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Web Content Management: A Collaborative Approach

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Web Content Management: A Collaborative Approach


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  • Copyright 2002
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 272
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-65782-1
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-65782-1

Today's Web sites require powerful content management solutions that address workflow, usability, deployment, flexibility, scalability, and many other make-or-break issues. This is the first book to cover every aspect of content management for the large-scale or growing site. It offers Web professionals a complete blueprint for developing, deploying, managing, maintaining, and evolving enterprise-class sites with the greatest business value -- at the lowest cost. Nakano first introduces the motivation for content management -- and the problems that rapidly arise when content management solutions are not in place. He introduces key content management concepts and techniques, then presents a complete process and methodology for introducing content management that works. Nakano addresses hot topics such as globalization and workflow, and answers key questions such as: "How can I keep my site flexible and dynamic? How can I encourage more employees to contribute content? The book presents real-world "Day-in-the-Life" case studies from a broad cross-section of companies, large and small, from many industries. For all Web site project managers, architects, administrators, managers, and content specialists working on large sites, or sites expected to grow rapidly.

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Table of Contents


Manuel Terranova.

Peng T. Ong.@CHAPTER = Preface.



1. The Internet Changes the Rules of the Game.

Executive Summary.



Fear and Greed.

Rules of the Game.

Rule #1: It's the Assets, Stupid!

Rule #2: Experiment. Iterate. Grow.

Rule #3: Respond to Customers Quickly and Frequently, or Lose Them!

Rule #4: Enable the Masses!

Rule #5: Make It Manageable and Reproducible.



2. Overview of Content Management.

Executive Summary.

From Prototype to Enterprise.

2 a.m. Software.

The Pioneers.

The Tornado.

Go Dot-com.


Universality of Assets.

Managing Web Assets.

Live Editing.

Staging the Web Site.

Independent Edit Areas.

Content Management.

Content Management Architecture.

Content Creation/Editing Subsystem.

Repository Subsystem.

Workflow Subsystem.

Deployment and Operations Management.



3. Principles of Collaborative Web Development.

Executive Summary.


Basic Concepts.

Stakeholder Identification.

Are We in the Chaos Zone?

Development and Production Separation.

Asset Identification.

Direct Feedback (WYSIWYG).

Parallel Development.


Control Mechanisms: Auditing and Enforcement.


4. Best Practices for Collaborative Web Development.

Executive Summary.

The WSE Paradigm.

Collaboration Strategies.

Collaboration Operations.

Submit Operation.

Compare Operation.

Update Operation.

Merge Operation.

Publish Operation.

Work Cycles.

Version Snapshots.

Common Work Cycles in Web Development.

Real-Time Development Work Cycle.

Compare-Update Work Cycle.

Review Work Cycle.

Major Test Work Cycle.


5. Templating Empowers Content Contributors.

Executive Summary.


The Freshness Imperative.

The Challenge of Change.

Enabling Change.

A Template System.

Example: ezSuggestionBox.com.

Advantages of a Template System.


Practitioner's Checklist.

6. Workflow Speeds Work Cycles.

Executive Summary.

Using Workflow.

Characteristics of Web Development.

People Factors.

Project Factors.

Process Factors.

Business Factors.

Virtual Assembly Line.

Workflow Concepts.

Interaction Pattern.



Transition Links.

Active and Inactive Tasks.

Building a Workflow.


Designing a Workflow.

1. Identify Interaction Sequences.

2. Identify Candidate Workflow.

3. Sketch the Steps.

4. Identify Known and Not-Yet-Known Parameters.

5. Add Remaining Transitions.

6. Add Notification Steps.


Practitioner's Checklist.

7. Deploying Content.

Executive Summary.


Concept Review.

The Release Agreement.

Common Pitfalls.

Continuous Change.

Database Assets.

Design Considerations.

Incremental Changes.

Making Changes Transactional.

What Initiates Deployment?

Script Integration.


Designing a Deployment Infrastructure.

Enterprise Deployment Architecture.


Practitioner's Checklist.

8. Multiple Web Initiatives.

Executive Summary.




Logically Independent Web Site.

Task Overlap.

Basic Branch Patterns.

Single-Branch Pattern.

Agency Pattern.

Short-Term/Long-Term Branch Pattern.

Dependent Branch Pattern.

Identifying Branch Patterns.

Example--Using Branches in a Dot-Com Company.

Dependent Web Sites.


Practitioner's Checklist.


9. Using Web Content Management for Globalization.

Executive Summary.


A Globalization Initiative.

The Easy Path Leads to Trouble.

Design a Solid Platform for International Development.

Branch Structure.

Work Area Structure.

Special Situations.

Workflow Design.

Template System Design.

Deployment Design.


10. Summary and Conclusions.

Executive Summary.


Revisiting the Rules.

It's the Assets, Stupid!

Experiment. Iterate. Grow.

Respond to Customers Quickly and Frequently, or Lose Them!

Enable the Masses!

Make It Manageable and Reproducible.

Future Trends.

Content Becomes More Structured.

Content Contributors and Their Tools Become More Specialized.

Blurring the Distinction between Web Operations and the Rest of Business.

More Distributed and Flow-based Handling of Assets, Tasks, and Jobs.

More Emphasis on Content Tagging to Enable Storage, Retrieval, Search, Reuse, and Routing.

Emphasize 24 x 7 Management Infrastructure.



Appendix A: A Smart File System.
Appendix B: A Workflow Design for Formal Hand Off Between Groups.

Executive Summary.



QA Hand-off Workflow.


Appendix C: A Workflow Design for Predetermined Time Schedules.

Executive Summary.

Problem Scenario.


Time-Slot Technique.

Time-Slot Techniques—Detailed Example.


Variations on the Time-Slot Technique.

Appendix D: Basic Process Steps of a Best-Practice Content Management Process.

Executive Summary.

Example: Web Site.

A Best-Practice Development Process.

Example: Rebranding Initiative.


Index. 0201657821T09242001



The Purpose of This Book

This is a book about content management, with an emphasis on web content. More specifically, it's about developing, managing, maintaining and deploying web content solutions across the enterprise. It addresses the questions common to all small, medium, and large enterprises encounter as they grow:

  • How can I manage my growing base of web assets?
  • How do I get information to my customers, employees, and suppliers quickly?
  • How can I ensure that my web site's content is dynamic?
  • How can I get all my employees to become active contributors to my web site's success?
  • What do I need to do now to ensure my web site is successful?
There have been many books written on managing a web project, understanding web technologies, building a web property, and ensuring usability. Each of them deals with the perplexing challenge of the web by delving deeply into a specific aspect: processes, technology, or people. This book is a combination of all three. It has to be. Content management is a technology solution that's implemented using specific techniques (e.g., workflow analysis, deployment solutions) to ensure wide-scale usability (from web developers to content contributors).

Content makes a web property what it is. This is as true today as it was yesterday. This will continue to be true into the future, even as technological advances create ever more sophisticated ways to run businesses, reach customers, and react to trends. Content defines the soul of the property. Managing content includes the steps to design, create, implement, modify, archive, review, approve, and deploy.

As a founding engineer, system architect, and principal consultant, I have seen content management projects across industries, geographies, and organizations. Most have struggled to manage the tremendous growth in the web space without a corresponding growth in web tools and techniques. Hence the need for a book--a practical guide for project managers and web architects.

This book has taken me two years to write. During that period, I've been involved in over 50 web development projects in various roles with Interwoven, a content infrastructure software company. My involvement ranged from informal e-mail consultation, to in-depth design meetings, to focused implementation efforts, to complete implementation engagements. These experiences exposed me to a wide range of industries and organizations. It became clear that successful content management solutions share common features and are driven by a core set of principles and techniques.

I have attempted to distill my experience and that of my colleagues into this book. It began as a series of application notes that I wrote for Interwoven project managers and technical consultants. The notes explained concepts, principles, and techniques to help guide implementers and managers of web content management solutions. The notes helped our customers and consulting partners to frame and develop their content management solutions. The notes became the backbone of this book. The true test of a book is the number of scribbles in the margins, post-its sticking from various angles, bent corners, along with the occasional coffee spill. I hope this book will receive the same measure of wear-and-tear. If it does, I know that my goal has been accomplished.

Who Should Read this Book

This book will be useful to three broad categories of web practitioners: managers, architects, and developers. Managers benefit from understanding content management for the purpose of structuring the flow of work and planning resource allocation. A development manager needs to know how to separate tasks to minimize interference and how to orchestrate multiple web initiatives. A production manager focuses on streamlining the flow of changes from development, through a review process, to the ultimate destinations on multiple production servers. Accuracy, reliability, and reproducibility are paramount concerns to the production manager. A business manager, especially the executive sponsor of web initiatives, needs to understand how process and infrastructure improvements generate tangible business benefits. Benefits include faster development, more effective use of staff, and greater reliability. All managers benefit from knowing what is possible with current tools.

Architects focus on internal design, integration with other business systems, and technology choices. Throughout the thought process they must pay attention to structuring the design to facilitate rapid development both with the current staff and expanded staff down the road. For these reasons, architects must be cognizant of the precepts of content management. Their goal after all, is to design what can be built, to build what can be assembled quickly, and to assemble what can be tested easily and often.

Developers are specialists who create content as their primary job, such as Java developers or graphic artists, and others who contribute content as an adjunct to their jobs, such as a marketing manager or public relations specialist. A developer who grasps the principles of content management will understand its role in a larger context. This is especially important because a strong developer is inevitably tapped to contribute in the role of lead developer, where understanding the big picture helps to effectively blend the efforts of the group.

The managers, architects and developers who form the primary target of this book collectively have diverse experiences and wide skill sets. This diversity explains the difficulty that sometimes arises in explaining web content management because different people play different roles in the web endeavor. Each category of stakeholder has a different objective, and hence they tend to look at the problem of content management differently. For example, content contributors want the shortest path possible to get their changes to the web, with as few obstacles as possible. In contrast, production managers want to make sure that content is tested, reviewed, and safely under version control. Because of the difference in perspectives, different parts of the content management solution are assigned different priorities. All the views need to be accounted for, striving for a realistic balance.

Organizations are also governed by their current practices. For example, one reader may currently use "edit directly on the production server." A different reader may use the "test changes on a staging server before deploying to production server technique." Others may use the "e-mail content to the webmaster" approach. Part of the challenge is to bring all of these different perspectives up to a common starting point.

Because of all of these differences, finding the initial common ground on which to build the motivation and techniques for content management requires some effort. This includes agreeing on the vocabulary and building a common understanding of the problems. An experienced content management manager or architect will find the early portions of the book a useful refresher on concepts. However, a manager new to content management will find this information invaluable. In addition to setting the stage for later chapters, the book helps frame views on the proper interactions and interrelationships in a true web environment.

One of the important elements of this book is the use of "day-in-the-life-of" examples. New managers will find tremendous value in viewing the practices of other web organizations. These examples are based on companies that I've worked with, and represent a broad cross-section: companies both large and small, from dot-coms to brick-and-mortar companies, from many different industries.

The Art of Content Management

To truly convey the meaning of web content management, we cannot merely talk about tools. This book expands the reader's view to look at people, tools, processes, and organizations as an interrelated whole. That's a big lesson that Interwoven's consulting force has learned over the course of implementing content management for customers over the last three years. It isn't just about installing a tool, loading the content, handing over a stack of manuals, and heading for the exit. Implementing a content management solution is a number of things that are much broader in scope. It is building a partnership between the consultants who understand how to use the product and the customer who understands the social and organizational dynamics of his or her company. It is a fallacy to underestimate the importance of either side of the equation. Building a flawless and pristine installation will not be successful if the implementation effort finds itself blind-sided by an entrenched "not-invented-here" attitude about software tools in general. Similarly, a perfectly aligned organization is useless if there isn't an appreciation of the "art" of managing thousands of web assets, designing effective workflow, and getting that information from content contributors.

That's the challenge and curse of implementing a web content management solution. It is essential to build strong bridges between many constituencies in order to lay a path to success. It can neither be a fully grassroots effort to build a solution from the bottom up without executive sponsorship, nor can it be a top-down solution that is imposed by executive fiat. As with most things in life, there are challenges and struggles in any implementation effort. Without a doubt, the rewards make it worthwhile.

The Science of Content Management

This book primarily speaks to the practice of content management, which differs from the "science" of content management. The term "content management" has only recently been used to refer to the principles and practices around developing, managing, maintaining, and deploying content in an organization. As such, it is more common to find practitioners of content management than scientists of content management. A practitioner slings a toolkit over her shoulder and carries a collection of useful concepts in her head, but her primary objective is to help clients set up an infrastructure to manage content. The practitioner engages with clients, asking questions, sensing the lay of the land, in an attempt to gain insight into which of several approaches to bring to bear on the problem. Success is measured both by how well the implementation matches the original requirements and by how happy the client is. The former tends to be objective, while the latter is hugely subjective. Measuring against requirements moves close to the notion of the science of content management, while client happiness is scientifically unsound.

This dichotomy between the objectively measurable and the scientifically unsound is evident in this book. On one hand, we endeavor to convey the flavor of the practice of content management through experiences gained from numerous client engagements during what will undoubtedly be viewed as the formative years of the Internet revolution. On the other hand, through that limited and possibly idiosyncratic perspective, we strive to distill the common concepts and principles that have proven to be useful across many engagements. Does it rise to the level of science? Probably not. Do I wish that the concept building, hypothesis testing, and strenuous analysis could be infused with enough rigor to qualify as science? Of course. But it is my honest belief that the field isn't quite ready for that degree of consolidation. But just as pioneer farmer might have discerned the science of agriculture, or a village healer might have gleaned the beginnings of the science of medicine, we hope that some of the lessons described here will help others to point the way toward a "science" of content management.

Organization of this Book

This book has ten chapters that divide naturally into three parts. Part One lays out the motivation for content management. It examines the issues that arise when a solution is not in place. It introduces the concepts of content management that will be used throughout the rest of the book. This section paints the essential backdrop for readers unfamiliar with content management concepts. Case study examples highlight the importance of content management in the proper functioning of any organization's web sites. Readers who are more familiar with content management may wish to skim this section to refresh their understanding of the issues, and jump into Part Two for a detailed discussion of theory.

Part Two introduces the concepts and principles required by a practitioner, and provides the framework to develop a content management solution. Technical architects, project managers and consultants will find the basic building blocks for the content management solution within these chapters. This section presents the content management theory necessary to build a solution, used extensively in Part Three. This section starts with the importance of content management in ensuring a collaborative development environment, highlighting the practices that must be encouraged. It follows with a detailed discussion of the key levers of a successful content management solution: templating, workflow, deployment, and branch design. Each of these sections delves into the theory underpinning each content management lever to understand its value within a content management framework, its impact on an organization, and the complexity required to reach a solution. Examples are used to illustrate common uses of each lever within a business context

Part Three explains how to design and implement a content management infrastructure. It describes a step-by-step procedure to generate the implementation architecture, and proposes a task-based methodology to guide the implementation of the agreed-upon design.

Part One--Motivation for Content Management

Chapter One--The Internet Changes the Rules of the Game. Motivates the need for a content management solution.

Chapter Two--Overview of Content Management. An introduction to the concepts of content management used throughout the book. It enables you to understand content management without delving into the details necessary to implement the solution.

Part II--Concepts and Principles

Chapter Three--Principles of Collaborative Web Development. Lays the foundational principles of collaborative development. It covers the core issues of web site versioning, and managing concurrent changes.

Chapter Four--Best Practices for Collaborative Web Development. Describes the work area-staging area-edition paradigm of development, and lays out the four basic work cycles: development, compare/update, review, and test.

Chapter Five--Templating Empowers Content Contributors. Details the rationale for templating, or separation of content from presentation.

Chapter Six--Workflow Speeds Work Cycles. Delves into the benefits and concepts of a workflow infrastructure to speed the development process.

Chapter Seven--Deploying Content. Introduces the concepts that govern a deployment infrastructure. Presents a design for a deployment infrastructure.

Chapter Eight--Multiple Web Initiatives. Covers the concept of branch design, which introduces the notion of a logically independent web site. These concepts address the core issues of project completion skew, and of long-term versus short-term projects. Details how to design a branch structure for multiple web initiatives.

Part Three--Design and Implementation

Chapter Nine--Using Web Content Management for Globalization. Presents design of content management system for a globalization project.

Chapter Ten--Summary and Conclusions. Summarizes what we've learned. Discusses trends in content management and what they imply for the future.


Creating this book took four times longer than originally hoped for and the effort was ten times more strenuous than I would have wished for. But the effort has been worthwhile, in large measure because of the numerous people who have supported this project throughout its lifespan. They all shared the belief that something could be constructed where nothing had existed before.

I owe a debt of gratitude to Peng Ong, who gave me an incredible opportunity to help transform his product vision into software. The initial development team of Kevin Cochrane, Terrence Yee, and Gajanana Hegde steadfastly believed in Peng's vision and provided an intensely creative work environment to launch the product.

Several product releases later, Peng handed me another incredible opportunity: to join his fledgling consulting organization. Robert Gerega, Jennifer Marek, Zhaohong Li, Victoria Chiu, James Koh, Jon Lau, and Robert Turner were extremely supportive of my early efforts to codify knowledge in application notes. I am indebted to our early customers who were willing to put their faith in our people and our products.

I owe thanks to T. Francis Richason, Reza Haniph, Christine Owens, and Raghu Madhok who gave me the time and encouragement to complete the application notes and the manuscript. Marc Carignan deserves mention for being especially supportive and accommodating.

I extend my gratitude to the numerous people who reviewed drafts and provided helpful comments: Adam Stoller, Robert Gerega, Evers Ding, Andrew Chang, Blake Sobiloff, Dave Cadoff, Stan Cheng, Jack Jia, Patrice McCauley, Christine Owens, Dhruv Ratra, Mark Bradley, Raghu Madhok, Kevin Lindbloom, and Anurag Gupta from Interwoven; Mitchel Ahern, Ravishankar Belavadi, Ren Bitonio, Linda Brigman, Jeff Rule, Kenneth Trant Jr., and John Wegis choreographed by Addison-Wesley.

James Koh provided fascinating insights on the birth of a corporate web presence. Wes Modes enthusiastically described his approach to globalization.

This project could not have been completed without the marketing, art direction, artistic, and literary contributions from Ted Fong, Don Wong, Rick Steed, Raina Pickett, Andrew So, Helen Lee, Debbie Ryan, and Marianne Lucchesi. Executive support for this project from Martin Brauns, Marc Carignan, Mike Backlund, Joe Ruck, and Jack Jia was timely and essential.

Executive editor, Mary O'Brien, and her associates Alicia Carey, Curt Johnson, Jacquelyn Doucette, and Chanda Leary-Coutu at Addison-Wesley were tremendous.

Reza Haniph managed the project tirelessly. He deserves extra credit for playing the role of product champion.




Absolute references, 198
Access control, 110, 111, 127, 133. See also Security
Adams, Henry Brooks, 135
Administrator passwords, 53. See also Passwords
Adobe Photoshop, 47, 68, 91
Agency pattern, 139, 142-144
globalization and, 161
release, 22, 113-115
Andersen Consulting, 11
APIs (application program interfaces), 35
Application logic, 143, 162
application program interfaces (APIs), 35
Application servers. See also Servers
creation/editing subsystem and, 35
advent of, 5-6
deploying content and, 116-117
multiple web initiatives and, 137, 148-149
rendering assets and, 26-27
templates and, 83, 86
types of, 27, 116
Application service providers, 23
Art Technology Group, 27
ASP (Microsoft Active Server Pages), 27-28, 47, 85
Assembly lines, virtual, 92-95
comparing, 63-65
continuous change and, 116
copying, to production servers, 22, 109-133
copying, from work areas to staging areas, 62
database, 35, 116-117
distributing, among several servers, 25
which exceed to capacity of single servers, 25
extended, 26
hitting web-walls and, 20
identifying, 46-47
importance of, 7-18, 185-186
managing, 28-34
nonweb, basic description of, 26
organizing, 46-47
as passive, 26-27
read-only, 50-51
released versions of, 111-112
rendering, 26-28
stakeholders and, 42-43
submitting, from work areas, 62-63
universality of, 26-28
use of the term, 19
working set of, 19
Assets.cfg, 132
ATG Dynamo, 116
Auction sites, 87-89, 96-97, 121
Audio files, 26, 120
basic description of, 51
Collaborative Web Development and, 51-54
deploying content and, 115


B2B (business-to-business) operations, 191-192
B2C (business-to-consumer) operations, 191-192
Backing stores
basic description of, 195
saving files in, 195-198
Backup copies, 43
Bandwidth, 188
BEA Systems, 27, 116
Beecher, Henry Ward, 183
Best-practice content management, 213-222
Boston Consulting Group, 11
Bottlenecks, checking for, 102
Bounds checking, 34
Branch(es). See also Branch patterns
arranging, 150-151
departmental, creating, 151-152
globalization and, 170-173
overuse of, 153
structure, picking, 136-137
using, 150-156
Branch patterns. See also Branches
agency pattern, 139, 142-144
basic description of, 138-147
identifying, 147-156
long-term/short-term pattern, 139, 144, 148, 150, 155-156, 175-176
single-branch pattern, 138-142, 154-155, 170, 174
Branding, 21-22, 213, 217-222
BroadVision, 27, 116
Brochureware, 5
Browsers, 5, 11, 218
pointing, to staging servers, 30
rendering assets and, 28
repository subsystem and, 35
Budgets, approval of, 33
Bugs. See also Errors
globalization and, 165
multiple web initiatives and, 138
Business. See also Business logic
executives and owners, as stakeholders, 43
factors, effecting workflow, 92
goals, 43, 135, 136
operations, web operations and, fading distinction between, 189-190
rules, 3-16, 52-54, 183-187
-to-business (B2B) operation, 191-192
Business logic, 6, 116
Collaborative Web Development and, 41
definition of, 7-8
globalization and, 160, 167
workflows and, 87


C++ (high-level language), 48, 138, 162
Caches, 121
CGI (Common Gateway Interface) scripts, 5, 19, 27. See also Scripts
deploying content and, 127, 133
multiple web initiatives and, 137, 144-145, 148-149, 155
workflows and, 105
challenge of, 79-81
continuous, 116
enabling, 81
event-driven, 122
incremental, 117-120
on-demand, 121
periodic, 121
scheduled, 121
set, use of the term, 200, 204
transactional, 120
Adams on, 135
parallel development and, 48-49
zone, 41, 44-45, 48-49
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (Dahl), 57
Checkpoints, 147
characteristics of, 54
control mechanisms and, 51-54
as organizational units, 51
Churchill, Winston, 41
Collaboration. See also Collaborative Web Development
modes, 60-61
operations, 61-67
strategies, 59-61
workflows and, 87-107
Collaborative Web Development. See also Collaboration; Development
asset identification and, 46-47
auditing and, 51-54
basic concepts, 42-55
best practices for, 57-75
compare operation and, 62, 63-65
control mechanisms and, 51-54
direct feedback and, 47-48
enforcement and, 51-54
introduction to, 41-42
merge operation and, 62, 66
parallel development and, 48-49
principles of, 41-55
publish operation and, 62, 66-67
stakeholder identification and, 42-43
submit operation and, 62-63
update operation and, 62, 65-66
versioning and, 49-51
work cycles and, 67-74
WSE paradigm and, 58-61
Color schemes
templates and, 84
workflows and, 91
human organizational units and, 51
managers, 80
Compare operation, 62, 63-65
Compare-update work cycle, 71
Comparison-driven deployment, 118-119, 124-125, 130-131
Concurrency, managing, 183
Conditional logic, 97
Configuration files, 129-133, 185-186
Content. See also Content contributors; Content management
administrators, as stakeholders, 43
dynamic, overzealous use of, 81
freshness directive for, 77, 78-79
overall importance of, xxi
repositories, 26-27, 34, 35
reusing, 25, 47, 191
syndicated, 190, 191
tagging, increased emphasis on, 191
Content contributors
empowering, through templates, 77-86
increased specialization of, 188-189
as stakeholders, 42-43
Content management. See also Content; Content contributors
art of, xxiii-xxiv
best-practice, 213-222
future trends and, 187-188
introduction of, timing of, 33
motivation for, xxv-xxvi
overview of, 17-37
and rules, 3-16, 52-54, 183-187
science of, xxiv-xxv
tools, 33-34, 188-189
Continuous change, 116
Control mechanisms
basic description of, 51
Collaborative Web Development and, 51-54
assets from work areas to staging areas, 62
assets to production servers, 22, 109-133
changes from staging areas to work areas, 65-66
Copyright protection, 189
Core challenges, 183-184
CPUs (central processing units), 81
Creating/editing subsystem, 34-35
Creative services managers, 80
feedback from, 186
responsiveness to, importance of, 9-11, 186
self-service features for, 9


Dahl, R., 57
Daemon, 149, 156
Data capture developers, 81-82
assets, 35, 116-117
Collaborative Web Development and, 41-42
deploying content and, 116-120
incremental changes and, 117-120
inventory, 41-42
servers, 27, 116-117
templates and, 81, 83, 85-86
structured content and, 188
expiration, 188
format, globalization and, 160, 162, 169
Deadlines, 72, 99
Decision making, human organizational units and, 51, 53
-branch pattern, 139, 144-147
web sites, 156
Deploy.cfg, 129, 132
access control and, 110, 111, 127, 133
basic description of, 22, 34-35, 109-133
best-practice content management and, 220-221
the Chaos Zone and, 44-45
checklist for, 133
common pitfalls which occur during, 114-115
comparison-driven, 118-119, 124-125, 130-131
continuous change and, 116
as a core challenge, 183
databases and, 116-120
design considerations for, 117-133
destination side of, 117-120
enterprise-class web sites and, 126-133
event-driven changes and, 122
globalization and, 176-180
incremental changes and, 117-120
infrastructure, goal of, 22
initiation of, 120-122, 126
intranets and, 111, 116, 127
list-driven, 118-119, 130
menu-driven, 132-133
on-demand changes and, 121
release agreements and, 113-115
rollback, 123-125
scheduled, 129, 130
script integration and, 122-123
source side of, 117-120
success/failure handling and, 122-123
transactional, 120
Derived assets
basic description of, 47
identifying, 47
Destination side, of deployment, 117-120
Developers. See also Development
collaboration strategies and, 59-61
importance of content management to, xxii-xxiii
maximize the effectiveness of, through direct feedback, 48
as stakeholders, 42
versioning and, 50
workflows and, 102-104
Development. See also Collaborative Web Development; Developers
basic description of, 26
characteristics of, 89-92
collaboration operations and, 61-67
common work cycles in, 68-74
deploying content and, 111, 113-114, 119
direct feedback and, 47-48
incremental changes and, 119
interaction patterns and, 96
iterative, 8-9, 33, 104, 186
multiple web initiatives and, 135-136
parallel, 48-49
people factors and, 90
process factors and, 91-92
production and, separation of, 45-46, 114
project factors and, 90-91
release agreements and, 113-114
workflow and, 89-92, 96
negative, 118
positive, 117, 118
Digital signatures, 189
Direct edit approach, 45
dragging files between, 12
globalization and, 170
multiple web initiatives and, 144
specifying, 129
Disk volume, 198
Dreamweaver, 68
Dr. Seuss, 3


E-companies, advent of, 5
Economy of effort, importance of, 79-80, 84
basic description of, 34-35
direct, 45
independent edit areas and, 31-33
live, 29-30
tools, 34-35
work cycles and, 68-71
workflows and, 98-99
Efficiency. See also Productivity
content management architecture and, 35
of effort, 79-80, 74
globalization and, 165
responsiveness to customers and, 11, 186
separating development from production and, 45-46
workflows and, 92, 100
Einstein, Albert, 77
Encryption, 132. See also SecurityEndorsements, 24, 80
basic description of, 51
Collaborative Web Development and, 51-54
Engineers, quality assurance (QA), 72, 102, 104, 202-204
Enterprise-class web sites, 25, 44-45
deploying content and, 124, 126-133
smart file system and, 195
rollback and, 124
checking, 34
content management architecture and, 35
deploying content and, 115, 122-126, 129
detecting, with staging servers, 30-31
dialog boxes, 129
globalization and, 165
rollback and, 123-125
workflows and, 100, 105
Evaluation, of content management tools, 33
Event-driven changes, 122
Experimentation, 8-9, 11-12, 14, 186. See also Innovation
deploying content and, 111, 116
frequency of updates to, 116
multiple web initiatives and, 135, 156


Fear, 6-7
Feedback, 11, 34, 47-48, 67-68, 71
access control for, 51-54
checkout operations, 124
configuration, 129-133, 185-186
descriptors, 121
handles, 121
servers, 12, 123
systems, smart, 195-198
Financial markets, forces behind, 6-7
Firewalls, 8
First-mover advantages, 6
Flash (Macromedia), 9
Flowers, freshly cut, impact created by, 79
Folders. See Directories
Formal hand-off paradigm, 199-204
Freshness imperative, for content, 77, 78-79
FTP (File Transfer Protocol), 68, 79


Globalization. See also Internationalization
24 x 7 infrastructure and, 191
branch structure for, 170-173
deployment and, 176-180
designing a solid platform for, 166-169
distribution of development locations and, 25
introduction to, 159-161
principles of, 160
rollbacks and, 180
templates and, 176-177
work areas and, 170-173
workflows and, 173-179
business owners and, 43
multiple web initiatives and, 135, 136
stakeholders and, 43
Graphics. See also Look and feel
alignment of, 91
captions for, 25
direct feedback and, 47-48
files, managing, 47
globalization and, 159, 160, 162, 165, 167
hand-off paradigm and, 206, 207
multiple web initiatives and, 138, 140, 143, 148, 150-151
parallel development and, 48
workflows and, 90-91, 103
Greed, 6-7
Growth, in Web operations, 28


Haitian proverbs, 17
Hand-off paradigm
basic description of, 199-204
requirements, 200
time-slot technique and, 206-210
workflows and, 200-201
"Hard Day's Night" (Lennon and McCartney), 17
Header files, 91
Help systems, implementing, 21-22
High-traffic sites, 25, 44-45
deploying content and, 124, 126-133
smart file system and, 195
rollback and, 124
Hiring, 28
Hits, per minute, 124
HTML (HyperText Markup Language), 5, 21
best-practice content management and, 213, 216
content reuse and, 191
deploying content and, 120
editors, 34
globalization and, 162
multiple web initiatives and, 137-138, 140, 146-148, 150-151
parallel development and, 48
rendering of, 26-27
templates and, 80, 81, 82
workflows and, 96, 103
Hypothesis testing, xxv


IBM (International Business Machines), 27, 116
I Had Trouble in Getting to Solla Sollew (Dr. Seuss), 3
Image(s). See also Look and feel
alignment of, 91
captions for, 25
direct feedback and, 47-48
files, managing, 47
globalization and, 159, 160, 162, 165, 167
hand-off paradigm and, 206, 207
multiple web initiatives and, 138, 140, 143, 148, 150-151
parallel development and, 48
workflows and, 90-91, 103
Independent edit areas, 31-33
Index.html, 19, 32-33
best-practice content management and, 217, 218
deploying content and, 120, 121
hand-off paradigm and, 207
Information flow, human organizational units and, 51-54
Innovation, 8-9, 92. See also Experimentation
Intellectual property, 19, 189
patterns, codifying, 98-99
sequences for workflows, identifying, 99-101
Internationalization. See also Globalization
basic description of, 160
branch structure for, 170-173
deployment design and, 176-180
over-simplistic approaches to, 164-167
age, 5, 18
Protocol (IP), 122
the rules of the game and, 3-16
universal connectivity of, 5
Interwoven, xxi, xxiii-xxiv
deploying content and, 111, 116, 127
frequency of updates to, 116
multiple web initiatives and, 135
Inventory databases, 41-42. See also Databases
IP (Internet Protocol), 122
ISAPI plug-ins, 138
Iterative development, 8-9, 33, 104, 186. See also Development


Java. See also JavaScript; Servlets
applets, 28
best-practice content management and, 213-214, 217
Collaborative Web Development and, 41, 61
developers, importance of content management to, xxii-xxiii
globalization and, 162
Server Pages (JSP), 47, 82, 85
templates and, 80, 82
workflows and, 103
JavaScript, 10-11, 162, 218
Job(s). See also Tasks
creating, 99
logical end points for, 101
logical start point for, 101
specifications, 35, 95-97, 99-101, 104-105
time, wait time as a significant portion of, 23
JSP (Java Server Pages), 47, 82, 85


Keywords, 188
"Killer applications," 5
Known-good version, rollback to
basic description of, 29, 123-124
deployment and, 123-125, 127, 131
derived assets and, 47
globalization and, 180
live editing and, 29-30
production managers and, 43
requirements for invoking, 124
selecting, 125


Languages, foreign, 85, 159. See also Globalization; Internationalization
Large-scale web sites, 25, 44-45
deploying content and, 124, 126-133
smart file system and, 195
rollback and, 124
Launch dates, 148
Learning, collective, in organizations, 8
Lennon, John, 17
Lifecycle Presentation Server (Vignette), 116
Lifecycles, 19-20, 190
List-driven deployment, 118-119, 130
Listener.conf, 132
Live editing, 29-30. See also Editing
Locale, use of the term, 159
Localization, basic description of, 160
Logic. See also Logically-independent web sites
application, 143, 162
business, 6-8, 41, 87, 116, 160, 167
conditional, 97
Logically-independent web sites
agency pattern for, 142-144
arranging branches into, 150-151
basic description of, 137
branch overuse and, 153
globalization and, 171
identifying, 149
multiple web initiatives and, 137, 142-144, 146-151, 153
Logos, 26, 41, 207. See also Graphics
Long-term/short-term pattern, 139, 144, 148, 150, 155-156, 175-176
Look and feel, 80, 160, 161, 167, 214. See also Graphics


Macintosh, 12
Mainframes, 10
Major test work cycle, 72-74
Manageability, requirements for, 12-15, 187
Management. See also Content management
the Chaos Zone and, 44-45
division of, into two smaller sub-problems, 45-46
of web assets, 28-34
workflows and, 102-104
divorcing content from presentation and, 25
globalization and, 164
multiple web initiatives and, 138
parallel development and, 48
responsiveness to customers and, 9-10
the scope of web operations and, 24
templates and, 80
Masses, enabling the, 11-12, 186
Maturity, of organizations, 30-31
Menu-driven deployment, 132-133
Merge operation, 62, 66
Metadata, 185-186, 188, 191
Microsoft ASP (Active Server Pages), 27-28, 47, 85
MRO (maintenance, repair, and operating) items, 7-8


direct feedback and, 47
elements, mouse-over, 47
Negative differences, 118
Netscape browsers, 218. See also Browsers
"Network effect," use of the term, 5
Nonweb assets, basic description of, 26
Notification systems
deploying content and, 122-123, 130-132
workflows and, 35, 88-89, 92, 99, 100-106
Notify.cfg, 132


Objectives. See Goals
Objectivity, xxiv
ODBC (Open Database Connectivity), 35
On-demand changes, 121
Operating systems, evolution of, 6
Operations management subsystem, 34, 35
Organizations, categorizing the character of, checklist for, 53-54
Overwriting, unintentional, 33


Packaged software, successive releases of, 116
Package tracking systems, 9-10
Passivity, of web assets, 26-27
Passwords, 53, 54. See also Security
Patches, software, 121
Patterns, branch. See also Branches
agency pattern, 139, 142-144
basic description of, 138-147
identifying, 147-156
long-term/short-term pattern, 139, 144, 148, 150, 155-156, 175-176
single-branch pattern, 138-142, 154-155, 170, 174
Performance, studies of, 14
Perl, 123, 140
Permissions, 110, 127. See also Security
Personalization, 5, 186
application servers and, 6
direct feedback and, 47-48
the freshness imperative and, 79
globalization and, 167
templates and, 79, 83
Photoshop (Adobe), 47, 68, 91
Pioneers, 19-20
Piracy, 189
Placeholder pages, 125
Positive differences, 117
Presentation, separating content from, 25
Press releases, 24, 137, 138
classification of, as assets, 26
deployment of, 113-114
globalization and, 168
parallel development and, 48
templates and, 80
Previous working version, rollbacks to
basic description of, 29, 123-124
deployment and, 123-125, 127, 131
derived assets and, 47
globalization and, 180
live editing and, 29-30
production managers and, 43
requirements for invoking, 124
selecting, 125
Printers, 10-11
Privacy policy, 8, 30. See also Security
Production. See also Production servers
deploying content and, 111-115
development and, distinction between, 114
managers, as stakeholders, 43
release agreements and, 113-114
sending untested content to, 114-115
use of the term, 111
Production servers. See also Deployment
deploying assets to, 22, 109-133
globalization and, 180
making fixes directly on, 115
Productivity. See also Efficiency
the Chaos Zone and, 44-45
globalization and, 165
merge operation and, 66
templates and, 78, 80
updates and, 80
versioning and, 51
work cycles and, 70
workflows and, 87
Product support bulletins, 26
completion skew, 21-22, 183
long-term versus short-term, 24, 183
Prototypes, 18-25
Proxy daemon, 149, 156
.psd files, 47
Publish operations, 50-51, 62, 66-67


QA (quality assurance)
engineers, 72, 102, 104, 202-204
group, hand off to, 199-204
managers, 102, 104
work areas, 203


Railroad, advent of, 8
Read-only assets, 50-51
Real-time development work cycle, 68-71
Rebranding, 21, 213, 217-222
Relative references, 198
Release agreements, 22, 113-115
Released version, use of the term, 45. See also Versioning
Rendering technology, 27-28
Repeat visits, fostering, 78-79
Repositories, 26-27, 34, 35
Reproducibility, requirements for, 12-15, 187
Resources, use of the term, 160
Responsibility, 53, 54
Reusing content, 25, 47, 191
Review phase
Collaborative Web Development and, 48-50, 67, 71-72
parallel development and, 48-49
for video clips, 189
work cycles and, 67, 71-72
workflows and, 98-99, 101, 102-104
versioning and, 50
Robust systems, 58
Rollback version(s)
basic description of, 29, 123-124
deployment and, 123-125, 127, 131
derived assets and, 47
globalization and, 180
live editing and, 29-30
production managers and, 43
requirements for invoking, 124
selecting, 125
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 87
Routing subsystem, 34, 35
Rules, 3-16, 52-54, 183-187


San Francisco, 11-12
Scalability, 6, 25
Scheduled changes, 121
Science, of content management, xxiv-xxv
Script(s). See also CGI (Common Gateway Interface) scripts
deploying content and, 122-123, 125-126
importance of, as assets, 185-186
integration, 122-123
rollback versions and, 125
running, 126
success/failure handling and, 122-123
triggering, 122
Search mechanisms, usability of, 10-11
access control, 110, 111, 127, 133
deploying content and, 110, 111, 127, 133
encryption, 132
firewalls, 8
passwords, 53, 54
privacy policy, 8, 30
Server(s). See also Application servers; Web servers
advent of, 5-6
assets which exceed the capacity of
single, 25
creation/editing subsystem and, 35
database, 27, 116-117
deploying content and, 116-117, 121-123
distributing assets among several, 25
file, 12, 123
globalization and, 176
hardware, 6
live editing and, 30
multiple web initiatives and, 137,
production, 22, 109-133, 180
rendering assets and, 26-27
software, development of, 5-6
staging, 9, 30-31, 45, 50
success/failure handling and, 122-123
templates and, 80-81, 83, 86
types of, 27, 116
which "fail over" to other branches, 156
Servlet(s). See also Java
development of, 35
-driven application servers, 27
templates and, 80, 82
Shadow work areas, 202
Shopping carts, abandoned by customers, 11
Short-term/long-term pattern, 139, 144, 148, 150, 155-156, 175-176
Side-by-side shopping, 10-11
Signup.java, 213, 217
Single-branch pattern, 138-142, 154-155, 170, 174
Skill sets, 5, 90, 95
"Skunkworks" projects, 18-19
Smart file system, 195-198
Snapshots. See also Rollback versions
purpose of, 19
of the staging area, recording, 66-67
submit versioning and, 50
Social contract, 22
Source assets
basic description of, 47
identifying, 47
Source side, of deployment, 117-120
Specialization, within chiefdoms, 51-52, 54
SQL (Structured Query Language), 9, 26
Staging area. See also WSE (work area/staging area/edition) paradigm
basic description of, 59
best-practice content management and, 216-221
collaboration operations and, 61-67
comparing assets in, 63-65
copying assets to, 62
copying changes from, into work areas, 65-66
deploying content and, 125, 127, 130
multiple web initiatives and, 136
paradigm, 50-51
rollback versions and, 125
work area and, resolving conflicts
between, 66
Staging servers, 9, 45
basic description of, 30-31
the Chaos Zone and, 45
versioning and, 50
basic description of, 42
identification of, 42-43
motivations of, 43
characteristics of, 54, 127
control mechanisms and, 51-54
deploying content and, 127
as a organizational unit, 51-52
Static web pages, 5, 80
Storage capacity, 46
Structured assets, 35
Subjectivity, xxiv
Submit operation, 62-63
/failure handling, 122-123
globalization and, 164-165
measuring, xxiv
Suggest.html, 19
Syndicated content, 190, 191


active, 97-98
blocking out, 101-104
chains, long, 102
connecting, with transition links, 97
inactive, 97-98
overlap, 136-139, 147, 149-150, 153-156
start, 97
use of the term, 48
using work areas for single, 48-50
workflows and, 96-98, 101-104
Taylor, Fredrick, 15-16
chemistry of, 89
workflows and, 89-92
Telephone, advent of the, 8
advantages of, 84-86
basic description of, 24, 81-82
the challenge of change and, 79-81
developers, 82
empowering content contributors through, 77-86
enabling change and, 81
examples of, 82-86
form entry based on, 21-22
globalization and, 176-177
Testing. See also Staging area; Staging servers
best-practice content management and, 216-21


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