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Application-Specific Integrated Circuits


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  • Copyright 1997
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 1040
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-321-60275-7
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-321-60275-6

This comprehensive book on application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) describes the latest methods in VLSI-systems design. ASIC design, using commercial tools and pre-designed cell libraries, is the fastest, most cost-effective, and least error-prone method of IC design. As a consequence, ASICs and ASIC-design methods have become increasingly popular in industry for a wide range of applications.

The book covers both semicustom and programmable ASIC types. After describing the fundamentals of digital logic design and the physical features of each ASIC type, the book turns to ASIC logic design - design entry, logic synthesis, simulation, and test - and then to physical design - partitioning, floorplanning, placement, and routing. You will find here, in practical well-explained detail, everything you need to know to understand the design of an ASIC, and everything you must do to begin and to complete your own design.


  • Broad coverage includes, in one information-packed volume, cell-based ICs, gate arrays, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and complex programmable logic devices (PLDs).
  • Examples throughout the book have been checked with a wide range of commercial tools to ensure their accuracy and utility.
  • Separate chapters and appendixes on both Verilog and VHDL, including material from IEEE standards, serve as a complete reference for high-level, ASIC-design entry.
As in other landmark VLSI books published by Addison-Wesley - from Mead and Conway to Weste and Eshraghian - the author's teaching expertise and industry experience illuminate the presentation of useful design methods. Any engineer, manager, or student who is working with ASICs in a design project, or who is simply interested in knowing more about the different ASIC types and design styles, will find this book to be an invaluable resource, reference, and guide.

Sample Content

Table of Contents

(Each chapter concludes with a Summary, Problems, Bibliography and References.)

1. Introduction to ASICs.

Types of ASIC.

Full-Custom ASICs.

Standard-Cell?Based ASICs.

Gate-Array?Based ASICs.

Channeled Gate-Array.

Channelless Gate-Array.

Structured Gate-Array.

Programmable Logic Devices.

Field-Programmable Gate Arrays.

Design Flow.

Case Study.

Economics of ASICs.

Comparison Between ASIC Technologies.

Product Cost.

ASIC Fixed Costs.

ASIC Variable Costs.

ASIC Cell Libraries.

2. CMOS Logic.

CMOS Transistors.

P-Channel Transistors.

Velocity Saturation.

SPICE Models.

Logic Levels.

The CMOS Process.

Sheet Resistance.

CMOS Design Rules.

Combinational Logic Cells.

Pushing Bubbles.

Drive Strength.

Transmission Gates.

Exclusive-OR Cell.

Sequential Logic Cells.



Clocked Inverter.

Datapath Logic Cells.

Datapath Elements.


A Simple Example.


Other Arithmetic Systems.

Other Datapath Operators.

I/O Cells.

Cell Compilers.

3. ASIC Library Design.

Transistors as Resistors.

Transistor Parasitic Capacitance.

Junction Capacitance.

Overlap Capacitance.

Gate Capacitance.

Input Slew Rate.

Logical Effort.

Predicting Delay.

Logical Area and Logical Efficiency.

Logical Paths.

Multistage Cells.

Optimum Delay.

Optimum Number of Stages.

Library-Cell Design.

Library Architecture.

Gate-Array Design.

Standard-Cell Design.

Datapath-Cell Design.

4. Programmable ASICs.

The Antifuse.

Metal?Metal Antifuse.

Static RAM.

EPROM and EEPROM Technology.

Practical Issues.

FPGAs in Use.


PREP Benchmarks.

FPGA Economics.

FPGA Pricing.

Pricing Examples.

5. Programmable ASIC Logic Cells.


ACT 1 Logic Module.

Shannonés Expansion Theorem.

Multiplexer Logic as Function Generators.

ACT 2 and ACT 3 Logic Modules.

Timing Model and Critical Path.

Speed Grading.

Worst-Case Timing.

Actel Logic Module Analysis.

Xilinx LCA.

XC3000 CLB.

XC4000 Logic Block.

XC5200 Logic Block.

Xilinx CLB Analysis.

Altera FLEX.

Altera MAX.

Logic Expanders.

Timing Model.

Power Dissipation in Complex PLDs.

6. Programmable ASIC I/O Cells.

DC Output.

Totem-Pole Output.

Clamp Diodes.

AC Output.

Supply Bounce.

Transmission Lines.

DC Input.

Noise Margins.

Mixed-Voltage Systems.

AC Input.


Clock Input.

Registered Inputs.

Power Input.

Power Dissipation.

Power-On Reset.

Xilinx I/O Block.

Boundary Scan.

Other I/O Cells.

7. Programmable ASIC Interconnect.

Actel ACT.

Routing Resources.

Elmoreés Constant.

RC Delay in Antifuse Connections.

Antifuse Parasitic Capacitance.

ACT 2 and ACT 3 Interconnect.

Xilinx LCA.

Xilinx EPLD.

Altera MAX 5k and 7k.

Altera MAX 9k.

Altera FLEX.

8. Programmable ASIC Design Software.

Design Systems.




Logic Synthesis.

FPGA Synthesis.

The Halfgate ASIC.





FPGA Vendors.

Third-party Software.

9. Low-Level Design Entry.

Schematic Entry.

Hierarchical Design.

The Cell Library.


Schematic Icons and Symbols.


Schematic Entry for ASICs and PCBs.


Vectored Instances and Buses.



Netlist Screener.

Schematic-Entry Tools.


Low-level Design Languages.




PLA Tools.


EDIF Syntax.

An EDIF Netlist Example.

An EDIF Schematic Icon.

An EDIF Example.

CFI Design Representation.

CFI Connectivity Model.

10. VHDL.

A Counter.

A 4-bit Multiplier.

An 8-bit Adder.

A Register-Accumulator.


A Shift-Register.

A State Machine.

A Multiplier.

Packages and Test Bench.

Syntax and Semantics of VHDL.

Identifiers and Literals.

Entity and Architecture.

Packages and Libraries.

Standard Package.

Std_logic_1164 Package.

Textio Package.

Other Packages.

Creating Packages.

Interface Declaration.

Port Declaration.


Type Declaration.

Other Declarations.

Object Declarations.

Subprogram Declarations.

Alias and Attribute Declarations.

Predefined Attributes.

Sequential Statements.

Wait Statement.

Assertion and Report Statements.

Assignment Statements.

Procedure Call.

If Statement.

Case Statement.

Other Sequential Control Statements.



IEEE Synthesis Packages.

Concurrent Statements.

Block Statement.

Process Statement.

Concurrent Procedure Call.

Concurrent Signal Assignment.

Concurrent Assertion Statement.

Component Instantiation.

Generate Statement.


Configurations and Specifications.

An Engine Controller.

11. Verilog HDL.

A Counter.

Basics of the Verilog Language.

Verilog Logic Values.

Verilog Data Types.

Other Wire Types.


Negative Numbers.





Procedures and Assignments.

Continuous Assignment Statement.

Sequential Block.

Procedural Assignments.

Timing Controls and Delay.

Timing Control.

Data Slip.

Wait Statement.

Blocking and Non-blocking Assignments.

Procedural Continuous Assignment.

Tasks and Functions.

Control Statements.

Case and If Statement.

Loop Statement.


Fork and Join.

Logic Gate Modeling.

Built-in Logic Models.

User-defined Primitives.

Modeling Delay.

Net and Gate Delay.

Pin-to-pin Delay.

Altering Parameters.

A Viterbi Decoder.

Viterbi Encoder.

The Received Signal.

Testing the System.

Verilog Decoder Model.

Other Verilog Features.

Display Tasks.

File I/O Tasks.

Timescale, Simulation, and Timing Check Tasks.

PLA Tasks.

Stochastic Analysis Tasks.

Simulation Time Functions.

Conversion Functions.

Probability Distribution Functions.

Programming Language Interface.

The Viterbi Decoder.

12. Logic Synthesis.

A Logic-Synthesis Example.

A Comparator/MUX.

An Actel Version of the Comparator/MUX.

Inside a Logic Synthesizer.

Synthesis of the Viterbi Decoder.



The Top-Level Model.

Verilog and Logic Synthesis.

Verilog Modeling.

Delays in Verilog.

Blocking and Nonblocking Assignments.

Combinational Logic in Verilog.

Multiplexers In Verilog.

The Verilog Case Statement.

Decoders In Verilog.

Priority Encoder in Verilog.

Arithmetic in Verilog.

Sequential Logic in Verilog.

Component Instantiation in Verilog.

Datapath Synthesis in Verilog.

VHDL and Logic Synthesis.

Initialization and Reset.

Combinational Logic Synthesis in VHDL.

Multiplexers in VHDL.

Decoders in VHDL.

Adders in VHDL.

Sequential Logic in VHDL.

Instantiation in VHDL.

Shift Registers and Clocking in VHDL.

Adders and Arithmetic Functions.

Adder-subtracter and Donét Cares.

Finite-State Machine Synthesis.

FSM Synthesis in Verilog.

FSM Synthesis in VHDL.

Memory Synthesis.

Memory Synthesis in Verilog.

Memory Synthesis in VHDL.

The Multiplier.

Messages During Synthesis.

The Engine Controller.

Performance-Driven Synthesis.

Optimization of the Viterbi Decoder.

13. Simulation.

The Different Types of Simulation.

The Comparator/MUX Example.

Structural Simulation.

Static Timing Analysis.

Gate-Level Simulation.

Net Capacitance.

Logic Systems.

Signal Resolution.

Logic Strength.

How Logic Simulation Works.

VHDL Simulation Cycle.


Cell Models.

Primitive Models.

Synopsys Models.

Verilog Models.

VHDL Models.

VITAL Models.

SDF in Simulation.

Delay Models.

Using a Library Data Book.

Input-Slope Delay Model.

Limitations of Logic Simulation.

Static Timing Analysis.

Hold Time.

Entry Delay.

Exit Delay.

External Setup Time.

Formal Verification.

An Example.

Understanding Formal Verification.

Adding an Assertion.

Completing a Proof.

Switch-Level Simulation.

Transistor-Level Simulation.

A PSpice Example.

SPICE Models.

14. Test.

The Importance of Test.

Boundary-Scan Test.

BST Cells.

BST Registers.

Instruction Decoder.

TAP Controller.

Boundary-Scan Controller.

A Simple Boundary-Scan Example.




Fault Models.

Physical Faults.

Stuck-at Fault Model.

Logical Faults.

IDDQ Test.

Fault Collapsing.

Fault Collapsing Example.

Fault Simulation.

Serial Fault Simulation.

Parallel Fault Simulation.

Concurrent Fault Simulation.

Nondeterministic Fault Simulation.

Fault-Simulation Results.

Fault-Simulator Logic Systems.

Hardware Acceleration.

A Fault Simulation Example.

Fault Simulation in an ASIC Design Flow.

Automatic Test-Pattern Generation.

The D-Calculus.

A Basic ATPG Algorithm.

The PODEM Algorithm.

Controllability and Observability.

Scan Test.

Built-in Self-test.


Signature Analysis.

A Simple BIST Example.


LFSR Theory.

LFSR Example.


A Simple Test Example.

Test Logic Insertion.

How the Test Software Works.

ATVG and Fault Simulation.

Test Vectors.

Production Tester Vector Formats.

Test Flow.

The Viterbi Decoder Example.

15. ASIC Construction.

Physical Design.

CAD Tools.

Methods and Algorithms.

System Partitioning.

Estimating ASIC Size.

Power Dissipation.

Switching Current.

Short-Circuit Current.

Subthreshold and Leakage Current.

FPGA Partitioning.

ATM Simulator.

Automatic Partitioning with FPGAs.

Partitioning Methods.

Measuring Connectivity.

A Simple Partitioning Example.

Constructive Partitioning.

Iterative Partitioning Improvement.

The Kernighan?Lin Algorithm.

The Ratio-Cut Algorithm.

The Look-ahead Algorithm.

Simulated Annealing.

Other Partitioning Objectives.

16. Floorplanning and Placement.


Floorplanning Goals and Objectives.

Measurement of Delay in Floorplanning.

Floorplanning Tools.

Channel Definition.

I/O and Power Planning.

Clock Planning.


Placement Terms and Definitions.

Placement Goals And Objectives.

Measurement of Placement Goals and Objectives.

Placement Algorithms.

Eigenvalue Placement Example.

Iterative Placement Improvement.

Placement Using Simulated Annealing.

Timing-Driven Placement Methods.

A Simple Placement Example.

Physical Design Flow.

Information Formats.

SDF for Floorplanning and Placement.


LEF and DEF.

17. Routing.

Global Routing.

Goals and Objectives.

Measurement of Interconnect Delay.

Global Routing Methods.

Global Routing Between Blocks.

Global Routing Inside Flexible Blocks.

Timing-Driven Methods.


Detailed Routing.

Goals and Objectives.

Measurement of Channel Density.


Left-Edge Algorithm.

Constraints and Routing Graphs.

Area-Routing Algorithms.

Multilevel Routing.

Timing-Driven Detailed Routing.

Final Routing Steps.

Special Routing.

Clock Routing.

Power Routing.

Circuit Extraction and DRC.


Design Checks.

Mask Preparation.

Appendix A. VHDL Resources.


VHDL Syntax.

BNF Index.



Appendix B. Verilog HDLResources.

Explanation of the Verilog HDL BNF.

Verilog HDL Syntax.

BNF Index.

Verilog HDL LRM.



Glossary of Symbols and Acronyms.



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