Home > Articles > Software Development & Management

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book Message Expiration

Message Expiration

My application is using Messaging (53). If a Messages (66) data or request is not received by a certain time, it is useless and should be ignored.

How can a sender indicate when a message should be considered stale and thus shouldn’t be processed?

Messaging (53) practically guarantees that the Message (66) will eventually be delivered to the receiver. What it cannot guarantee is how long the delivery may take. For example, if the network connecting the sender and receiver is down for a week, then it could take a week to deliver a message. Messaging is highly reliable, even when the participants (sender, network, and receiver) are not, but messages can take a very long time to transmit in unreliable circumstances. (For more details, see Guaranteed Delivery [122].)

Often, a message’s contents have a practical limit for how long they’re useful. A caller issuing a stock quote request probably loses interest if it does not receive an answer within a minute or so. That means the request should not take more than a minute to transmit but also that the answer had better transmit back very quickly. A stock quote reply more than a minute or two old is probably too old and therefore irrelevant.

Once the sender sends a message and does not get a reply, it has no way to cancel or recall the message. Likewise, a receiver could check when a message was sent and reject the message if it’s too old, but different senders under different circumstances may have different ideas about how long is too long, so how does the receiver know which messages to reject? What is needed is a way for the sender to specify the message’s lifetime.

Figure 5.12 Set the Message Expiration to specify a time limit for how long the message is viable.

Once the time for which a message is viable passes, and the message still has not been consumed, then the message will expire. The messaging system’s consumers will ignore an expired message; they treat the message as if it where never sent in the first place. Most messaging system implementations reroute expired messages to the Dead Letter Channel (119), whereas others simply discard expired messages; this may be configurable.

A Message Expiration is like the expiration date on a milk carton. After that date, you shouldn’t drink the milk. Likewise, when a message expires, the messaging system should no longer deliver it. If a receiver still receives a message but cannot process it before the expiration, the receiver should throw away the message.

A Message Expiration is a timestamp (date and time) that specifies how long the message will live or when it will expire. The setting can be specified in relative or absolute terms. An absolute setting specifies a date and time when the message will expire. A relative setting specifies how long the message should live before it expires; the messaging system will use the time when the message is sent to convert the relative setting into an absolute one. The messaging system is responsible for adjusting the timestamp for receivers in different time zones from the sender, for adjustments in daylight savings times, and any other issues that can keep two different clocks from agreeing on what time it is.

The message expiration property has a related property, sent time, which specifies when the message was sent. A message’s absolute expiration timestamp must be later than its sent timestamp (or else the message will expire immediately). To avoid this problem, senders usually specify expiration times relatively, in which case the messaging system calculates the expiration timestamp by adding the relative timeout to the sent timestamp (expiration time = sent time + time to live).

When a message expires, the messaging system may simply discard it or may move it to a Dead Letter Channel (119). A receiver that finds itself in possession of an expired message should move it to the Invalid Message Channel (60). With a Publish-Subscribe Channel (106), each subscriber gets its own copy of the message; some copies of a message may reach their subscribers successfully, whereas other copies of the same message expire before their subscribers consume them. When using Request-Reply (154), a reply message with an expiration setting may not work well—if the reply expires, the sender of the request will never know whether the request was ever received in the first place. If reply expirations are used, the request sender has to be designed to handle the case where expected replies are never received.

Example: JMS Time-to-Live Parameter

Message expiration is what the JMS specification calls “message time-to-live” [JMS 1.1], [Hapner]. JMS messages have a predefined property for message expiration, JMSExpiration, but a sender should not set it via Message.setJMSExpiration(long) because the JMS provider will override that setting when the message is sent. Rather, the sender should use its MessageProducer (QueueSender or TopicPublisher) to set the timeout for all messages it sends; the method for this setting is MessageProducer.setTimeToLive(long). A sender can also set the time-to-live on an individual message using the MessageProducer.send(Message message, int deliveryMode, int priority, long timeToLive) method, where the fourth parameter is the time-to-live in milliseconds. Time-to-live is a relative setting specifying how long after the message is sent it should expire.

Example: .NET Time-to-Be-Received and Time-to-Reach-Queue Properties

A .NET Message has two properties for specifying expiration: TimeToBeReceived and TimeToReachQueue. The reach-queue setting specifies how long the message has to reach its destination queue, after which the message might sit in the queue indefinitely. The be-received setting specifies how long the message has to be consumed by a receiver, which limits the total time for transmitting the message to its destination queue plus the amount of time the message can spend sitting on the destination queue. TimeToBeReceived is equivalent to JMS’s JMSExpiration property. Both time settings have a value of type System.TimeSpan, a length of time [SysMsg], [Dickman].

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020