Home > Articles > Business & Management > Finance & Investing

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

1.1 Long Call

Proficiency

Direction

Volatility

Asset Legs

Max Risk

Max Reward

Strategy Type

45_01.jpg

45_02.jpg

N/A

45_03.jpg

45_04.jpg

45_05.jpg

45_06.jpg

Novice

Bullish

 

Long Call

Capped

Uncapped

Capital Gain

1.1.1 Description

Buying a call is the most basic of all option strategies. For many people, it constitutes their first options trade after gaining experience buying and selling stocks.

Calls are easy to understand. A call is an option to buy, so it stands to reason that when you buy a call, you’re hoping that the underlying share price will rise.

ITM

In the Money

stock > call strike price

ATM

At the Money

stock = call strike price

OTM

Out of the Money

stock < call strike price

045fig01.jpg

Steps to Trading a Long Call

  1. Buy the call option.

    • Remember that for option contracts in the U.S., one contract is for 100 shares. So when you see a price of 1.00 for a call, you will have to pay $100 for one contract.
    • For S&P Futures options, one contract is exercisable into one futures contract. If the option price is 1.00, you will pay $250 for one futures contract upon exercise.

    Steps In

    • Try to ensure that the stock is trending upward, and is above a clearly identifiable area of support.

    Steps Out

    • Manage your position according to the rules defined in your trading plan.
    • Sell your long options before the final month before expiration if you want to avoid the effects of time decay.
    • If the stock falls below your stop loss, then exit by selling the calls.

1.1.2 Context

Outlook

  • With a long call, your outlook is bullish. You expect a rise in the underlying asset price.

Rationale

  • To make a better return than if you had simply bought the stock itself. Do ensure that you give yourself enough time to be right; this means you should go at least six months out, if not one- or two-year LEAPs. If you think these are expensive, then simply divide the price by the number of months left to expiration and then compare that to shorter-term option prices. You will see that LEAPs and longer-term options are far better value on a per-month basis, and they give you more time to be right, thus improving your chances of success. Another method is to buy only shorter-term deep ITM options.

Net Position

  • This is a net debit transaction because you pay for the call option.
  • Your maximum risk is capped to the price you pay for the call.
  • Your maximum reward is uncapped.

Effect of Time Decay

  • Time decay works against your bought option, so give yourself plenty of time to be right.
  • Don’t be fooled by the false economy that shorter options are cheaper. Compare a one-month option to a 12-month option and divide the longer option price by 12. You will see that you are paying far less per month for the 12-month option.

Appropriate Time Period to Trade

  • At least three months, preferably longer, depending on the particular circumstances.

Selecting the Stock

  • Ideally, look for stocks where the OVI is persistently positive for at least the last few days.
  • Choose from stocks with adequate liquidity, preferably over 500,000 Average Daily Volume (ADV).
  • The stock should be trending upward, and be above a clearly identifiable area of support.

Selecting the Options

  • Choose options with adequate liquidity; open interest should be at least 100, preferably 500.
  • Strike—Look for either the ATM or ITM (lower) strike below the current stock.
  • Expiration—Give yourself enough time to be right; remember that time decay accelerates exponentially in the last month before expiration, so give yourself a minimum of three months to be right, knowing you’ll never hold into the last month. That gives you at least two months before you’ll need to sell. Longer would be better, though.

1.1.3 Risk Profile

Maximum Risk

[Call premium]

Maximum Reward

[Uncapped]

Breakeven

[Call strike + call premium]

1.1.4 Greeks

1.1.5 Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages

  • Cheaper than buying the stock outright.
  • Far greater leverage than simply owning the stock.
  • Uncapped profit potential with capped risk.

Disadvantages

  • Potential 100% loss if the strike price, expiration dates, and stock are badly chosen.
  • High leverage can be dangerous if the stock price moves against you.

1.1.6 Exiting the Trade

Exiting the Position

  • Sell the calls you bought.

Mitigating a Loss

  • Use the underlying asset or stock to determine where your stop loss should be placed.

1.1.7 Margin Collateral

  • Being a long net debit strategy, there is no margin requirement per se because the risk of the trade is limited to the initial cost.

1.1.8 Example

  • ABCD is trading at $28.88 on February 19, 2015.
  • Buy the January 2016 27.50 strike call for 4.38.

You Pay

Call premium

4.38

Maximum Risk

Call premium

4.38

Maximum risk is 100% of your total cost here

Maximum Reward

Unlimited as the stock price rises

Breakeven

Strike price + call premium

27.50 + 4.38 = 31.88

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020