Home > Store

Analysis, Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes, 4th Edition

Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon.

Analysis, Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes, 4th Edition


  • Sorry, this book is no longer in print.
Not for Sale



  • The #1 chemical process design guide, used by 60% of chemical engineering departments: updated with new techniques and control strategies
  • A proven tool for helping students integrate process knowledge to start solving open-ended problems
  • Updated with improved pedagogy throughout, including four new case studies on simulation in design
  • Includes new advanced chapters on both steady state and dynamic simulators
  • Adds expanded coverage of lower- and higher-level process control strategies, including MPC
  • Companion website: che.cemr.wvu.edu/publications/projects/


  • Copyright 2012
  • Dimensions: 8" x 10"
  • Pages: 1056
  • Edition: 4th
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-261812-5
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-261812-0

The leading integrated chemical process design guide: Now with extensive new coverage and more process designs

More than ever, effective design is the focal point of sound chemical engineering. Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Fourth Edition, presents design as a creative process that integrates both the big picture and the small details–and knows which to stress when, and why. Realistic from start to finish, this updated edition moves readers beyond classroom exercises into open-ended, real-world process problem solving. The authors introduce integrated techniques for every facet of the discipline, from finance to operations, new plant design to existing process optimization.

This fourth edition adds new chapters introducing dynamic process simulation; advanced concepts in steady-state simulation; extensive coverage of thermodynamics packages for modeling processes containing electrolyte solutions and solids; and a concise introduction to logic control. “What You Have Learned” summaries have been added to each chapter, and the text’s organization has been refined for greater clarity.

Coverage Includes

  • Conceptualization and analysis: flow diagrams, batch processing, tracing, process conditions, and product design strategies
  • Economic analysis: capital and manufacturing costs, financial calculations, and profitability analysis
  • Synthesis and optimization: principles, PFD synthesis, simulation techniques, top-down and bottom-up optimization, pinch technology, and software-based control
  • Advanced steady-state simulation: goals, models, solution strategies, and sensitivity and optimization studies
  • Dynamic simulation: goals, development, solution methods, algorithms, and solvers
  • Performance analysis: I/O models, tools, performance curves, reactor performance, troubleshooting, and “debottlenecking”
  • Societal impact: ethics, professionalism, health, safety, environmental issues, and green engineering
  • Interpersonal and communication skills: improving teamwork and group effectiveness

This title draws on more than fifty years of innovative chemical engineering instruction at West Virginia University and the University of Nevada, Reno. It includes suggested curricula for single-semester and year-long design courses, case studies and practical design projects, current equipment cost data, and extensive preliminary design information that can be used as the starting point for more detailed analyses.

About the CD-Rom and Web Site

The CD contains the newest version of CAPCOST, a powerful tool for evaluating fixed capital investment, full process economics, and profitability. The heat exchanger network software, HENSAD, is also included. The CD also contains an additional appendix presenting preliminary design information for fifteen key chemical processes, including four new to this edition: shift reaction; acid-gas removal via physical solvent; H2S removal from a gas stream using the Claus process; and coal gasification. The CD also includes six additional projects, plus chapters on outcomes assessment, written and oral communications, and a written report case study. Sixty additional projects and twenty-four more problems are available at www.che.cemr.wvu.edu/publications/projects.


Author's Site

Author suggested sites: http://www.che.cemr.wvu.edu/publications/projects/

Sample Content

Online Sample Chapter

Diagrams for Understanding Chemical Processes

Table of Contents

Material on the CD-ROM          xix

Preface          xxiii

About the Authors         xxvii

List of Nomenclature          xxix

Section I: Conceptualization and Analysis of Chemical Processes           1

Chapter 1: Diagrams for Understanding Chemical Processes           3

What You Will Learn  3

1.1 Block Flow Diagram (BFD)  5

1.2 Process Flow Diagram (PFD)  8

1.3 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)   21

1.4 Additional Diagrams   26

1.5 Three-Dimensional Representation of a Process   27

1.6 The 3-D Plant Model   35

1.7 Operator and 3-D Immersive Training Simulators   37

1.8 Summary   43

What You Should Have Learned   43

References   44

Short Answer Questions   44

Problems   44

Chapter 2: The Structure and Synthesis of Process Flow Diagrams         49

What You Will Learn   49

2.1 Hierarchy of Process Design   49

2.2 Step 1–Batch versus Continuous Process   50

2.3 Step 2–The Input/Output Structure of the Process   54

2.4 Step 3–The Recycle Structure of the Process   64

2.5 Step 4–General Structure of the Separation System   78

2.6 Step 5–Heat-Exchanger Network or Process Energy Recovery System   78

2.7 Information Required and Sources   78

2.8 Summary   78

What You Should Have Learned   80

References   80

Short Answer Questions   81

Problems   81

Chapter 3: Batch Processing           87

What You Will Learn   87

3.1 Design Calculations for Batch Processes   87

3.2 Gantt Charts and Scheduling   93

3.3 Nonoverlapping Operations, Overlapping Operations, and Cycle Times   94

3.4 Flowshop and Jobshop Plants   97

3.5 Product and Intermediate Storage and Parallel Process Units   102

3.6 Design of Equipment for Multiproduct Batch Processes   107

3.7 Summary   109

What You Should Have Learned   110

References   110

Short Answer Questions   110

Problems   110

Chapter 4: Chemical Product Design          115

What You Will Learn   115

4.1 Strategies for Chemical Product Design   116

4.2 Needs   117

4.3 Ideas   119

4.4 Selection   120

4.5 Manufacture   122

4.6 Batch Processing   123

4.7 Economic Considerations   123

4.8 Summary   123

What You Should Have Learned   124

References   124

Chapter 5: Tracing Chemicals through the Process Flow Diagram          125

What You Will Learn   125

5.1 Guidelines and Tactics for Tracing Chemicals   125

5.2 Tracing Primary Paths Taken by Chemicals in a Chemical Process   126

5.3 Recycle and Bypass Streams   132

5.4 Tracing Nonreacting Chemicals   135

5.5 Limitations   135

5.6 Written Process Description   136

5.7 Summary   137

What You Should Have Learned   137

Problems   138

Chapter 6: Understanding Process Conditions          139

What You Will Learn   139

6.1 Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation of Separation and Reactor Systems   140

6.2 Reasons for Operating at Conditions of Special Concern   142

6.3 Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation of Other Equipment   146

6.4 Analysis of Important Process Conditions   150

6.5 Summary   157

What You Should Have Learned   157

References   158

Short Answer Questions   158

Problems   158

Section II: Engineering Economic Analysis of Chemical Processes         161

Chapter 7: Estimation of Capital Costs   163

What You Will Learn   163

7.1 Classifications of Capital Cost Estimates   164

7.2 Estimation of Purchased Equipment Costs   167

7.3 Estimating the Total Capital Cost of a Plant   172

7.4 Summary   198

What You Should Have Learned   198

References   198

Short Answer Questions   199

Problems   200

Chapter 8: Estimation of Manufacturing Costs          203

What You Will Learn   203

8.1 Factors Affecting the Cost of Manufacturing a Chemical Product   203

8.2 Cost of Operating Labor   208

8.3 Utility Costs   209

8.4 Raw Material Costs   223

8.5 Yearly Costs and Stream Factors   225

8.6 Estimating Utility Costs from the PFD   225

8.7 Cost of Treating Liquid and Solid Waste Streams   228

8.8 Evaluation of Cost of Manufacture for the Production of Benzene via the Hydrodealkylation of Toluene   228

8.9 Summary   229

What You Should Have Learned   230

References   230

Short Answer Questions   230

Problems   231

Chapter 9: Engineering Economic Analysis          233

What You Will Learn   233

9.1 Investments and the Time Value of Money   234

9.2 Different Types of Interest   238

9.3 Time Basis for Compound Interest Calculations 240

9.4 Cash Flow Diagrams   241

9.5 Calculations from Cash Flow Diagrams   245

9.6 Inflation   250

9.7 Depreciation of Capital Investment   253

9.8 Taxation, Cash Flow, and Profit   259

9.9 Summary   262

What You Should Have Learned   262

References   262

Short Answer Questions   263

Problems   263

Chapter 10: Profitability Analysis         269

What You Will Learn   269

10.1 A Typical Cash Flow Diagram for a New Project   269

10.2 Profitability Criteria for Project Evaluation   271

10.3 Comparing Several Large Projects: Incremental Economic Analysis   279

10.4 Establishing Acceptable Returns from Investments: The Concept of Risk   282

10.5 Evaluation of Equipment Alternatives   283

10.6 Incremental Analysis for Retrofitting Facilities   289

10.7 Evaluation of Risk in Evaluating Profitability   293

10.8 Profit Margin Analysis   310

10.9 Summary   311

What You Should Have Learned   311

References   312

Short Answer Questions   312

Problems   312

Section III: Synthesis and Optimization of Chemical Processes          327

Chapter 11: Utilizing Experience-Based Principles to Confirm the Suitability of a Process Design   331

What You Will Learn   331

11.1 The Role of Experience in the Design Process   332

11.2 Presentation of Tables of Technical Heuristics and Guidelines   335

11.3 Summary   338

What You Should Have Learned   356

References   356

Problems   356

Chapter 12: Synthesis of the PFD from the Generic BFD          357

What You Will Learn   357

12.1 Information Needs and Sources   358

12.2 Reactor Section   360

12.3 Separator Section   362

12.4 Reactor Feed Preparation and Separator Feed Preparation Sections   377

12.5 Recycle Section   378

12.6 Environmental Control Section   378

12.7 Major Process Control Loops   379

12.8 Flow Summary Table   379

12.9 Major Equipment Summary Table   380

12.10 Summary   380

What You Should Have Learned   380

References   381

Problems   382

Chapter 13: Synthesis of a Process Using a Simulator and Simulator Troubleshooting           385

What You Will Learn   385

13.1 The Structure of a Process Simulator   386

13.2 Information Required to Complete a Process Simulation: Input Data   389

13.3 Handling Recycle Streams 401

13.4 Choosing Thermodynamic Models   403

13.5 Case Study: Toluene Hydrodealkylation Process   414

13.6 Electrolyte Systems Modeling   416

13.7 Solids Modeling   429

What You Should Have Learned   434

Appendix 13.1 Calculation of Excess Gibbs Energy for Electrolyte Systems   434

Appendix 13.2 Steps to Build a Model of a Distillation Column for an Electrolyte System Using a Rate-Based Simulation with a Film Model for Mass Transfer, the Parameters Required at Each Stage, and Possible Sources of These Parameters   437

13.8 Summary   440

References   441

Short Answer Questions   444

Problems   444

Chapter 14: Process Optimization          451

What You Will Learn   451

14.1 Background Information on Optimization   451

14.2 Strategies   457

14.3 Topological Optimization   461

14.4 Parametric Optimization   467

14.5 Lattice Search Techniques versus Response Surface Techniques   478

14.6 Process Flexibility and the Sensitivity of the Optimum   479

14.7 Optimization in Batch Systems   479

14.8 Summary   487

What You Should Have Learned   487

References   487

Short Answer Questions   488

Problems   488

Chapter 15: Pinch Technology           499

What You Will Learn   499

15.1 Introduction   499

15.2 Heat Integration and Network Design   500

15.3 Composite Temperature-Enthalpy Diagram   514

15.4 Composite Enthalpy Curves for Systems without a Pinch   516

15.5 Using the Composite Enthalpy Curve to Estimate Heat-Exchanger Surface Area   517

15.6 Effectiveness Factor (F) and the Number of Shells   521

15.7 Combining Costs to give the EAOC for the Network   526

15.8 Other Considerations   527

15.9 Heat-Exchanger Network Synthesis Analysis and Design (HENSAD) Program   532

15.10 Mass-Exchange Networks   532

15.11 Summary   541

What You Should Have Learned   542

References   542

Short Answer Questions   543

Problems   543

Chapter 16: Advanced Topics Using Steady-State Simulators           551

What You Will Learn   551

16.1 Why the Need for Advanced Topics in Steady-State Simulation?   552

16.2 User-Added Models   552

16.3 Solution Strategy for Steady-State Simulations   562

16.4 Studies with the Steady-State Simulation   581

16.5 Estimation of Physical Property Parameters   586

16.6 Summary   589

What You Should Have Learned   590

References   590

Short Answer Questions   591

Problems   592

Chapter 17: Using Dynamic Simulators in Process Design          601

What You Will Learn   601

17.1 Why Is There a Need for Dynamic Simulation?   602

17.2 Setting Up a Dynamic Simulation   603

17.3 Dynamic Simulation Solution Methods   618

17.4 Process Control   624

17.5 Summary   632

What You Should Have Learned   632

References   633

Short Answer Questions   633

Problems   634

Chapter 18: Regulation and Control of Chemical Processes with Applications Using Commercial Software          641

What You Will Learn   641

18.1 A Simple Regulation Problem   642

18.2 The Characteristics of Regulating Valves   643

18.3 Regulating Flowrates and Pressures   646

18.4 The Measurement of Process Variables   649

18.5 Common Control Strategies Used in Chemical Processes   649

18.6 Exchanging Heat and Work between Process and Utility Streams   660

18.7 Logic Control   666

18.8 Advanced Process Control   669

18.9 Case Studies   670

18.10 Putting It All Together: The Operator Training Simulator (OTS)   676

18.11 Summary 677

What You Should Have Learned   677

References   678

Problems   678

Section IV: Analysis Of Process Performance          683

Chapter 19: Process Input/Output Models          685

What You Will Learn   685

19.1 Representation of Process Inputs and Outputs   686

19.2 Analysis of the Effect of Process Inputs on Process Outputs   689

19.3 A Process Example   690

19.4 Summary   691

What You Should Have Learned   692

Problems   692

Chapter 20: Tools for Evaluating Process Performance         693

What You Will Learn   693

20.1 Key Relationships   693

20.2 Thinking with Equations   694

20.3 Base-Case Ratios   696

20.4 Analysis of Systems Using Controlling Resistances   698

20.5 Graphical Representations   700

20.6 Summary   704

What You Should Have Learned   705

References   705

Problems   705

Chapter 21: Performance Curves for Individual Unit Operations            707

What You Will Learn   707

21.1 Application to Heat Transfer   709

21.2 Application to Fluid Flow   714

21.3 Application to Separation Problems   728

21.4 Summary   740

What You Should Have Learned   741

References   741

Short Answer Questions   741

Problems   743

Chapter 22: Performance of Multiple Unit Operations           749

What You Will Learn   749

22.1 Analysis of a Reactor with Heat Transfer   749

22.2 Performance of a Distillation Column   754

22.3 Performance of a Heating Loop   759

22.4 Performance of the Feed Section to a Process   765

22.5 Summary   768

What You Should Have Learned   769

References   769

Short Answer Questions   769

Problems   769

Chapter 23: Reactor Performance          785

What You Will Learn   785

23.1 Production of Desired Product   786

23.2 Reaction Kinetics and Thermodynamics   788

23.3 The Chemical Reactor   791

23.4 Heat Transfer in the Chemical Reactor   796

23.5 Reactor System Case Studies   799

23.6 Summary   812

What You Should Have Learned   813

References   813

Short Answer Questions   813

Problems   814

Chapter 24: Process Troubleshooting and Debottlenecking           819

What You Will Learn   819

24.1 Recommended Methodology   821

24.2 Troubleshooting Individual Units   825

24.3 Troubleshooting Multiple Units   831

24.4 A Process Troubleshooting Problem   836

24.5 Debottlenecking Problems   840

24.6 Summary   841

What You Should Have Learned   841

References   841

Problems   841

Section V: The Impact of Chemical Engineering Design on Society            853

Chapter 25: Ethics and Professionalism             855

What You Will Learn   855

25.1 Ethics   856

25.2 Professional Registration   874

25.3 Legal Liability   879

25.4 Business Codes of Conduct   880

25.5 Summary   881

What You Should Have Learned   881

References   882

Problems   882

Chapter 26: Health, Safety, and the Environment           885

What You Will Learn   885

26.1 Risk Assessment   886

26.2 Regulations and Agencies   888

26.3 Fires and Explosions 898

26.4 Process Hazard Analysis   900

26.5 Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board   909

26.6 Inherently Safe Design   909

26.7 Summary   910

26.8 Glossary   910

What You Should Have Learned   912

References   912

Problems   913

Chapter 27: Green Engineering             915

What You Will Learn   915

27.1 Environmental Regulations   915

27.2 Environmental Fate of Chemicals   916

27.3 Green Chemistry   919

27.4 Pollution Prevention during Process Design   920

27.5 Analysis of a PFD for Pollution Performance and Environmental Performance   922

27.6 An Example of the Economics of Pollution Prevention   923

27.7 Life Cycle Analysis   924

27.8 Summary   926

What You Should Have Learned   926

References   926

Problems   927

Section VI: Interpersonal And Communication Skills             929

Chapter 28: Teamwork           931

What You Will Learn   931

28.1 Groups   931

28.2 Group Evolution   940

28.3 Teams and Teamwork   943

28.4 Misconceptions   945

28.5 Learning in Teams   946

28.6 Other Reading   947

28.7 Summary   948

What You Should Have Learned   949

References   949

Problems   949

Appendix A: Cost Equations and Curves for the CAPCOST Program          951

A.1 Purchased Equipment Costs   951

A.2 Pressure Factors   969

A.3 Material Factors and Bare Module Factors   973

References   982

Index            983


Submit Errata

More Information

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020