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This chapter is from the book

Navigating the Linux File System

In the Linux file system, as with its predecessor UNIX, everything is a file: data files, binary files, executable programs, and even input and output devices. These files are placed in a series of directories that act like file folders. A directory is nothing more than a special type of file that contains a list of other files/directories. These files and directories are used to create a hierarchical structure that enables logical placement of specific types of files. Later this chapter discusses the standard hierarchy of the Linux file system. First, you learn how to navigate and interact with the file system.

Listing the Contents of a Directory with ls

The ls command lists the contents of the current directory. It is commonly used by itself, but a number of options (also known as switches) are available for ls and give you more information. If you have just logged in as described earlier, the ls command lists the files and directories in your home directory:

matthew@seymour:~$ ls
Documents    Music      file.txt  Pictures  Music

By itself, the ls command shows just a list of names. Some are files, some are directories. This is useful if you know what you are looking for but cannot remember the exact name. However, using ls in this matter has some limitations. First, it does not show hidden files. Hidden files use filenames that start with a period (.) as the first character. They are often used for configuration of specific programs and are not accessed frequently. For this reason, they are not included in a basic directory listing. You can see all the hidden files by adding a switch to the command, like this:

matthew@seymour:~$ ls -a
.              .bash_logout        Documents        Music
..             .bashrc             file.txt         Pictures
.bash_history  .config             .local          .profile

There is still more information available about each item in a directory. To include details such as the file/directory permissions, owner and group (discussed later in this chapter), size, and the date and time it was last modified, enter the following:

matthew@seymour:~$ ls -al
total 608
drwxr-xr-x 38 matthew matthew   4096 2015-06-04 08:20 .
drwxr-xr-x  3 root    root      4096 2015-05-16 16:48 ..
-rw-------  1 matthew matthew    421 2015-06-04 10:27 .bash_history
-rw-r--r--  1 matthew matthew    220 2015-05-16 16:48 .bash_logout
-rw-r--r--  1 matthew matthew   3353 2015-05-16 16:48 .bashrc
drwxr-xr-x 13 matthew matthew   4096 2015-05-21 10:42 .config
drwxr-xr-x  2 matthew matthew   4096 2015-05-16 17:07 Documents
-rw-r--r--  1 matthew matthew   335  2015-05-16 16:48 file.txt
drwxr-xr-x  3 matthew matthew   4096 2015-05-16 17:07 .local
drwxr-xr-x  2 matthew matthew   4096 2015-05-16 17:07 Music
drwxr-xr-x  3 matthew matthew   4096 2015-05-16 18:07 Pictures
-rw-r--r--  1 matthew matthew    675 2015-05-16 16:48 .profile

The listing (abbreviated here) is now given with one item per line but with multiple columns. The listing starts with the number of items in the directory. (Both files and subdirectories are included; remember that the listing here is abbreviated.) Then, the details are as shown in Figure 10.1.


FIGURE 10.1 Decoding the output of a detailed directory listing.

These details are discussed more completely later in the chapter, in the “Working with Permissions” section.

Another useful switch is this:

matthew@seymour:~$ ls -R

This command scans and lists all the contents of the subdirectories of the current directory. This is likely to be a lot of information, so you might want to redirect the output to a text file so that you can browse through it at your leisure by using the following:

matthew@seymour:~$ ls -laR > listing.txt

Changing Directories with cd

Use the cd command to move within the file system from one directory to another. It might help you remember this command to think of it meaning change directory. The most basic usage of cd is as follows:

matthew@seymour:~$ cd somedir

This command looks in the current directory for the somedir subdirectory and then moves you into it. You can also specify an exact location for a directory, like this:

matthew@seymour:~$ cd /home/matthew/stuff/somedir

You can also use the cd command with several shortcuts. For example, to quickly move up to the parent directory, the one above the one you are currently in, use the cd command like this:

matthew@seymour:~$ cd ..

To return to your home directory from anywhere in the Linux file system, use the cd command like this:

matthew@seymour:~$ cd

You can also use the $HOME shell environment variable to accomplish the same thing. Environment variables are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 12, “Command-Line Master Class, Part 2.” To return to your home directory, type this command and press Enter:

matthew@seymour:~$ cd $HOME

You can accomplish the same thing by using the tilde (~), like this:

matthew@seymour:~$ cd ~

Finding Your Current Directory with pwd

Use pwd to determine you where you are within the file system:

matthew@seymour:~$ pwd
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