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Software Project Management in Practice

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Software Project Management in Practice


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  • Copyright 2002
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 280
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-73721-3
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-73721-9

We often hear about software projects that are late, over budget, or unable to satisfy customer needs. Yet some organizations are able to manage project after project successfully with desired results. In this book, Pankaj Jalote looks at one such organization, Infosys Technologies, a highly regarded high-maturity organization, and details the processes it has in place to manage projects. Revealing exactly how Infosys operates, Jalote provides an excellent case study to guide project managers everywhere. The specific Infosys practices described reflect sound management principles and practices. They are also grounded in common sense, and can be incorporated into any organization’s software development operation easily.

With an actual software project from Infosys used as a running example, the author explains the key aspects of successful project management–from process planning through project monitoring and closure. The practices discussed are also compatible with the widely adopted Capability Maturity Model® (CMM®). In the end, readers will gain a practical framework for systematically improving the planning and execution of any software project.

In-depth coverage of the Infosys software project management process includes:

  • Requirement change management
  • Process planning, tailoring, monitoring, and auditing
  • Effort estimation and scheduling
  • Quantitative quality management
  • Risk assessment and control
  • Measurement and tracking planning
  • Project team planning
  • Customer communication
  • Configuration management
  • Reviews
  • Project tracking and closure analysis
  • Milestone analysis
  • Activity level analysis using SPC
  • Defect prevention
  • The process database
  • Many guidelines exist for achieving higher software process maturity. This book shows you how by example.


    Sample Content

    Online Sample Chapter

    Managing Software Projects: The Infosys Model

    Downloadable Sample Chapter

    Click below for Sample Chapter related to this title:

    Table of Contents


    1. Managing Software Projects.

    Processes and Project Management.

    Project Management and the CMM.

    Overview of the CMM.

    KPAs for Project Management.

    Project Management at Infosys.

    Background: Infosys.

    SEPG Support to Projects.

    Senior Management Involvement in Projects.

    Training for Project Managers.

    The Project Management Process.

    Overview of the ACIC Case Study.




    2. The Project Planning Infrastructure.

    The Process Database.

    Contents of the PDB.

    A Sample Entry.

    The Process Capability Baseline.

    Process Assets and the Body of Knowledge System.



    3. Process Planning.

    The Infosys Development Process.

    The Standard Process.

    Process Tailoring.

    Example: Tailoring for Short-Duration Projects.

    Requirement Change Management.

    The Change Management Process.


    Process Planning for the ACIC Project.



    4. Effort Estimation and Scheduling.

    Estimation and Scheduling Concepts.

    Effort Estimation Models.

    Estimating Schedule.

    Effort Estimation.

    The Bottom-up Estimation Approach.

    The Top-Down Estimation Approach.

    The Use Case Points Approach.

    Effectiveness of the Overall Approach.

    Effort Estimate of the ACIC Project.


    Overall Scheduling.

    The Effectiveness of the Approach.

    Detailed Scheduling.

    The Schedule of the ACIC Project.



    5. Quality Planning.

    Quality Concepts.

    Procedural Approach to Quality Management.

    Quantitative Approaches to Quality Management.

    Quantitative Quality Management Planning.

    Setting the Quality Goal.

    Estimating Defects for Other Stages.

    Quality Process Planning.

    Defect Prevention Planning.

    The Quality Plan of the ACIC Project.



    6. Risk Management.

    Concepts of Risks and Risk Management.

    Risk Assessment.

    Risk Identification.

    Risk Prioritization.

    Risk Control.

    Risk Management Planning.

    Risk Monitoring and Tracking.


    The ACIC Project.

    The XYZ Project.



    7. Measurement and Tracking Planning.

    Concepts in Measurement.

    Metrics and Measurements.

    Process Monitoring through Statistical Process Control.


    Collecting Effort Data.

    Logging and Tracking Defects.

    Measuring Schedule.

    Measuring Size.

    Project Tracking.

    The ACIC Measurement and Tracking Plan.



    8. The Project Management Plan.

    Team Management.

    Team Structure.


    Team Development.

    Customer Communication and Issue Resolution.

    The Structure of the Project Management Plan.

    The ACIC Project Plan.


    9. Configuration Management.

    Concepts in Configuration Management.

    The Configuration Management Process.

    Planning and Setting Up Configuration Management.

    Perform Configuration Control.

    Status Monitoring and Audits.

    The ACIC Configuration Management Plan.




    10. Reviews.

    The Review Process.


    Overview and Preparation.

    Group Review Meeting.

    Rework and Follow-up.

    One-Person Review.

    Guidelines for Reviews in Projects.

    Data Collection.

    Self-Preparation Log.

    Group Review Meeting Log.

    Group Review Summary Report.

    Monitoring and Control.

    The Review Capability Baseline.

    Analysis and Control Guidelines.

    An Example.

    Introduction of Reviews and the NAH Syndrome.

    The Infosys Experiment.

    Data from the Experiment.



    11. Project Monitoring and Control.

    Project Tracking.

    Activities Tracking.

    Defect Tracking.

    Issues Tracking.

    Status Reports.

    Milestone Analysis.

    Actual Versus Estimated Analysis of Effort and Schedule.

    Monitoring Quality.

    Risk-Related Monitoring.

    Milestone Analysis for the ACIC Project.

    Activity-Level Analysis Using SPC.

    Defect Analysis and Prevention.

    Performing Pareto Analysis.

    Performing Causal Analysis.

    Developing and Implementing Solutions.

    DP in the ACIC Project.

    Process Monitoring and Audit.

    Conducting the Audit.

    Follow-up Actions.



    12. Project Closure.

    Project Closure Analysis.

    The Role of Closure Analysis.

    Performing Closure Analysis.

    Closure Analysis Report.

    The ACIC Closure Analysis Report.



    Index. 0201737213T01182002


    The genesis of this book dates back to 1996. For my sabbatical, I joined Infosys as the head of quality, with the charter of improving the processes for project execution. Seeing the problems faced by project managers, I felt that software project management must be the toughest job on the planet. And I thought that delivering high-quality software within budget and on schedule must be an oxymoron.

    The situation, I now realize, is not quite that hopeless. By using sound project management processes, project managers in some organizations are successfully executing projects.

    Infosys, one such global organization, has successfully executed more than 500 projects last year alone. It has about 10,000 employees spread across 25 cities in more than a dozen countries around the globe, and it has been assessed at the highest maturity level (level 5) of the CMM™. Its revenues and profits have grown at about 75% per year for the past five years. The level of customer satisfaction can be judged by the fact that despite the company’s huge growth about 85% of its revenue comes from repeat orders from existing customers.

    I have used my experience and knowledge of Infosys processes to cull out and describe in this book the key project management practices that have been used to successfully execute project after project. The beauty of these practices is that despite being highly effective, they are not complex; rather, they are grounded in common sense and are supported by simple measurements and analyses.

    In describing project management processes at Infosys, the book offers a unique combination of two value propositions. First, it provides the complete set of processes employed for project management in a highly successful organization. The use of these processes is illustrated with real examples and a running case study. Second, because the processes satisfy the requirements of the Capability Maturity Model (CMM), this book demystifies the way projects are managed in a high-maturity organization, and it provides the benefits that the CMM offers to project management without the need of a detailed understanding of the CMM.

    The book is written primarily for project managers and for professionals who plan to become project managers. By using the methods described in this book they can systematically improve the planning and execution of their projects. It can also be very useful for an organization that wants to reach a high maturity level. If project managers start using the methods described here, they will lay the foundations for high maturity in the organization.

    Because most chapters begin with an overview before describing the details of the Infosys method, this book can also be used as a text in a software project management course. In a general software engineering course, it can serve as a supplementary text, providing a view of how a software project is managed in a business environment.

    Chapter 1 contains a brief introduction to Infosys and the relationship of the CMM and project management. The remainder of the book is divided into two parts. Part I, consisting of Chapters 2 through 9, focuses on project planning and covers topics such as planning infrastructure, process planning, effort and schedule estimation, quality planning, risk management, measurement planning, and configuration management. Part II, consisting of Chapters 10 through 12, focuses on project execution and completion and covers reviews, project monitoring and control, and project closure.

    To the extent possible, each chapter has been kept independent and stand-alone and has been organized as follows. The relevant concepts and background material are given in the first section, followed by a discussion of methods used by Infosys. Next come examples of the use of these methods in real projects and in the case study. Each chapter ends with a summary that lists the key takeaways from the chapter and describes which aspects of CMM are satisfied by the methods discussed in the chapter.

    Although this book draws on my earlier book CMM in Practice (Addison-Wesley, 2000), it has a different focus and substantially different contents. Whereas CMM in Practice considers the entire software process and focuses on implementation of the CMM in an organization, this book focuses exclusively on project management.

    Many people helped to make this book a reality. Because the book has its origins in CMM in Practice, my thanks to all the people who helped in that project. In addition, I would like to again express my gratitude to Infosys and its directors, whose cooperation and help made this book possible. My sincere thanks to members of the quality department at Infosys for providing information whenever needed, and to the many people who shared with me their experiences, which find their way into mini-cases throughout the book (although with the names changed). My special thanks to Naresh Agarwal for his help with the main case study, and to Sanjay Joshi for his help in bringing a sharper focus to the chapters. And finally, my thanks to my wife, Shikha, and my daughters, Sumedha and Sunanda, for bearing with me and my odd hours once again.

    Any comments about the book, or any inaccuracies that might be present (which are entirely my responsibility), can be sent to me at jalote@iitk.ac.in. For information regarding Infosys, visit www.infy.com or send mail to public-relations@infy.com.




    ACIC project

    closure analysis report, 240-249

    configuration management, audits, 163

    configuration management, plan, 164-171

    DP (defect prevention), 222-227

    effort estimation, 61-65

    measurements, 123

    milestone analysis, 212-215

    overview, 15-16

    PMP (Project Management Plan), overview, 131-133

    PMP, planning section, 136-145

    PMP, summary section, 133-136

    PMP, team section, 149-151

    PMP, tracking section, 146-148

    process planning, 46-48

    project tracking, defects, 203-205

    project tracking, issues log, 206

    project tracking, status reports, 207

    quality planning, 87-90

    requirements change management, 44-45

    risk management, 103-105

    scheduling, 70-73

    tracking planning, 123

    Activities tracking, 120-121, 201

    Activity codes, effort data, 114-115, 116-117

    Activity-based analysis, SPC, 215-217

    Activity-based estimation, 55


    basics, 227-228

    checklists, 228-229

    configuration management, 163

    follow-up actions, 229-232

    noncompliance reports, 229-232


    Body of knowledge. See BOK

    BOK (body of knowledge), 32

    Bottom-up model, effort estimation, 53, 55-56

    Build effort, 55

    ACIC project, 63

    Business unit structure, Infosys customer service, 11-12


    Capability Maturity Model. See CMM

    Carnegie Mellon University’s Software Engineering Institute, CMM origin, 4

    Case study. See ACIC project

    Casual analysis

    defect analysis and prevention, 218-221

    defect analysis and prevention, ACE project, 221

    project closure, 240

    Cause-effect diagrams

    defect analysis and prevention, 218-221

    defect analysis and prevention, ACE project, 221

    Change management

    basics, 42-43

    change logs, 46

    process, 43-44

    templates for output, 44-46

    Closure analysis. See Project closure analysis

    CM (configuration management)

    ACIC project, audits, 163

    ACIC project, plan, 164-171

    audits, 163

    configuration items, 158

    controls, 160-162

    functions, 155-156

    functions, mechanisms for completion, 156-157

    KPA goals, CMM repeatable level (2), 6, 8

    objectives, 154-155

    process, 157-158

    project scenarios, 153-154

    status monitoring, 162-163

    CMM (Capability Maturity Model)

    Infosys level 5 rating, 2

    KPA goals, CMM defined level (3), 7-9

    KPA goals, CMM managed level (4), 9-10

    KPA goals, CMM optimized level (5), 9-10

    KPA goals, CMM repeatable level (2), 7-8

    maturity levels, 5-7

    origin, 4-5

    process capability, 5

    process performance, 5

    COCOMO model, effort estimation, 52-53, 57

    Configuration management. See CM

    Control charts, 112, 187, 216

    Cost of quality, PCB, 27, 29

    Cost of quality, ACIC project, 246


    Data collection for reviews

    group reviews, meeting logs, 184-185

    group reviews, summary reports, 186

    self-preparation logs, 184

    DCS (defect control system), logging and tracking defects, 117-119


    actual versus estimate, 121-123

    delivered defect density, 78

    density, reviews, 189, 190

    detection distribution, 27, 29

    detection distribution, reviews, 195

    injection rates, 26, 29

    life cycle, 117

    logging, 115, 117-118

    prediction, 81, 83-84

    prevention (See DP)

    project closure analysis, 239-240

    quality monitoring, 210-211

    quality planning, 80-81

    removal efficiency (See DRE)

    review data collection, 194

    tracking, 120, 121, 201-202

    tracking, ACIC project, 203-205

    types and severity, 118-119

    Defined level (3), CMM, 6-7

    KPA goals, 7-9

    Delivered quality, PCB, 26, 28

    DP (defect prevention), 85-87

    ACIC project, 90, 222-227

    casual analysis, 218-221

    cause-effect diagrams, 218-220

    cause-effect diagrams, ACE project, 221

    developing and implementing solutions, 221-222

    Pareto analysis, 217-218

    Pareto analysis, ACE project, 219

    planning, 85

    review analysis guidelines, 189-190

    DRE (defect removal efficiency), 26, 29

    project closure analysis, 239-240


    Effort distribution, ACIC project, 65

    Effort estimation, 51-52

    ACIC project, 61-65

    actual versus estimated, 121-123, 208-210

    effectiveness, 60-61

    models, bottom-up, 53, 55-56

    models, COCOMO, 52-53, 57

    models, top-down, 52-53, 57

    models, using function points, 52

    PCB, 26, 28

    project closure analysis, 239

    review data collection, 194

    use case points approach, 58-60

    use case points approach, ACIC project, 61-65

    EFs (environment factors), 59-60

    ACIC project, 64

    Estimation approaches, effort, 51-52

    actual versus estimation, 121-123, 208-210

    effectiveness, 60-61

    models, bottom-up, 53, 55-56

    models, COCOMO, 52-53, 57

    models, top-down, 52-53, 57

    models, using function points, 52

    project closure analysis, 239

    review data collection, 194

    use case points, 58-60

    use case points, ACIC project, 61-65

    Estimation approaches, scheduling, 51-52

    ACIC project, 70-73

    actual versus estimate, 121-123, 208-210

    basics, 53-54

    detailed scheduling, 68-70

    effectiveness, 68

    overall scheduling, 65-68

    PCB, 26, 28


    Fish-bone diagrams. See Cause-effect diagrams

    Function points

    conversion to LOC, 23, 25

    effort estimation models, 52, 57

    G - H

    Group reviews

    data collection, meeting logs, 184-185

    data collection, summary reports, 186, 191-192

    follow-up, 181

    meetings, 180-181

    planning phase, 179

    preparation phase, 179-180

    process, 178

    work products to review, 182-183


    IC (Intergroup Coordination), KPA goals, CMM defined level (3), 6, 9

    Induction training programs, 13

    Infosys project management

    background, 10-11

    processes, 13-15

    senior management involvement, 12

    SEPG support, 11-12

    training, 12-13

    Initial level (1), CMM, 6

    Inspections. See Group reviews

    Integrated project management. See IPM

    Integrated Software Management. See ISM

    Intergroup Coordination. See IC

    IPM (integrated project management), KPA goals, CMM defined level (3), 12

    ISM (Integrated Software Management), KPA goals, CMM defined level (3), 6, 9

    Issues, tracking, 120, 121, 202

    ACIC project, 206


    Key process areas. See KPAs

    KPAs (key process areas)

    goals, CMM defined level (3), 7-9

    goals, CMM managed level (4), 9-10

    goals, CMM optimized level (5), 9-10

    goals, CMM repeatable level (2), 7-8


    LCL (lower control limits), SPC, 112

    Lightweight processes, 4

    Lines of code. See LOC

    LOC (lines of code)

    effort estimation models, 52, 57

    PDB, 23, 25, 26

    Lower control limits (LCL), SPC, 112


    Managed level (4), CMM, 6-7

    KPA goals, 9-10

    Maturity levels, CMM

    defined level (3), 6-7

    defined level (3), KPA goals, 7-9

    definition, 5

    initial level (1), 6

    managed level (


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