19. The Flyweight Pattern.
The Class Diagram.
Selecting a Folder.
Handling the Mouse and Paint Events.
Flyweight Uses in C#.
Program on the CD-ROM.20. The Proxy Pattern.
Proxies in C#.
Comparison with Related Patterns.
Program on the CD-ROM.
Summary of Structural Patterns.
IV. BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS.21. Chain of Responsibility.
Programming a Help System.
Receiving the Help Command.
A Chain or a Tree?
Kinds of Requests.
Examples in C#.
The Chain of Responsibility.
Programs on the CD-ROM.22. The Command Pattern.
Building Command Objects.
Consequences of the Command Pattern.
The CommandHolder Interface.
Programs on the CD-ROM.23. The Interpreter Pattern.
A Simple Report Example.
Interpreting the Language.
Objects Used in Parsing.
Reducing the Parsed Stack.
Implementing the Interpreter Pattern.
The Syntax Tree.
Consequences of the Interpreter Pattern.
Program on the CD-ROM.24. The Iterator Pattern.
Sample Iterator Code.
Fetching an Iterator.
The Filtered Iterator.
Keeping Track of the Clubs.
Consequences of the Iterator Pattern.
Programs on the CD-ROM.25. The Mediator Pattern.
An Example System.
Interactions between Controls.
Initialization of the System.
Mediators and Command Objects.
Consequences of the Mediator Pattern.
Single Interface Mediators.
Program on the CD-ROM.26. The Memento Pattern.
A Cautionary Note.
Command Objects in the User Interface.
Handling Mouse and Paint Events.
Consequences of the Memento.
Program on the CD-ROM.27. The Observer Pattern.
Watching Colors Change.
The Message to the Media.
Consequences of the Observer Pattern.
Program on the CD-ROM.28. The State Pattern.
Switching between States.
How the Mediator Interacts with the StateManager.
Handling the Fill State.
Handling the Undo List.
The VisRectangle and VisCircle Classes.
Mediators and the God Class.
Consequences of the State Pattern.
Program on the CD-ROM.29 The Strategy Pattern.
The Program Commands.
The Line and Bar Graph Strategies.
Drawing Plots in C#.
Making Bar Plots.
Making Line Plots.
Consequences of the Strategy Pattern.
Program on the CD-ROM.30. The Template Method Pattern.
Kinds of Methods in a Template Class.
Drawing a Standard Triangle.
Drawing an Isosceles Triangle.
The Triangle Drawing Program.
Templates and Callbacks.
Summary and Consequences.
Programs on the CD-ROM.31. The Visitor Pattern.
When to Use the Visitor Pattern.
Visiting the Classes.
Visiting Several Classes.
Bosses Are Employees, Too.
Catch-All Operations with Visitors.
Why Are We Doing This?
Traversing a Series of Classes.
Consequences of the Visitor Pattern.
Program on the CD-ROM.Bibliography.
This is a practical book that tells you how to write C# programs using some of the most common design patterns. It also serves as a quick introduction to programming in the new C# language. The pattern discussions are structured as a series of short chapters, each describing a design pattern and giving one or more complete working, visual example programs that use that pattern. Each chapter also includes UML diagrams illustrating how the classes interact.
This book is not a "companion" book to the well-known Design Patterns text by the "Gang of Four." Instead, it is a tutorial for people who want to learn what design patterns are about and how to use them in their work. You do not have to have read Design Patterns to read this book, but when you are done here you may well want to read or reread it to gain additional insights.
In this book, you will learn that design patterns are frequently used ways of organizing objects in your programs to make them easier to write and modify. You'll also see that by familiarizing yourself with them, you've gained some valuable vocabulary for discussing how your programs are constructed.
People come to appreciate design patterns in different ways--from the highly theoretical to the intensely practical--and when they finally see the great power of these patterns, an "Aha!" moment occurs. Usually this moment means that you suddenly have an internal picture of how that pattern can help you in your work.
In this book, we try to help you form that conceptual idea, or gestalt, by describing the pattern in as many ways as possible. The book is organized into six main sections: an introductory description, an introduction to C#, and descriptions of patterns, grouped as creational, structural, and behavioral.
For each pattern, we start with a brief verbal description and then build simple example programs. Each of these examples is a visual program that you can run and examine to make the pattern as concrete a concept as possible. All of the example programs and their variations are on the companion CD-ROM, where you run them, change them, and see how the variations you create work.
Since each of the examples consists of a number of C# files for each of the classes we use in that example, we provide a C# project file for each example and place each example in a separate subdirectory to prevent any confusion. This book assumes you have and will be using a copy of Visual Studio.NET. This product comes in several versions: we used the Professional Edition in developing the code samples.
If you leaf through the book, you'll see screen shots of the programs we developed to illustrate the design patterns, providing yet another way to reinforce your learning of these patterns. In addition, you'll see UML diagrams of these programs, illustrating the interactions between classes in yet another way. UML diagrams are just simple box and arrow illustrations of classes and their inheritance structure, where arrows point to parent classes, and dotted arrows point to interfaces. And if you're not yet familiar with UML, we provide a simple introduction in the second chapter.
When you finish this book, you'll be comfortable with the basics of design patterns and will be able to start using them in your day-to-day C# programming work.James W. Cooper
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