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Item 43: Inherit from collections.abc for Custom Container Types

Much of programming in Python is defining classes that contain data and describing how such objects relate to each other. Every Python class is a container of some kind, encapsulating attributes and functionality together. Python also provides built-in container types for managing data: lists, tuples, sets, and dictionaries.

When you’re designing classes for simple use cases like sequences, it’s natural to want to subclass Python’s built-in list type directly. For example, say I want to create my own custom list type that has additional methods for counting the frequency of its members:

class FrequencyList(list):
    def __init__(self, members):

    def frequency(self):
        counts = {}
        for item in self:
            counts[item] = counts.get(item, 0) + 1
       return counts

By subclassing list, I get all of list’s standard functionality and preserve the semantics familiar to all Python programmers. I can define additional methods to provide any custom behaviors that I need:

foo = FrequencyList(['a', 'b', 'a', 'c', 'b', 'a', 'd'])
print('Length is', len(foo))

print('After pop:', repr(foo))
print('Frequency:', foo.frequency())

Length is 7
After pop: ['a', 'b', 'a', 'c', 'b', 'a']
Frequency: {'a': 3, 'b': 2, 'c': 1}

Now, imagine that I want to provide an object that feels like a list and allows indexing but isn’t a list subclass. For example, say that I want to provide sequence semantics (like list or tuple) for a binary tree class:

class BinaryNode:
     def __init__(self, value, left=None, right=None):
         self.value = value
         self.left = left
         self.right = right

How do you make this class act like a sequence type? Python implements its container behaviors with instance methods that have special names. When you access a sequence item by index:

bar = [1, 2, 3]

it will be interpreted as:


To make the BinaryNode class act like a sequence, you can provide a custom implementation of __getitem__ (often pronounced “dunder getitem” as an abbreviation for “double underscore getitem”) that traverses the object tree depth first:

class IndexableNode(BinaryNode):
    def _traverse(self):
        if self.left is not None:
            yield from self.left._traverse()
        yield self
        if self.right is not None:
            yield from self.right._traverse()

    def __getitem__(self, index):
        for i, item in enumerate(self._traverse()):
            if i == index:
                return item.value
        raise IndexError(f'Index {index} is out of range')

You can construct your binary tree as usual:

tree = IndexableNode(

But you can also access it like a list in addition to being able to traverse the tree with the left and right attributes:

print('LRR is', tree.left.right.right.value)
print('Index 0 is', tree[0])
print('Index 1 is', tree[1])
print('11 in the tree?', 11 in tree)
print('17 in the tree?', 17 in tree)
print('Tree is', list(tree))

LRR is 7
Index 0 is 2
Index 1 is 5
11 in the tree? True
17 in the tree? False
Tree is [2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 15]

The problem is that implementing __getitem__ isn’t enough to provide all of the sequence semantics you’d expect from a list instance:


Traceback ...
TypeError: object of type 'IndexableNode' has no len()

The len built-in function requires another special method, named __len__, that must have an implementation for a custom sequence type:

class SequenceNode(IndexableNode):
    def __len__(self):
        for count, _ in enumerate(self._traverse(), 1):
        return count
tree = SequenceNode(
print('Tree length is', len(tree))

Tree length is 7

Unfortunately, this still isn’t enough for the class to fully be a valid sequence. Also missing are the count and index methods that a Python programmer would expect to see on a sequence like list or tuple. It turns out that defining your own container types is much harder than it seems.

To avoid this difficulty throughout the Python universe, the built-in collections.abc module defines a set of abstract base classes that provide all of the typical methods for each container type. When you subclass from these abstract base classes and forget to implement required methods, the module tells you something is wrong:

from collections.abc import Sequence

class BadType(Sequence):

foo = BadType()

Traceback ...
TypeError: Can't instantiate abstract class BadType with
➥abstract methods __getitem__, __len__

When you do implement all the methods required by an abstract base class from collections.abc, as I did above with SequenceNode, it provides all of the additional methods, like index and count, for free:

class BetterNode(SequenceNode, Sequence):
tree = BetterNode(

print('Index of 7 is', tree.index(7))
print('Count of 10 is', tree.count(10))

Index of 7 is 3
Count of 10 is 1

The benefit of using these abstract base classes is even greater for more complex container types such as Set and MutableMapping, which have a large number of special methods that need to be implemented to match Python conventions.

Beyond the collections.abc module, Python uses a variety of special methods for object comparisons and sorting, which may be provided by container classes and non-container classes alike (see Item 73: “Know How to Use heapq for Priority Queues” for an example).

Things to Remember

  • Inherit directly from Python’s container types (like list or dict) for simple use cases.

  • Beware of the large number of methods required to implement custom container types correctly.

  • Have your custom container types inherit from the interfaces defined in collections.abc to ensure that your classes match required interfaces and behaviors.

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