"This is the definitive reference for Windows 2000 use and administration."
--Deb Murray, Vice President, UniForum Technology Training Institute
Windows 2000 is both an evolutionary and revolutionary operating system. It builds on the familiar aspects of Windows NT that have made it such a popular operating system. Yet this new release has revolutionary features that set a new standard for effectively integrating an operating system with Web, application, networking, communication, and infrastructure services.
The Ultimate Windows 2000 System Administrator's Guide is an essential resource for planning, deploying, and administering a Windows 2000 enterprise system. The authors draw on years of experience designing and administering Windows NT and UNIX systems in order to guide you through the varied tasks involved in real-world system administration. The book provides an overview of the entire Windows 2000 server family, including Advanced Server, DataCenter, and Professional.
There are detailed discussions of key Windows 2000 administrative functions and descriptions of many advanced tools and optional components. In addition, the authors have included a comprehensive and convenient Windows 2000 command reference. Topics covered include:
The information provided in this book will help you make a smooth transition to this new operating system, enabling you to maximize the full potential of the Windows 2000 revolution.
About the Authors.
1. Administrative Overview.
Windows 2000 — An Historical Perspective.
What's in a Name — The Windows 2000 Family.
Windows 2000 Administration Roles.
Windows 2000 Features and Their Administration Implications.
Structural Modes, Subsystems, and Managers.
Windows 2000 Processes.
Stored and Virtual Memory.
The Boot Process.
The Windows 2000 Registry.
Viewing Application Dependencies.
Reviewing Application Compatibility.
IntelliMirror and Other Innovations.
Logical and Physical Structures.
Understanding the Current Enterprise.
Planning for Windows NT Upgrades.
Microsoft Management Console.
Active Directory Structural Components.
Open Standards Support and Naming Conventions.
Migration and Backward Compatibility.
Administrative Interface Snap-Ins.
Administrative Security and Trust Relationship.
Planning for the Active Directory.
Installing the Active Directory.
Active Directory MMC Snap-In Tools.
Creating Organizational Units.
Active Directory Object Access.
Standard and Special Permissions.
Active Directory Administrative Delegation.
Global Catalog Refinement.
The Active Directory Connector.
Understanding Group Policies.
Implementing Group Policy by Example.
Reviewing NTFS Permissions.
Distributed File System Sharing.
The Public Key Infrastructure.
Windows 2000 System Lockdown.
Secure Network Services and Architecture.
The End User's Responsibility.
Naming Services and IP Assignments.
Virtual Private Networks.
Backup and Restoration.
Installing Terminal Services.
Configuring Terminal Services.
Terminal Services Administration.
Terminal Services from a User's Perspective.
Understanding the IIS Web Server.
Working with the SMTP Server.
Understanding the NNTP Server.
Understanding the FTP Server.
Understanding Cluster Services.
Message Queuing Services.
System Management Server.
Windows Scripting Host.
Example WSH Scripts.
File Management Commands.
File Manipulation Commands.
System Management Commands.
Resource Kit Support Tools.
Windows 2000 is a complex, feature-rich operating system product family whose deployment in an enterprise requires highly skilled individuals to support its installation, maintenance, and optimization. These individuals are aided by the abundance of tools and wizards for effective operating system management that Microsoft has provided. Indeed, many of the enhanced tools should shift the traditional role of administrator to that of proactive manager of computing environments. Thus, the depth of function, flexibility, and granularity of Windows 2000 ultimately represents both opportunity and challenge for system administration.
This book is written to help you succeed in the administration of the Windows 2000 Server family. Much of the information it provides is also applicable to the desktop Windows 2000 Professional version. While the use and management of Windows 2000 Professional is incorporated, the Server side is clearly our primary focus. In this preface we provide a framework for the primary topics covered, define the target audience, and describe how to use this book.
Windows 2000 will not eliminate the system administrator. To the contrary, features such as the Active Directory and the Microsoft Management Console will vastly broaden this role. Rather than spend time on mundane tasks and the management of dozens of disjointed tools, a consolidated approach provided by Windows 2000 will free the administrator to concentrate on more mission critical activities.
The functions of the Windows 2000 system administrator are generally those that support the user population and those that support the system. The following list summarizes some of the most common responsibilities:
Obviously this list only scratches the surface of system administration and IT management. However, as a means of setting the reader's expectations, it does underscore the types of activities for which this book can be used as a guide.
In preparing this book we utilized three primary sources of information. First, we relied heavily on our combined professional experience in application development, system administration, and IT management. Unlike so many books written in theory by technical writers, our recommendations did not emerge from a vacuum but are based on reality and experiences. We hope the experience we bring to this book will assist our fellow IT professionals to better manage an enterprise.
Second, we used observations from system administrators in the field to provide "reality checks" to our conclusions. Theoretical understanding of Windows 2000 is a nice beginning, but it is no substitute for the actual experience of system administrators. Because Windows 2000 is a new product, one of our primary sources was participants in Microsoft's Rapid Deployment Program and their experience with final beta and final release versions of the operating system.
Finally, we performed extensive tests and simulated real-world environments in an extensive laboratory environment. The tests centered primarily on the Server and Advance Server versions; however, Windows 2000 Professional was also tested and is periodically referenced as client software within the broader enterprise framework. Windows 2000 DataCenter was not available for testing at the time this book was written, and so references to it are based on published Microsoft specifications. Where differences exist in the version levels, we call attention to them.
This book was written for system administrators and other IT professionals who manage a Windows 2000 environment. Administrators coming from other operating system environments like UNIX will find many significant conceptual differences and numerous familiar technologies. Seasoned Windows NT administrators will find many familiar aspects but many significant differences as well that will require a general updating of their technical skills. The addition of the Active Directory, a new domain model, advanced authentication technologies, and the enhanced Microsoft Management Console are just a few examples of entirely new or expanded operating system features.
Our aim was to produce an intermediate reference guide for administrators, leaving out specialized architectural or programming topics. Thus, this book should be used for an understanding of key concepts and for common "how-to" walkthrough support. Experienced professionals should find the discussions on operating system migration and the use of the new enhanced tools valuable. Those with moderate system administration experience can also benefit, but we assume these readers already have hands-on operating system experience. Novices will need to learn network and operating system fundamentals.
Attempting to provide useful information to an audience of system administrators was a challenge. Inevitably, some of the book's material may appear either overly basic or too advanced, and depending on a reader's level of experience, some discussions will be more helpful than others. To accommodate this wide variance in prior knowledge, we first cover each major topic from a conceptual basis and then expand this foundation with discussions on applying specific advanced Windows 2000 functions.
System administrators coming from UNIX might find helpful our sister publication Windows NT & UNIX: Administration, Coexistence, Integration, & Migration (Addison-Wesley 1998). There will be updates of that book focusing on Windows 2000 in the future.
The book is organized into three sections and an appendix:
A Glossary of common terms is also provided.
A wealth of information should be utilized by system administrators to supplement this book. The Windows 2000 operating system provides extensive online help available from the Start -> Help facility. Microsoft also regularly posts white papers on its website, which should be regularly checked for updated information.
At the time of publication, Microsoft had not released some anticipated Windows 2000 auxiliary tool kits. In the interim, we suggest at least two Windows NT downloadable components. The Zero Administration Toolkit (ZAK) facilitates administration of Windows NT. Its current tools are available from http://www.microsoft.com/windows/zak. Operating system interoperability is increasingly an important issue with Windows 2000 deployment. Microsoft provides a number of helpful applications for the management of such environments. Also, Microsoft Services for UNIX provides a number of tools and applications for enterprises that must interoperate with Windows 2000 and UNIX. For information on it see the Microsoft Web page at http://www.microsoft.com/Windows/server/Deploy/interoperability.
Trade magazines can also be an excellent source of information. We recommend Computer World, Windows 2000 Magazine (formerly Windows NT), Platform Decisions, ENT, MS Journal, and Dr. Dobbs Journal. As for online services, we strongly recommend Microsoft's security and patch e-mail service at http://www.microsoft.com/security. Other Web-based services are Windows 2000 Advantage.com, Lyris nt-administration tools, Bug Track, Brainbuzz.com, and San NT.
Finally, we will be posting updated information on Windows 2000 on our website at http://www.EnterpriseCertified.com/w2kbook.htm.
This book is a result of the efforts of many individuals, whose support the co-authors would like to acknowledge.
The special effort of contributors Byron Bielman and Ellen Beck Gardner in the development of this book deserve our thanks. Thanks also to our very supportive editor Gary Clarke and his editorial assistant Rebecca Bence, as well as executive editor J. Carter Shanklin, marketing director Robin Bruce, production coordinator Marilyn Rash, and the entire Addison Wesley Longman production team. The extremely valuable insights of AWL reviewers John Holmwood, Martin Sjoelin, Bryan E. Helvey, and Michael P. Deignan (president, Ideamation, Inc.) are also greatly appreciated. Production coordinator Diane Freed and copy editor Dianne Wood provided superior assistance.
Microsoft's Rapid Deployment Program (RDP) team provided firsthand information on the use of the Windows 2000 operating system, and we greatly appreciate the Microsoft engineers who managed the RDP newsgroups and those RDP participants who provided data. Several RDP members clearly went an extra mile in reviewing early drafts of the book. Thus, we cannot overstate the value of contributions made by Andrew van der Stock, James Edelen, James Morris of the University of Washington, Michael Brown and Rick Kingslan of MSCE+I, Tom Gutnick, and Uwe Mundry. They are truly unsung heroes.
Microsoft was extremely cooperative in the development of the book. We thank Ed Muth and Michael Emanuel, who, despite their heavy schedules, made themselves and members of the Windows 2000 team available, and group vice president Jeff Raikes, who made resources available when needed. Our thanks also go to John Ford, who continually extended himself by providing friendly support and road maps into the Microsoft organizational maze; Marsha Kabakov and Dean Murray, who provided early educational information; and Donna Senko and Anne Marie McSweeny, who gave insight into the Windows 2000 certification programs. We thank Nancy Lewis and the longtime support of her excellent team, and we acknowledge the support and insight of Ian Rogoff, Gary Schare, Chris Ray, Andy Forsberg, Douglas Miller, Liz Brackett, and Stephen Walli. In our Rocky Mountain region, we acknowledge Chris Munger, Gene Cornfield, and Kent Sarff.
Special thanks to executive editor Charlie Simpson of Enterprise Systems and Platform Decision magazines and to the Windows NT 2000 magazine team, especially managing editor Karen Forster, senior acquisition editor Amy Eisenberg and news editor (and my partner in crime on other book projects) Barrie Sosinsky. Computer World's Bruce Hoard, Ellen Fanning, and Stefanie McCann also warrant a special thanks.
Bob Williams has special personal and professional acknowledgments. Thanks to family members Flora Williams and Sue and Mike Montgomery. Great appreciation for years of support to friends Bill Kuehl, Deb Murray, Ed Nichols, Ellen and Kevin Gardner, Ivory Curtis, Jim Fry, Dr. James and Wanda Riviere, Karen Bircher, Margaret Krawczck, Mark and Toni Sehnert, Martha McGavin, Mike and Mary Glynn, Roger Ayan, Roger Caauwe, and Scott Woodland. Finally, to my goddaughter, Emily, and brother, Alex.
Mark Walla expresses personal thanks to a number of people who have provided support and encouragement. Special thanks to his parents Gary Wally and Sandy Minter and their respective spouses Kay and Jules, and to brother Tom Walla and Brittany. Professional and personal thanks also to Dave and Anne Peterson, Troy Love, Jim Welch, Bryon Beilman, Peter Shen, John LaPorte, Dem Pilafian, Darrel Ritchie, Dave Kovsky, Carl Castillo, Diane Horn, Kent Tang, Nancy Robins, Glen Sater, Joseph Chen, Dan Chinon, Kevin Greenfield, Jim Fitzgerald, and Mark Malinowski.