Home > Store

Retargetable C Compiler, A: Design and Implementation

Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon.

Retargetable C Compiler, A: Design and Implementation

Book

  • Your Price: $55.99
  • List Price: $69.99
  • Usually ships in 24 hours.

Description

  • Copyright 1995
  • Dimensions: 7-1/4" x 9-1/4"
  • Pages: 584
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-8053-1670-1
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-8053-1670-4

This new text examines the design and implementation of lcc, a production-quality, retargetable compiler for the ANSI C programming language, designed at AT&T Bell Laboratories and Princeton University. The authors' innovative approach--a "literate program" that intermingles the text with the source code--gives a detailed tour of the code that explains the implementation and design decisions reflected in the software. And while most books describe toy compilers or focus on isolated pieces of code, the authors provide the entire source code for a real compiler, which is available via ftp. Structured as a self-study guide that describes the real-world tradeoffs encountered in building a production-quality compiler, this book is useful to individuals who work in application areas applying or creating language-based tools and techniques.

  • Explores the interaction between compiler theory and practice through the discussion of lcc.
  • Covers compiler theory only as needed to understand the implementation of lcc, focusing instead on practical, applied issues.
  • Encourages a broader understanding of programming in C through an examination of lcc, a production-quality compiler in use since 1988.
  • Provides full code generators for the MIPS R3000, SPARC, and Intel 80x86 architectures and successors.
  • The full source code for the lcc compiler, the three back ends, and the code-generator generator is freely available.
  • Uses icons and brief indices in the margins to cross- reference code fragments and connect code usage.
Audience

Senior undergraduate or graduate level second course. Any researcher or implementer of compilers for parallel or advanced computers.



0805316701B04062001

Downloads

Source Code

Click below for Source Code related to this title:
Source Code Resources

Sample Content

Table of Contents



Preface.


1. Introduction.

Literate Programs.

How to Read This Book.

Overview.

Design.

Common Declarations.

Syntax Specifications.

Errors.



2. Storage Management.

Memory Management Interface.

Arena Representation.

Allocating Space.

Deallocating Space.

Strings.



3. Types.

Representing Symbols.

Representing Symbol Tables.

Changing Scope.

Finding and Installing Identifiers.

Labels.

Constants.

Generated Variables.



4. Code Generation Interface.

Representing Types.

Type Management.

Type Predicates.

Type Constructors.

Function Types.

Structure and Enumeration Types.

Type-Checking Functions.

Type Mapping.



5. Lexical Analysis.

Type Metrics.

Interface Records.

Symbols.

Types.

Dag Operators.

Interface Flags.

Initialization.

Definitions.

Constants.

Functions.

Interface Binding.

Upcalls.



6. Parsing.

Input.

Recognizing Tokens.

Recognizing Keywords.

Recognizing Identifiers.

Recognizing Numbers.

Recognizing Character Constants and Strings.



7. Expressions.

Languages and Grammars.

Ambiguity and Parse Trees.

Top-Down Parsing.

FIRST and FOLLOW Sets.

Writing Parsing Functions.

Handling Syntax Errors.



8. Expression Semantics.

Representing Expressions.

Parsing Expressions.

Parsing C Expressions.

Assignment Expressions.

Conditional Expressions.

Binary Expressions.

Unary and Postfix Expressions.

Primary Expressions.



9. Expression Semantics.

Conversions.

Unary and Postfix Operators.

Function Calls.

Binary Operators.

Assignments.

Conditionals.

Constant Folding.



10. Statements.

Representing Code.

Execution Points.

Recognizing Statements.

If Statements.

Labels and Gotos.

Loops.

Switch Statements.

Return Statements.

Managing Labels and Jumps.



11. Declarations.

Translation Units.

Declarations.

Declarators.

Function Declarators.

Structure Specifiers.

Function Definitions.

Compound Statements.

Finalization.

The Main Program.



12. Generating Immediate Code.

Eliminating Common Subexpressions.

Building Nodes.

Flow of Control.

Assignments.

Function Calls.

Enforcing Evaluation Order.

Driving Code Generation.

Eliminating Multiply Referenced Nodes.



13. Structuring the Code Generator.

Organization of the Code Generator.

Interface Extensions.

Upcalls.

Node Extensions.

Symbol Extensions.

Frame Layout.

Generating Code to Copy Blocks.

Initialization.



14. Selecting and Emitting instructions.

Specifications.

Labelling the Tree.

Reducing the Tree.

Cost Functions.

Debugging.

The Emitter.

Register Targeting.

Coordinating Instruction Selection.

Shared Rules.



15. Register Allocation.

Organization.

Tracking the Register State.

Allocating Registers.

Spilling.



16. Generating MIPS R3000 Code.

Registers.

Selecting Instructions.

Implementing Functions.

Defining Data.

Segments.

Copying Blocks.



17. Generating SPARC Code.

Registers.

Selecting Instructions.

Implementing Functions.

Defining Data.

Copying Blocks.



18. Generating X86 Code.

Registers.

Selecting Instructions.

Implementing Functions.

Defining Data.



19. Retrospective.

Data Structures.

Interface.

Syntactic and Semantic Analyses.

Code Generation and Optimization.

Testing and Validation.



Bibliography.


Index.


How to Obtain ICC. 0805316701T04062001

Preface

The compiler is the linchpin of the programmer's toolbox. Working programmers use compilers every day and count heavily on their correctness and reliability. A compiler must accept the standard definition of the programming language so that source code will be portable across platforms. A compiler must generate efficient object code. Perhaps more important, a compiler must generate correct object code; an application is only as reliable as the compiler that compiled it.

A compiler is itself a large and complex application that is worthy of study in its own right. This book tours most of the implementation of lcc, a compiler for the ANSI C programming language. It is to compiling what Software Tools by B.W. Kernighan and P.J. Plauger (Addison-Wesley, 1976) is to text processing like text editors and macro processors. Software design and implementation are best learned through experience with real tools. This book explains in detail and shows most of the code for a real compiler. The accompanying diskette holds the source code for the complete compiler.

lcc is a production compiler. It's been used to compile production programs since 1988 and is now used by hundreds of C programmers daily. Detailing most of a production compiler in a book leaves little room for supporting material, so we present only the theory needed for the implementation at hand and leave the broad survey of compiling techniques to existing texts. The book omits a few language features--those with mundane or repetitive implementations and those deliberately treated only in the exercises--but the full compiler is available on the diskette, and the book makes it understandable.

The obvious use for this book is to learn more about compiler construction. But only few programmers need to know how to design and implement compilers. Most work on applications and other aspects of systems programming. There are four reasons why this majority of C programmers may benefit from this book.

First, programmers who understand how a C compiler works are often better programmers in general and better C programmers in particular. The compiler writer must understand even the darkest corners of the C language; touring the implementation of those corners reveals much about the language itself and its efficient realization on modern computers.

Second, most texts on programming must necessarily use small examples, which often demonstrate techniques simply and elegantly. Most programmers, however, work on large programs that have evolved--or degenerated--over time. There are few well documented examples of this kind of "programming in the large" that can serve as reference examples. lcc isn't perfect, but this book documents both its good and bad points in detail and thus provides one such reference point.

Third, a compiler is one of the best demonstrations in computer science of the interaction between theory and practice. lcc displays both the places where this interaction is smooth and the results are elegant, as well as where practical demands strain the theory, which shows in the resulting code. Exploring these interactions in a real program helps programmers understand when, where, and how to apply different techniques. lcc also illustrates numerous C programming techniques.

Fourth, this book is an example of a "literate program." Like TEX: The Program by D.E. Knuth (Addison-Wesley, 1986), this book is lcc's source code and the prose that describes it. The code is presented in the order that best suits understanding, not in the order dictated by the C programming language. The source code that appears on the diskette is extracted automatically from the book's text files.

This book is well suited for self-study by both academics and professionals. The book and its diskette offer complete documented source code for lcc, so they may interest practitioners who wish to experiment with compilation or those working in application areas that use or implement language-based tools and techniques, such as user interfaces.

The book shows a large software system, warts and all. It could thus be the subject of a postmortem in a software engineering course, for example.

For compiler courses, this book complements traditional compiler texts. It shows one way of implementing a C compiler, while traditional texts survey algorithms for solving the broad range of problems encountered in compiling. Limited space prevents such texts from including more than a toy compiler. Code generation is often treated at a particularly high level to avoid tying the book to a specific computer.

As a result many instructors prepare a substantial programming project to give their students some practical experience. These instructors usually must write these compilers from scratch; students duplicate large portions and have to use the rest with only limited documentation. The situation is trying for both students and instructors, and unsatisfying to boot, because the compilers are still toys. By documenting most of a real compiler and providing the source code, this book offers an alternative.

This book presents full code generators for the MIPS R3000, SPARC, and Intel 386 and successor architectures. It exploits recent research that produces code generators from compact specifications. These methods allow us to present complete code generators for several machines, which no other book does. Presenting several code generators avoids tying the book to a single machine, and helps students appreciate engineering retargetable software.

Assignments can add language features, optimizations, and targets. When used with a traditional survey text, assignments could also replace existing modules with those using alternate algorithms. Such assignments come closer to the actual practice of compiler engineering than assignments that implement most of a toy compiler, where too much time goes to low-level infrastructure and accommodating repetitive language features. Many of the exercises pose just these kinds of engineering problems.

lcc has also been adapted for purposes other than conventional compilation. For example, it's been used for building a C browser and for generating remote-procedure-call stubs from declarations. It could also be used to experiment with language extensions, proposed computer architectures and code-generator technologies.

We assume readers are fluent in C and assembly language for some computer, know what a compiler is and have a general understanding of what one does, and have a working understanding of data structures and algorithms at the level covered in typical undergraduate courses; the material covered by Algorithms in C by R. Sedgewick (Addison-Wesley, 1990), for example, is more than sufficient for understanding lcc.

Acknowledgments

This book owes much to the many lcc users at AT&T Bell Laboratories, Princeton University, and elsewhere who suffered through bugs and provided valuable feedback. Those who deserve explicit thanks include Hans Boehm, Mary Fernandez, Michael Golan, Paul Haahr, Brian Kernighan, Doug McIlroy, Rob Pike, Dennis Ritchie, and Ravi Sethi. Ronald Guilmette, David Kristol, David Prosser, and Dennis Rithchie provided valuable information concerning the fine points of the ANSI Standard and its interpretation. David Gay helped us adapt the PFORT library of numerical software to be an invaluable stress test for lcc's code generators.

Careful reviews of both our code and our prose by Jack Davidson, Todd Proebsting, Norman Ramsey, William Waite, and David Wall contributed significantly to the quality of both. Our thanks to Steve Beck, who installed and massaged the fonts used for this book, and to Maylee Noah, who did the artwork with Adobe Illustrator.

Christopher W. Fraser
David R. Hanson



0805316701P04062001

Updates

Submit Errata

More Information

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020