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Adaptive Enterprise, The: IT Infrastructure Strategies to Manage Change and Enable Growth

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Adaptive Enterprise, The: IT Infrastructure Strategies to Manage Change and Enable Growth


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  • Copyright 2002
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8x9-1/4
  • Pages: 320
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-76736-8
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-76736-0

The agile business embraces change rapidly and gracefully. To be ready, the business needs an infrastructure that supports change without disruption or excessive cost. An adaptive infrastructure enables the business to cope with unforeseen circumstances and competitive demands. To build, use, and manage adaptive enterprise solutions, you need an infrastructure planning process that supports new and growing business initiatives.

The strategies and processes described in this book will give you clear and practical ways to guide your company through Internet-induced change:

  • Plan your infrastructure end to end. This book provides a number of successful models to help you plan efficiently and effectively, to show you how to implement an adaptive enterprise infrastructure.
  • Design an adaptive infrastructure. This book explains the fundamental concepts of adaptive infrastructure and explains how to address the major opportunities and challenges you will face.
  • Execute a reuse strategy. This book tells you how to identify key infrastructure patterns within your organization, and how to use those patterns to derive reusable adaptive infrastructure services.
  • Address people, processes, and technology. You can make great technology choices, but without the right people and processes, your technology choices won't bring the success that you expect.
  • Achieve an optimal balance between immediate needs and long-term goals. You must be able to change what you are doing while you are still doing it. This book shows you how to attain the balance needed to transform while you are performing.


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The Case for Adaptive Infrastructure

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Table of Contents


1. The Case for Adaptive Infrastructure

What is IT Infrastructure?

The Idea of Shared Infrastructure.

Creating Your Own Definitions.

Why Infrastructure (Suddenly) Matters.

The Clash of Cultures.

What's the Problem with Most Infrastructure?

What's the Solution?

The Philosophy of Adaptive Infrastructure.

Striking a Balance.

Key Organizing Principles.

Benefits of Adaptive Infrastructure.

Developing an Adaptive Range.

The Importance of Reusability.

Reusable Components.

Reuse and Adaptive Infrastructure.

Is Your Organization Ready?


2. Laying the Foundation.

How To Catalog Technologies.

Getting Organized.

Building the Platform.

Physical Components.

The Network Layer.

The Storage Layer.

The Server Layer.

Functional Components.

The Database Layer.

The Integration Layer.

The Application Server Layer.

Interface Components.

The Presentation Layer.

The API Layer.

Is Anything Missing?

Other Components?

Other Layers?


3. Identifying and Using Patterns

What Are Patterns?

Designing for the Future.

Relating Patterns to Platforms.

Why So Few Patterns?

Asking Who, Where, and What?

The Starter Kit.

How Detailed Should It Get?

Transact Patterns.

The 1-Tier Transact Pattern.

The 2-Tier Transact Pattern.

The 3/N-Tier Transact Pattern.

Publish Patterns.

The Client/Server Publish Pattern.

The Web Publish Pattern.

The Stream Publish Pattern.

Collaborate Patterns.

The Real-Time Collaborate Pattern.

The Store-and-Forward Collaborate Pattern.

The Structured Collaborate Pattern.

Adapting Patterns For Your Organization

What Patterns Do I Need?

Extra Patterns Not Covered.

Subdividing Patterns.

Applying Multiple Patterns.

Creating an Infrastructure Portfolio.

What's in the Portfolio?

A Template for Standards.

Putting Applications into the Infrastructure Pattern Portfolio.


4. Developing Adaptive Services.

Understanding Adaptive Services.

Benefits of Adaptive Infrastructure Services.

Examples of Shared Infrastructure Services.

The Difference Between Patterns and Services.

How To Develop Services.

Shifting Services to the Infrastructure.

Decoupling the Lifecycles.

Potential Ripple Effects.

The Role of APIs.

Service Interfaces and Service Level Agreements.

Where to Create Service Boundaries.

Design Guidelines.

How to Portfolio Existing Services.

How to Apply Services to New Applications.


5. Services Starter Kit.

Identity Infrastructure.

Basic Components.

Designing Service Transparency.

Selling Use and Reuse to Your Customers.

Keys to Success and Reusability.

Determining Realistic Scale.

Policing the Directory Schema.

Avoiding Scope Creep.

Transactional Integration.

Defining the Business Problem (Use Cases).

Understanding the Costs.

Getting the Funds.

Calculating ROI.

Alternatives and Trends.

Other Common Services.

Network Service.

Presentation Services.





6. Processes and Methods.

Understanding the Process.

What Types of Processes Are Needed?

Modeling the Process.

A More Detailed View.

Managing Per-Project Processes.

Assimilation Planning.

Designing Patterns.

Designing Services.

Managing Periodic Processes.

Assembling the Information.

Analyzing the Information.

Packaging and Communicating the Product.

Integrating Your Planning with IT Processes.

Useful Planning Methods.

Infrastructure Pattern Matching (IPM).

Predictive Cost Modeling (PCM).

Infrastructure Impact Assessment (IIA).

7. Packaging and People.

Packaging and Funding Infrastructure.

Dealing with Funding Challenges.

Thinking Like Your Clients.

Analyzing Complexity.

Preparing a Communication Plan.

The Customer Service Culture.

Value as the Critical Issue.

Packaging Models To Consider.

Mapping Categories to Stakeholders.

Speaking the Language of the CFO.

Getting It Right.

People: Roles, Skills, and Organizational Issues.

Strategic Versus Tactical Roles.

Key Infrastructure Planning Skills.

Finding the Correct Resources.

Planning the Planning Team.

Organizational Models.


Appendix A: Component Catalog.

Index to Components.




E-Mail MTA.

Integrated Voice Response (IVR).

Interactive TV.

Streaming Server.

Terminal Server.


WAP Server.

Web Server.

Application Server.

Adapter Toolkit.

Application Adapter.

Computer Telephony Integration (CTI) Server.

Integration Server.

EDI Gateway.

File Exchange Server.

Integration Transport.

Middleware Encryption.

Inter-Enterprise Integration (IEI) Server.

Process Execution Engine.

Process Modeler.

Data Access Middleware.

Database Gateway.


Voice Messaging Store.

Application Server HA.

Application Server HW.

Application Server OS.

Database Server HA.

Database Server HW.

Database Server OS.

Integration Server HA.

Integration Server HW.

Integration Server OS.

File Server and Network-Attached Storage(NAS).

Web Server HA.

Web Server HW.

Web Server OS.

Business Continuance HW.

Business Continuance SW.

Host Interconnect.

Storage Area Network (SAN).

Storage Server.

Automatic Call Distributor (ACD).

Content Delivery Network (CDN).

Content Security.

Directory Server.

Extranet Service Provider (ESP).


Hosting Service.

Internet Access and Transport Service (ISP).

Intrusion Detection and Threat Management.

Network Load Balancer.

Network Pre-Routing (Voice).

Network Protocol and Address Management.

Proxy/Caching Server.

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).

Service Level Management.

Smart Card.

SSL and Encryption HW.

Traffic Shaper.

Two-Factor Authentication Device.

VPN Device.

VPN Service.

WAN Access Device.

WAN Service.

Web SSO.

Wireless and Mobile Device.

Wireless Service.


Index. 0201767368T01242002


The Adaptive Enterprise has one clear objective: to provide you with IT strategies to manage change and enable growth.

Starting in 1999, META Group developed information on IT infrastructure and operations to serve a group of clients who were adapting to the new demands of online commerce. Working with these clients, we coined the term “adaptive infrastructure” to describe their results.

The IT Best Practices Series published by Intel Press explains the strategies for developing Internet-based capabilities and solutions to meet key challenges in your business. It reflects Intel’s Best Practices program, which was developed with leading researchers, vendors, and end-users to show business and IT decision makers how to make it all work together for increased business performance. Unlike the mainframe era, distributed e-Business is a loosely coupled and event-driven phenomenon in which Internet-based solutions run on a diverse set of multivendor configurations. That has changed the rules for business, and The Adaptive Enterprise is designed to help IT decision makers manage change and enable growth in their new, customer-centric e-Businesses.

The Adaptive Enterprise is for executives and IT professionals at companies large and small. In this book, we explain how to achieve success in infrastructure planning by changing the way things are done, by making applications become easier, more cost-effective, and quicker to integrate. We explain how to run these services for the long term with high quality.



acceptance testing 92
Active Directory Services Interface (ADSI) 158
adaptive infrastructure 22, 69, 144
    design an 9
    developing services 16
    key component of 129
    planning 181
    readiness for 28
    strategy 11
Adaptive Infrastructure Model 223
agility 1
    increased 134
Analyze task 189, 190, 192
API 34
application developers 211
application development group 228
application development lifecycle 202
    application programming interfaces (API) 34, 59, 156, 167
    creating new 169
    for reusable management 65
    how the layer architecture works 142
    key advantages of 3/N-Tier pattern 89
    role of 141
    standards 156
application server
    J2EE 51
    trends 55
application server layer 54, 55, 64
application subscriptions funding 216
applications 167
    applying services to 149
    Common Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 216
    component-based 55
    decoupling for services 137
    developers 34, 51
    development team 221
    groupware 47
    mission-critical 134
    reporting to development group 228
    scale of 167
    third-party 5
    Web 163
    Web Publish 149
    3/N-Tier architecture 57
    hub-and-spoke 164
    object-oriented vs. service-oriented 139
    service-based 136
    Web services 139
Assemble Infrastructure Plan Draft 184
Assemble task 187
Assimilate Infrastructure Change 182, 189
Atomic, Consistent, Isolated, Durable (ACID) 77
authentication 174
backup and recovery service 42
bandwidth 98, 106, 112, 113
benchmark 151
bootstrap interface 140
bundling work into a project budget 208
    defining the business problem 165
    describing business processes 178
    external partners 27, 163
    initiatives 17
    misalignment between IT organizations and 7
    partners 23, 28
    processes 23
    requirements 168
    reusable logic 57
    users 20
    values 22
business APIs (BAPIs) 27
Business Process Automation (BPA) 51
Business Vision Refinement 182
business-to-business (B2B) 170

caching 102
Center of Excellence (COE) 227
centralized planning control 117
check order application logic 89
Chief Financial Officer (CFO)
    speaking the language of 218
Citrix 85
    dealing with 210
    getting funding from 209
Client/Server Publish pattern 97, 98
    future of 99
Collaborate patterns 74, 107
    definition of 107
communication plan
    creating 212
complexity 210
    portfolio 64
    structure 65
components 155
    basic sets of 34
    catalog of 32
    categories of 33
    functional 34
    functional categories of 13
    in network layer 36
    interface 34
    networking layer 37
    physical 34
    Predictive Cost Modeling (PCM) 199
    structuring of 16
compression 102
Content Delivery Network (CDN) 103, 173
continuous improvement 20
cookies 93
cost/benefit analysis 162
costing metrics 168
costs 22, 168
    people 169
Create, Read, Update, and Delete (CRUD) 76
credit card verification 134
customer interaction center (CIC) 240
customer relationship management (CRM) 4, 76, 170
customer service 213

data warehouse applications 98
Data Warehouse/Operational Data Store (DW/ODS) 99
database layer 48, 50
database management system (DBMS) 77
de facto standards 128
decoupling 141
    the lifecycles 137
demilitarized zone (DMZ) 89
descriptive archetypes 69
design phase 202
detailed use cases 167
Directory Service 154
discretionary enhancements 219
document management 120
Domain Name Service (DNS) 94, 95, 172
domains 31
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) 172
Dynamic Link Library (DLL) 139

e-Business 95, 106, 110, 111, 150, 154, 160
    applications 58
    architecture 170
    integration of applications 50
    rise of 57
    systems 21
    Web site load 103
element management 66
e-mail 114, 118, 119
    standards for 116
engineering 220
    reporting to 229
enterprise application integration (EAI) 16, 50, 51, 163
enterprise applications
    and nine basic patterns 74
enterprise resource planning (ERP) 4, 76
evangelist 159, 176
Extensible Markup Language (XML) 27, 52, 55, 103, 157

fat client 82
federated database architecture (FDA) 49
Fibre Channel (FC) 41
file structures 162
FTP 147, 166
full-time equivalent (FTE) 193, 209
funding strategy 213

gap analysis 183, 200
gateway layer 50
General Services API (GSSAPI) 158
governance 182
groupware applications 47

host pattern 78

    use of 35
Identity Infrastructure 135, 154
    basic components of 154
Implementation phase 203
    assembling 187
Infra-API 60, 141
    5-step process 2
    adaptive 2, 5, 10
    business and 12
    component layers 13
    definition of 2, 4
    development lifecycle 202
    fundamental concepts 13
    inventory 191
    investments in 8
    isolating older 81
    IT and 8
    layers of 2, 4
    patterns and services 187
    people and 11
    planning 1, 9, 19, 20, 21, 180, 215, 220
    principles of 11
    product mentality 29
    reusable patterns 67
    selling your changes to stakeholders 220
    shared 4
    traits of adaptive 5
    Transactional Integration 171
    unshared 3
Infrastructure Impact Assessment (IIA) 201, 203
Infrastructure Pattern Matching (IPM) 15, 17, 73, 184, 194
infrastructure portfolio 125
infrastructure team
    strategic role vs. tactical role 221
Inputs, Tools, Outputs, Services (ITOS) 178
instant messaging 109
integration 204
    layer 50
    server 53
    services 50
Intel-based servers 101
interaction chains 58
interactive voice response (IVR) 72, 83
Inter-APIs 61, 141
Inter-Enterprise Integration (IEI) 50, 163
interface specification 146
interface standards 145
    APIs and workflow handoffs 147
internal stakeholders 224
Internet Content Exchange (ICE) 174
Internet Information Server (IIS) 56
Internet Protocol (IP) 172
    de facto standard 36
Internet radio stations 104
Intra-API 60, 141
        infrastructure 189
    network 189
investments 219
    credibility of the organization 18
    culture 29
    gap between business and 8
    reporting to IT management 229

Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) 27, 52, 124, 171
    versus .NET 55
latency 58, 82, 101, 110, 147, 160, 204
layers 31
LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) 156
legacy code 24
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) 116, 156
Linux 46
local area network (LAN) 37

    components 63, 66
    support 21
    tools 62
Managing Infrastructure Strategies and Standards (MISS) 181, 187
massively parallel processing (MPP) 93
master-slave concept 160
META Group 178
middleware 14, 27, 96
    publish-and-subscribe 171
Moore's Law 43
multicast 105, 106, 112
multiple points of interaction (POI) 57, 58, 72, 83, 86
    and thin clients 88
    publishing to 102

network load balancing (NLB) 94
Network Operating System (NOS) 175
network operations 66
Network-Attached Storage (NAS) 175
non-discretionary costs 218
    1-Tier Transact 77
    2-Tier Transact 77, 82, 119, 121
    3/N-Tier Transact 75, 77, 80, 86, 87, 88, 90, 92, 101, 119, 121, 135, 191
    80/20 rule 122

object-oriented programming (OOP) 25
office politics 227
offline users 115
online analytical processing (OLAP) 49, 64, 98
online transaction processing (OLTP) 77, 103
    servers 92
Outputs 179
outside vendors 151

Package and Communicate 183
    steps 212
    task 192
packaging strategies 215
partitioning 23
partners 167
    internal and external 165
passwords 154
pattern 9, 31
    2-Tier Transact pattern 159
    3/N-Tier Transact pattern 87, 159
    categories of 197
    Client/Server Publish pattern 97
    Collaborate pattern 107
    core set of patterns 14
    defining 35
    definition of 67
    designing 184
    drivers within the 3/N Tier Transact pattern 199
    infrastructure 13
    maturity of patterns 76
    negotiation of pattern design 185
    nine starter patterns 74
    pattern creep 119
    pattern drift 81
    pattern mapping 159
    Private Branch Exchange (PBX) 123
    Publish pattern 96
    Real-Time Collaborate pattern 108
    relating patterns to platforms 70
    reusing specific infrastructure 201
    scope of 75
    Store-and-Forward Collaborate pattern 113
    Store-and-Forward Collaborate vs. Structured Collaborate pattern 119
    Stream Publish pattern 104
    Structured Collaborate pattern 118
    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) 123
    Web Publish pattern 100
patterns 12
    application 150
    as reference points 130
    benefit of 71
patterns and services
    funding challenges 208
PCM 199
    improvement of 134
    measurement of 204
periodic processes 181
per-project processes 181
personal digital assistant (PDA) 56, 83
    communication 191, 213
    organizing your infrastructure planning team 226
    resuable communication 213
Plan Adaptive Infrastructure 180
Plan for Assimilation 183
    integrating infrastructure planning processes 220
    key skills 223
    portfolios 18
    strategic 178
    tactical 178
planning team
    reporting to IT architecture 228
platform 12, 31
    hardware 43
    model with layers 32
    server/OS 48
    UNIX 44
    Windows 2000/.NET Server 45
    Windows client 115
portals 121
portfolio 65
    contents of 125
    definition of 18
    existing applications in 128
    of patterns 72, 125
Predictive Cost Modeling (PCM) 178, 185, 197, 209
    steps involved in 200
presentation layer 23, 56, 57
    areas 178
    automation software 168
    defining 193
    infrastructure planning 193
    periodic 187
    the goal of process modeling 179
    packaging of 22
Program Management Office (PMO) 222
project design team 222
Project Management Institute
    traditional terminology defined by 182
prototyping 204
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) 155
Publish patterns 74, 96

quality-of-service (QoS) 39, 105
Real-Time Collaborate pattern 108, 123
    business needs for 110
    cost of 111
    future of 113
remote access 38
resources 25
    shared 217
return on investment (ROI) 113, 170, 175, 187
reusability 138
reuse 9, 14, 16, 24, 30, 50, 69, 137, 198, 201, 227
    basis of 24
    between applications 27
    of code 165
    of components 25
    platforms and 34
    policies 25
role 225
    advisers 224
    application developer 59, 222
    architect 222, 224
    assigning roles 193
    business manager 170
    CTO 224
    infrastructure planner 7, 17, 20, 29, 35, 43, 101, 181, 213, 221, 222, 223, 224
    operations leadership 222
    risk assessor 222
    storage controllers 42
    strategic vendors 225
    strategic vs. tactical 221
    tactical suppliers 226
run-time library 141

scalability 23, 25, 101
scaling issues 160
schema 161
scope creep 163
secure sockets layer (SSL) 102
Security 111
    choice of hardware/OS 43
    clusters 94, 95
    consolidation 47
    consolidation vs. proliferation 46
    Web 55, 86, 101, 156, 173
server farms 92
server load balancing (SLB) 94
service interface 142
services 12, 21, 31, 150, 179
    adaptive 132
    adaptive vs. traditional 133
    behind-the-wall 215, 217
    decoupling of 140
    defining service levels 147
    designing 186
    developing 135
    end user 216
    Identity Infrastructure 158
    keeping the number low 144
    limiting options 136
    mapping of 159
    narrowing list of options 145
    negotiating service-level agreements 200
    on-premises 140
    Portal 173
    potential users 147
    project 215, 218
    requesting new 190
    reusable 64
    service level attributes 143
    service levels 24, 142, 166, 171, 204
    service-based architecture 133
    service-focused approach 151
    shared 133
    Transactional Integration 147
    vs. structure 133
shared service
    example of 135
    storage 40
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) 27, 52, 104, 139, 157, 172
single sign-on (SSO) 154, 158
    business skills 223
    communication 223
    critical 193
    expertise 223
    leadership 223
smart PC 78, 82, 84, 97
software development kits (SDK) 61
speed 22
stability 133
staffing 19
standardization 191
    and cost cutting 114
standards 172, 174
    ownership of 144
    plan for approval 192
    proposed 192
Starter Kit 72, 122, 163
state handling 53
    issues 54
    strategy for 42
Storage Area Network (SAN) 41, 175
storage layer 40
Store-and-Forward Collaborate 76, 108, 113, 116, 191
    future of 117
stovepipes 15, 23, 135, 138, 169
strategic role 222
    virtual team 193
Stream Publish Pattern 104, 112
    future of 107
streaming media 104
stress testers 204
stress testing 204
Structured Collaborate Pattern 118
    future of 121
    vs. Store-and-Forward Collaborate pattern 119
supply chain management (SCM) 4, 76
supply chain project 170

tactical role 221
TCP/IP 16, 36, 37, 110, 116, 134, 138, 172
    leader 227
    planning group 20
technical architecting 220
technology catalog 33
    infrastructure patterns as 220
test lab 202
    components of 205
    developing a 203
    funding of 205
    managing the 205
    Quality Assurance (QA) 205
    focus of 91
thin clients 88
    use of 35
tools 17, 56, 58, 178, 185
    analysis 96
    CICS 59
    client-side 82
    EJB 59
    interview 200
    lab environment 204
    management 62
    network monitoring 204
    OpenView 66
    rapid application design (RAD) 84
    Rational Rose 61
    scripting 204
    stream publishing 104
    Tuxedo 59
    UML 61
    user administration 153
    using publish-specific 99
    WebLogic 59, 163
    WebSphere 59, 163
total cost of ownership (TCO) 45, 187, 198
Transact patterns 73, 74, 76
Transactional Integration Service 163
    components of 163
    costs 169

Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) 27, 52, 104, 139, 157, 172
user management 66

venture funding 219
videoconferencing 109
virtual private network (VPN) 38
virtual teams 227
Vision phase 202
Voice Over Internet (VoIP) 109
voice response unit (VRU) 238

Web applications 106
    statelessness in 93
Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) 174
Web Publish pattern 100, 136
Web publishing applications 101
Web server 173
Web Service Description Language (WSDL) 157, 172
Web services 52
Web Services Description Language (WSDL) 27, 52, 104, 139
Web Single Sign-on (Web SSO) 89, 154
Web site 111
    outsourcing of 105
    streaming content on 105, 106
wide area network (WAN) 38
Windows 2000/.NET Server 46
Wireless Access Protocol (WAP) 58
wrapper 80
    for legacy applications 27

XML-based publishing 102


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  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020